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Part%1
Stakeholders
Techniques2for2
stakeholder2identification2and2analysis.
1
INTRODUCTION
This small booklet, you have in your hands, describes the most popular
techniques dedicated to stakeholder id...
STAKEHOLDER%IDENTIFICATION
Stakeholder identification is an important part of the process of developing
requirements. Miss...
The investment to introduce stakeholder identification is low as most
business analysts understand the reasoning behind th...
5
Why use this technique?
The stakeholder nomination technique may help a business analyst to
come up with an initial list...
Why%use%this%technique?
The stakeholder wheel is a kind of a checklist on which all the major groups
of stakeholders have ...
Advantages and disadvantages:
Advantages:
• Systematic, structured approach
• Helps to identify the internal and external ...
Why%use%this%technique?
When a business analyst starts his assignment, he has to get more insight
into organization, stake...
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages (cont.)
• Documentation on the existing system may provide formally defined
inform...
Why use this technique?
A persona is a fictional person who acts as a representative standBin for a large
class of represe...
Usage%tips%(cont.)
• Their physical,social,and technological environment
• A quote that sums up what matters most to the p...
When the stakeholders are identified and agreed upon, the next step is to
determine the attitudes of these stakeholders to...
13
Thanks to the stakeholders management a project gains and maintains the
commitment from its stakeholders. Jeff Berman i...
Why use this technique?
If a business analyst wants to determine impact that stakeholders have
on his project, the stakeho...
15
Depending on the category, this model suggests different ways how to deal
with these stakeholders.
• Stakeholders with ...
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages:
• Helps discovering where the real power over a project is located and
therefore ...
17
Why%use%this%technique?
This technique helps you collecting details about the identified stakeholders.
It also helps in...
Why use this technique?
Stakeholder influence diagrams indicate how the stakeholders on a
power/interest grid influence on...
19
Advantages and disadvantages:
Advantages:
• It helps to discover what the real influencers are and tackles indirect
asp...
Why use this technique?
StakeholderBissue interrelationship diagrams represents the interest of
individual stakeholders wi...
21
Usage tips (cont.)
• Multiple stakeholders can have interest in the same issue however their
interest may be conflictin...
Why use this technique?
This technique is especially useful to develop winning stakeholder coalitions.
Having such a coali...
23
Step 3. Classify stakeholders as a “support” and “opposition” against the
“power” based upon the implications by the ra...
Why use this technique?
RACI technique focuses on clarifying what stakeholders roles and
responsibilities are in a context...
25
Usage tips:
• There is seldom time to create a RACI matrix for all stakeholders and
therefore it is a common practice t...
Why%use%this%technique?
This technique is useful when a Business Analyst wants to understand the
priority and level of att...
27
How%to%use%it?
Assign stakeholders to one of eight categories:
1. Dormant stakeholders: These stakeholders have power t...
Why use this technique?
This technique can be used to assess where the ‘political efforts’ should be
channelled during the...
29
Usage%tips:
• Common2mistake2is2to2draw2the2stakeholders2where2they2should2be or2
perhaps2where2a2business2analyst2woul...
REFERENCES
[1] BCS 99 Business Analysis Techniques – ISBN: 978B1780172736
[2] Explanation ofStakeholder Mapping
http://www...
Thank2you2for2downloading2this2eBbook!
31
Thank2you2for2downloading2this2eBbook!
Check2our2blog
www.requirementstechniques...
