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KARACHI WATER & SEWERAGE BOARD

GREATER KARACHI BULK WATER SUPPLY
K - IV PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
(EIA) RE...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake TO Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karac...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi ‘
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From I(injhar Lake To Ka...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi ‘
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Ka...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi ‘
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Ka...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi . 
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Ka...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A
Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kar...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi

Bulk Water Supply Scheme,  K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Kara...
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project
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EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project

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EIA Report of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply, K-IV Project

  1. 1. KARACHI WATER & SEWERAGE BOARD GREATER KARACHI BULK WATER SUPPLY K - IV PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) REPORT OSMANI & COMPANY (PVT. ) LTD. Consulting Enineers - Architects - Planners k—6 kistan Osmani House: 245/2-K, Bloc , P. E.C. H.S. , K chi. Pa . Tel: 2-21-34546541 /42, 34536 /08, Fax: -1- -21414534691, ail: ocl-khi@osmani. com, bsite: www. osmani. com MAY 2015
  2. 2. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake TO Karachi gg. La4_AIEE! OSMANl Environmental Impact Assessment Report TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ES - 1 1 INTRODUCTION . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 1 1.1 NAME OF THE PROJECT . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..2 1.2 PROJECT PROPONENT . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . .2 1.3 PROJECT LOCATION . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . .2 1.3.1. Environmental Settings . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 3 1.4 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 3 1.4.1. Main Advantages of Project . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 4 1.4.2. Understanding the project activities . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 4 1.5 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 5 1.5.1. Regulatory Requirement . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 5 1.5.2. Main Objectives . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 5 1.5.3. Objectives of EIA . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 5 1.6 REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 6 1.7 APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR EIA STUDY . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 6 1.7.1. Screening . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 6 1.7.2. Scoping . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 7 1.7.3. Establishing Baseline Environment . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 7 1.7.4. Identification and Assessment of Impacts . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 8 1.7.5. Mitigation and Monitoring . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 8 1.7.6. Development of Environmental Management Plan . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 9 1.7.7. Preparing Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 9 1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 9 1.9 The