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E-booklet Stakeholder Identification and Analysis

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This e-booklet summarizes the most popular techniques used for stakeholder identification and analysis. It is a summary of my blog posts from www.requirementstechniques.com

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E-booklet Stakeholder Identification and Analysis

  1. 1. Part%1 Stakeholders Techniques2for2 stakeholder2identification2and2analysis. 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION This small booklet, you have in your hands, describes the most popular techniques dedicated to stakeholder identification and analysis. After a short introduction to stakeholder identification and analysis respectively,each technique is described using the pattern: • Why use this technique? – to help you understand what are situations when this technique mightbe useful. B How to use it? – If you decide to use it, we explain stepBbyBstep how to apply it in a practical situation. B Usage tips – give you some useful information if you run into the problems during application ofthe technique. B Advantages and disadvantages – what are the positive and negative sides of using this technique.This to ensure you apply it correctly. B Complementary/Alternative techniques that can be used – sometimes you can use a different technique to achieve the same results, so we list here techniques thatcould be used interchangeably. B Further reading – what we offer is a short description of a technique, but if there is any interesting material on a technique, we provide here links to resources which you can use for further reading. This2booklet2is2compliant2with2the2guidelines2of2the2International2Institute2of2 Business2Analysis2(IIBA)2as2described2in2the2Business2Analysis2Body2of2 Knowledge2(BABoK)2version23.0. 2
  3. 3. STAKEHOLDER%IDENTIFICATION Stakeholder identification is an important part of the process of developing requirements. Missing stakeholders lead to missing requirements. The consequences ofmissing requirements often cited in the literature are: • disappointed users or • products having problems with passing the acceptance testing. Therefore an investment in a good stakeholder identification (from the beginning of a project) helps to make sure a complete requirements set will be developed. On the other hand it is also important to list other benefits of having a complete set of stakeholders identified for your project like: 1. Stakeholders involved early in the elicitation process are more willing to cooperate and actively participate in the elicitation process. 2. Early stakeholders participation can improve buyBin process of the proposed solution. Before we do a deep dive into details of stakeholder identification, analysis and management we need to define who a stakeholder is. Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABoK) v3.0 defines a stakeholder as "a group or person who has relationship with a change, a need or a solution." Stakeholders shape the project and are source of requirements. By adding an explicit step of "Stakeholder identification" in your requirements development process you can realize a simple improvement to your way of working with requirements.
  4. 4. The investment to introduce stakeholder identification is low as most business analysts understand the reasoning behind this practice. The costs embrace mainly first introduction sessions which focus on explaining what stakeholder identification is and proposing techniques which can be used. If an organization however wishes to upgrade the existing techniques with tailored checklists listing stakeholders’ types characteristic for their business, this may take more time to develop and will require active business analysts involvement. The question remains how to do stakeholder identification in practice? What techniques can help? Here are most popular techniques which can be used during this activity: • stakeholder nomination, • stakeholder wheel, • background research, • personas. The subsequentchapters describe the above mentioned techniques. 4
  5. 5. 5 Why use this technique? The stakeholder nomination technique may help a business analyst to come up with an initial list of stakeholders in order to take up his first business analysis activities. It is mostly used in preparation for the requirements elicitation. How to use it? Ask a key stakeholder in your project (e.g. project sponsor) to nominate what other managers/ departments /system owners shall be involved during the requirements elicitation. Usage tips • This technique works best when used in a hierarchical way. Start with a project sponsor. He will nominate others, whom you will ask again the same question resulting in further nominations. • Quality of nominations depends on who nominates the stakeholder and can be insufficient. It is advisable to use "Stakeholders nomination"in combination with other,more objective,techniques. Advantages%and%disadvantages: Advantages: • Simple2and2easyBtoBuse, • Nominated2stakeholders2are2cooperative2as2they2usually2received2a2 green2light2from his2manager2to2participate2in2the2project. Disadvantages: • Quality2of nomination2depends2on2who2nominates2the2stakeholders, • Nominations can2be2subjective2(nomination2of2people2sympathetic2to2 the2ideas2of2nominator), • There2is2a2risk2that2the2focus2will2be2put2on2internal2stakeholders2only. Complementary to2stakeholder2nomination2you2may2use2background2 research2or2a2stakeholder2wheel2for2the2stakeholders2discovery. For2further%reading%refer2to2References2[1].
  6. 6. Why%use%this%technique? The stakeholder wheel is a kind of a checklist on which all the major groups of stakeholders have been identified. Use it to check your already created stakeholder list against the generic stakeholder groups and identify any missing ones. This technique is a great help in defining a complete set of stakeholders and therefore a complete set of requirements. How%to%use%it? The stakeholder wheel helps to identify different groups of stakeholders. British Computer Society (BCS) has identified the following groups: owners / managers / employees / supervisors / suppliers / partners / customers / competitors. • Step 1: Decide what categories of the stakeholders are relevant for your project(e.g. competitor category may not be relevantin public sector). • Step 2: Identify stakeholders in categories which are applicable to your project. • Step%3:%Review2your2stakeholder2list. Usage%tips: • To identify stakeholders within each category, the analyst may use alternative techniques e.g.background research. • Within each category several stakeholders could be identified, e.g.. suppliers stakeholder group can contain different types of suppliers like IT services, food, cleaning. • Sometimes one stakeholder can fall into two or more categories. Let's assume a project within a bank. Another bank is seen often as a competitor, but if a certain application is built in cooperation with this bank, this bank is a partner too. 6
  7. 7. Advantages and disadvantages: Advantages: • Systematic, structured approach • Helps to identify the internal and external stakeholders Disadvantages: • May take a lot of time to develop • The proposed generic groups of stakeholders need to be refined to subB categories (suppliers: preferred suppliers and others) to make the application ofthis technique more meaningful for a project. Complementary to stakeholder wheel you may use background research or stakeholder nomination for the stakeholders discovery. For further reading refer to References [1]
  8. 8. Why%use%this%technique? When a business analyst starts his assignment, he has to get more insight into organization, stakeholders, project and the existing system (if applicable) in a short time frame. He can attain this knowledge by studying the available documentation. This technique is alternatively called the background reading. It is a widely applicable technique, not specific to Business Analysis, which can also be used during the requirements elicitation. How%to%use%it? These three steps described below will help you to use the background research technique for stakeholders identification: • Step 1: Search for documents related to the project for which you work. This could include corporate reports, organization charts, descriptions of existing systems, job descriptions, policy manuals, feasibility study reports. • Step 2: Look for similar activities / projects within the company. • Step 3: Read these papers and put all the identified officials, managers or groups to your list of stakeholders. Usage%tips: • This2technique2is2useful2for2analysts2who2are2new2to2the2organization,2 thus2external2consultants2in2particular. • Background2research2together2with2organization2charts2will2help2 business2analyst2to2get2more2insight2information2about2the2organization. Advantages and disadvantages Advantages: • Background reading helps the analyst to get an understanding of the organization before meeting the people who work there, • It allows the analyst to prepare for other types of fact finding, for example,by being aware of the business objectives ofthe organization, 8
  9. 9. Advantages and disadvantages Advantages (cont.) • Documentation on the existing system may provide formally defined information requirements for the current system, • Documentation on the existing system is a source of stakeholders. Disadvantages: • Written documents often do not match up to reality, • Written documents can be longBwinded with much irrelevantdetail, • Some documents can difficult to get due to confidential information they carry. Complementary to background research you may use stakeholder wheel or stakeholder nomination techniques for the stakeholders discovery.
  10. 10. Why use this technique? A persona is a fictional person who acts as a representative standBin for a large class of representative users of your products or services. Personas are helpful when there is a desire to understand needs held by a group or class of users. Personas technique is also known as user profiles, user role definitions, audience profiles. How to use it? The following steps will help you develop personas: Step 1: Conduct user research: by providing answers the following questions: Who are your users and why are they using the system? What behaviors, assumptions,and expectations color their view of the system? Step 2: Condense the research: Look for themes/characteristics that are specific, relevant,and universal to the system and its users. Step 3: Brainstorm: Organize elements into persona groups that represent your target users. Name or classify each group. Step 4: Refine: Combine and prioritize the rough personas. Separate them into primary, secondary, and, if necessary, complementary categories. You should have roughly 3B5 personas and their identified characteristics. Step 5: Make them realistic: Develop the appropriate descriptions of each personas background, motivations, and expectations. Do not include a lot of personal information.Be relevantand serioushhumor is not appropriate. Usage tips: When describing a persona, generally include the following key pieces of information: • Persona Group (i.e. web manager) • Fictional name • Job titles and major responsibilities • Demographics such as age, education,ethnicity,and family status • The goals and tasks they are trying to complete using the site 10
  11. 11. Usage%tips%(cont.) • Their physical,social,and technological environment • A quote that sums up what matters most to the persona as it relates to your site • Casual pictures representing thatuser group Advantages%and%disadvantages Advantages: • Personas2help2everyone2have2a2consistent2view2of2major2audience2 groups.2 • Personas2are2easy2to2communicate.2 • Personas2increase2empathy2toward2the2audience2and2help2focus2on2 their2needs.2 • Personas2help2prioritize2possible2new2product2features/services2(based2 on2how2well2they2would2meet2the2needs2of2a2particular2persona).2 Disadvantages: • TimeBconsuming2 • If2not2enough2personas2are2used,2users2are2forced2to2fall2into2a2certain2 persona2type2which2might2not2accurately2represent2them.2 For further%reading%refer to2References2[10]2and2[11]
  12. 12. When the stakeholders are identified and agreed upon, the next step is to determine the attitudes of these stakeholders towards a project. Because the attitudes of the stakeholders can change during the project life cycle as well as people may change assignments during the project, the stakeholders analysis is an ongoing activity done throughoutthe whole projectlife cycle. Based on results of the stakeholder analysis the business analyst can decide on how to: • involve stakeholders in the requirements developmentprocess, • communicate requirements and their changes to particular stakeholders/ stakeholder groups, • resolve conflicts between stakeholders. The involvement and proper communication with stakeholders are means to manage their expectations about the deliverables of the project as well as gaining their commitment to it. This is indispensable for its successful completion. Involving stakeholders from the early stages of the project gives them opportunity to express their ideas/issues/concerns over the project, early and this make them feel more involved in a project and also take more responsibility on their shoulders. As mentioned earlier after stakeholders are identified and analysed, they also should be managed. Stakeholders management means that the results of the stakeholders analysis are periodically revised for its validity and updated accordingly. 12 STAKEHOLDER%ANALYSIS%AND%MANAGEMENT
  13. 13. 13 Thanks to the stakeholders management a project gains and maintains the commitment from its stakeholders. Jeff Berman in his excellent book "Maximizing Project Value: Defining, Managing and Measuring for Optimal Return" gives 7 tips how to manage stakeholders. These tips are based on best practices and summarize author's experience in this field: • Accept2stakeholders2as2they2are. • Get2key2leadership2involved. • Involve2your2stakeholders2early. • Ensure2confidentiality2on2sensitive2issues. • Plan2how2to2deal2with2and2respond2to2each2stakeholder. • Help2the2stakeholders2identify2"what's2in2it2for2me." • Communicate. When we check the BA toolbox B techniques which men can use to analyse and manage stakeholders, here are some examples of useful techniques, which will be described in the next chapters: • Stakeholder2power/interest2analysis • Stakeholder2map • Stakeholder2influence2diagram • StakeholderBissues2relationship2diagram • Support/opposition2matrix • RACI2matrix • PowerBDynamism2matrix • Power,2Legitimacy2and2Urgency2model
  14. 14. Why use this technique? If a business analyst wants to determine impact that stakeholders have on his project, the stakeholder power/interest analysis can help in this. It can also help selecting the proper communication approach for each stakeholder group. This technique is also known as stakeholder power/interest matrix, Stakeholder power/interestgrid,PI grid, Influence/Interestmatrix. This model classifies stakeholders based on their power and interest in the project. It allocates the stakeholders to one of the categories: • high power/high interest • high power/low interest • low power/ high interest • low power/ low interest How to use it? Step 1: Identify stakeholders. Step 2: Draw a two dimensionalBmatrix,see an example below: Step 3: Assign stakeholders to one of four categories. 14
  15. 15. 15 Depending on the category, this model suggests different ways how to deal with these stakeholders. • Stakeholders with high power and low interest shall be kept satisfied. • Those with low interest and low power shall be only monitored with minimum effort. • A stakeholder with low power and high interest in a project shall be keep informed • Stakeholders with the high power, high interest stakeholders shall be closely monitored and informed. Usage tips: • Common mistake is to draw the stakeholders where they should be or perhaps where a business analyst would like them to be instead of illustrating the real situation. • For a balanced, objective view it is recommended to do it with a project manager and/or peer business analyst. • Each quadrant in the matrix indicates the recommended communication strategy with stakeholders. • Stakeholder power and influence is sensitive information and is not meant to be distributed outside the core projectteam. • Technique "Stakeholder map" supports documenting results of this technique. • If more details categorization is needed it is possible to apply an extended power/interest grid with 9 different categories, see an example below:
  16. 16. Advantages and disadvantages Advantages: • Helps discovering where the real power over a project is located and therefore making better projectdecisions • Helps finding the right communication means with stakeholders Disadvantages: • Can be subjective • To benefitmust be performed on regular basis • Plotting a stakeholder on this matrix does not show his attitude towards our initiative. We do not know whether a stakeholder is for or against it. Sometimes symbols like (+, B, or 0) are used to indicate that a stakeholder shows positive,negative or neutral attitude. Complementary you can use RACI matrix or/and stakeholder map techniques to capture additional information aboutstakeholders. Alternatively you can use Power/Dynamism matrix or Power, legitimacy and urgency model to analyse the stakeholders. For further reading you can refer to Reference [7] 16
  17. 17. 17 Why%use%this%technique? This technique helps you collecting details about the identified stakeholders. It also helps in setting up strategies how to change the position of the stakeholder on the power/interest matrix. This technique is also known as Stakeholder managementplanning. How%to%use%it? Create a table capturing details about the stakeholders presented on e.g. a Power/ Interest matrix. The recommended fields are: • name2of2a2stakeholder, • role2in2the2organization, • current2level2of2interest, • current2level2of2power, • current2attitude, • desired2attitude, • ways2to2communicate, • motivation2and2comments. Advantages%and%disadvantages Advantages: • Compact2way2to2capture2details2about2stakeholders Disadvantages: • Redundant information: it is required to make the stakeholder map consistentwith a (possibly) changing Power/Interestmatrix Alternatively it is possible to use the RACI matrix, if you prefer to focus on roles stakeholders have in a project. For2further%reading refer2to2Reference2[4]
  18. 18. Why use this technique? Stakeholder influence diagrams indicate how the stakeholders on a power/interest grid influence one another. This technique can help to determine the key stakeholders, decisions makers. Knowing that allows targeting the key influencers so that you can win support you need to reach your project objective. Alternative name for this technique is: Actor Influence Diagrams How to use it work? • Create a power/interest matrix (check here: How to create a Power/Interest matrix?) • For each stakeholder on the grid suggest lines of influence from one stakeholder to another. • Brainstorm about which influence relationships exist, which are most important and what the primary direction of influence is. Discuss the results and implications of the resulting diagram, including identifying who the most influential or central stakeholders are. Usage tips: • TwoBway influences are possible, but you should attempt to identify the primary direction in which influence flows between stakeholders. • The thickness of the line can be used to represent the strength of the relationship. 18
  19. 19. 19 Advantages and disadvantages: Advantages: • It helps to discover what the real influencers are and tackles indirect aspects as well. Disadvantages: • Can be subjective • To benefit must be performed on regular basis, because stakeholders' influence can change. For further reading refer to Reference [8]
  20. 20. Why use this technique? StakeholderBissue interrelationship diagrams represents the interest of individual stakeholders with different issues. It also focuses on the relationship among the stakeholders with respect to the issues. These relationships highlight the actual and potential areas of cooperation and conflicts and the interest of stakeholders on the issues. The interests may vary from stakeholder to stakeholder. How to use it? • Derive stakeholders from the power/interestmatrix. • Brainstorm issues that appear to be present in the situation at hand. • Draw issues and stakeholders involved in them. Any given stakeholder may be involved in more than one issue. Usage tips: • Arrows indicate that stakeholders have a stake in an issuesh the content of each arrow Bthat is, the stake or interest involved Bshould be identified and documented separately. 20
  21. 21. 21 Usage tips (cont.) • Multiple stakeholders can have interest in the same issue however their interest may be conflicting/different. Some further analysis may be needed to discover whatthe differences are. • You can be creative: Use brown paper and postBit notes in two colours (one for stakeholders and one for issues) to create your first version of the diagram. Advantages and disadvantages Advantages • A very useful technique to discover areas of common concern and identify potential conflicts early in the project. Disadvantages • It can be difficult to identify a complete list of issues which shall be part of this diagram,before more detailed analysis takes place. For further reading refer to Reference [6]
  22. 22. Why use this technique? This technique is especially useful to develop winning stakeholder coalitions. Having such a coalition is very important because it secures adoption of preferred solutions and to protect them during implementation. This model classifies stakeholders based on their support or opposition towards the project and its output. It allocates the stakeholders to one of the categories: • high support • low support • high opposition • low opposition How to use it? • Step 1: Identify stakeholders. Here you can find some useful techniques to do that. • Step 2: Draw a two dimensionalBmatrix,see an example below: Example of support/opposition matrix 22
  23. 23. 23 Step 3. Classify stakeholders as a “support” and “opposition” against the “power” based upon the implications by the range of problem definitions ("high"/"low"). Usage tips: • The facilitation process is the key to the successful conclusion of this technique. • Common mistake is to draw the stakeholders where they should be or perhaps where a business analyst would like them to be instead of illustrating the real situation. • You can think this matrix is a kind of variation of power/interest matrix, which does not cover the attitudes towards a project and its output. You can use stakeholders who you identified there in this technique. • It is better to perform this analysis in a team, to create a more objective image of the situation. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages • Helps in creating coalitions for the projectand the proposed solution Disadvantages • Can be subjective • To benefitmust be performed on regular basis For further reading refer to Reference [6]
  24. 24. Why use this technique? RACI technique focuses on clarifying what stakeholders roles and responsibilities are in a context of a specific task or process step. There is a number of alternative names for this technique like ARCI matrix, RACI chart, or Responsibility charting. It classifies stakeholders according to one of the following roles for specific projectactivities: Responsible: The stakeholder performs the projectwork activities. Accountable: The stakeholder is accountable to the sponsor or to the customer for the result of the work activities. Consulted: The stakeholder is asked for opinions on objectives, assumptions, constraints, or methods of planning and developing products or process due to expertise or position in the organization. Informed: The stakeholder is notified of the outcome of project decisions. How to use it? • Step 1: Create a table and assign each column to one stakeholder and each row to a specific task. • Step 2: For each row consider the role of a stakeholder with respect to the analysed task (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed about/for a task/business process). • Step 3: Finally review the completeness of the matrix. Application: The RACI matrix may be used: • to specify the involvementof various stakeholders in a project, • to indicate the involvementofstakeholders in a business process, • to indicate the persons involved in the creation, signBoff, and distribution of a BA artefact, • to supplementthe Stakeholder power/interestanalysis 24
  25. 25. 25 Usage tips: • There is seldom time to create a RACI matrix for all stakeholders and therefore it is a common practice to create the RACI matrix for key stakeholders only. • Only have one Accountable person. More than one and the task may not get done due to confusion. • Try to limit the number of Responsible persons in a row to one – more than this and there will likely be duplication ofwork. • A Responsible person and an Accountable person must be assigned to every row. • Confirm the roles and activities assigned with all stakeholders. • Secure management approval and commitment to provide access to the stakeholders when needed. Advantages and disadvantages Advantages: • Clarity about stakeholders roles and responsibilities • Checks whether each activity has all the RACI roles assigned, spot inconsistencies and duplications Disadvantages: • RACI matrix does not define the relationship between the stakeholders "allocated"to one task Alternatively some more extended models can be used as: • RACIVS which reflects who verifies that an outcome meets acceptance criteria and who signs off on the verified outcome • RASCI which reflects a supportrole allocated to a responsible role Template If you look for a template, you can download one here. For further reading refer to References [5]
  26. 26. Why%use%this%technique? This technique is useful when a Business Analyst wants to understand the priority and level of attention a particular stakeholder. It helps too with selecting the proper communication approach for each stakeholder group.The alternative name for this technique is the salience model. This model classifies stakeholders based on their salience in the organization. The salience of a stakeholder is based upon three factors: legitimacy, power, and urgency. Legitimacy is a claim on a company/project, based upon a contractual or legal obligation, a moral right, an atBrisk status, or a stakeholder having a moral interest in the harms and benefits generated by a company's actions. Power is the ability to influence a company/project behaviour, whether or not the stakeholder has a legitimate claim. Urgency is the degree to which a stakeholder's claim calls for immediate attention, adding a dynamic component for a stakeholder to attain salience in the minds of managers. The idea of this model is to distinguish more salient or prominent stakeholders, give them priority and actively communicate with them. The model identifies 8 different stakeholder groups: dormant, latent, demanding, dominant,dangerous,dependent,definitive and nonBstakeholders. Source: http://www.12manage.com/methods_stakeholder_mapping.html 26
  27. 27. 27 How%to%use%it? Assign stakeholders to one of eight categories: 1. Dormant stakeholders: These stakeholders have power to impose their will on others but they miss legitimacy and urgency. Therefore their power remain dormant. Tip: keep these stakeholders informed. 2. Latent stakeholders posses legitimate claims, but have no power to influence the organization nor urgentclaims. Tip: Involve them only when really necessary (e.g. something is going very wrong). 3. Demanding stakeholders: These stakeholders have urgent claims, but neither power nor legitimacy to enforce them. Tip: Be careful not to invest too much time in keeping them up to date. There are more important stakeholders to communicate with. 4. Dominant stakeholders have both power and legitimate claims in the organization giving them strong influence in the project. Tip: Keep them informed 6. Dangerous stakeholders have power and urgency, but lack of legitimacy. They are seen as dangerous as they may resort to coercion and even violence. Tip: Keep these stakeholders appropriately engaged or satisfied. 5. Dependent stakeholders lack power, but have urgent and legitimate claims. Tip: However, they need to be managed because they can quite easily choose to align themselves with other project stakeholders and hence influence your project. 6. Definite stakeholders have power, legitimacy and urgency, and therefore they need to be communicated with. 7. NonBstakeholders have no power,no legitimacy and no urgency. Tip: Do not invest time in any communication with them. Usage%tips: Common mistake is to draw the stakeholders where they should be or perhaps where a business analyst would like them to be instead of illustrating the actual situation. Advantages%and%Disadvantages Advantages: • Illustrates2the2dynamic2qualities2by2showing2how2stakeholders2can2shift2 from2one2group2to2another. Disadvantages: • Can2be2subjective • To2benefit2this2analysis2must2be2performed2on2regular2basis For2further%reading%refer2to2References2[3]
  28. 28. Why use this technique? This technique can be used to assess where the ‘political efforts’ should be channelled during the development of new strategies. It classifies stakeholders based on two attributes: power and dynamism (predictability). How to use it? Step 1: Plot twoBdimensional matrix and assign the stakeholders to one of the categories: • high power/ high dynamism • high power/ low dynamism • low power/ high dynamism • low power/ low dynamism See an example of simple 2x2 matrix below: Step22:2Assign2stakeholders2to2one2of2four2categories: • Stakeholders2in2category2A2and2B2have2low2power.2They2can2however2still2 influence2other2stakeholders2and2therefore be2closely2watched.2 • Stakeholders2in2group2C2are predictable2and2as2consequence2easy2to2 manage.2 • Stakeholders2in2group2D2are2very2difficult2to2manage because2their2views2are2 unpredictable.2It2is2advisable2to2pay2a2lot2of2attention2to2this2group2of2 stakeholders. 28
  29. 29. 29 Usage%tips: • Common2mistake2is2to2draw2the2stakeholders2where2they2should2be or2 perhaps2where2a2business2analyst2would2like2them2to2be instead2of2 illustrating2the2actual2situation. Advantages%and%disadvantage Advantages: • Helps2discovering2where2the2real2power2over2a2project2is2located2and2 therefore2making2better2project2decisions Disadvantage: • Can2be2subjective • To2benefit2this2analysis2must2be2performed2on2regular2basis Alternatively the2following2techniques can2be2used2Stakeholder2 power/interest2analysis2or2Power,2Legitimacy2and2Urgency2model. For2further%reading%refer2to2References2[2]
  30. 30. REFERENCES [1] BCS 99 Business Analysis Techniques – ISBN: 978B1780172736 [2] Explanation ofStakeholder Mapping http://www.12manage.com/methods_stakeholder_mapping.html [3] Leadership for managers https://virk.wordpress.com/2010/03/23/salienceBmodelBstakeholderBanalysis/ [4] Expert Program Management http://www.expertprogrammanagement.com/2010/06/stakeholderBanalysisB template/ [5] RACI Training http://www.racitraining.com/ [6] What to do when stakeholder matter https://www.hhh.umn.edu/people/jmbryson/pdf/stakeholder_identification_ana lysis_techniques.pdf [7] Mind tools – Requirements Analysis http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_07.htm [8] Stakeholder Influence Mapping http://www.policyB powertools.org/Tools/Understanding/docs/stakeholder_influence_mapping_to ol_english.pdf [9] RACI matrix template [10] http://www.usability.gov/howBtoBandBtools/methods/personas.html [11]2http://www.steptwo.com.au/papers/kmc_personas/ 30
  31. 31. Thank2you2for2downloading2this2eBbook! 31 Thank2you2for2downloading2this2eBbook! Check2our2blog www.requirementstechniques.com to2discover2new2techniques2 to2extend2your2Business2Analyst2toolkit

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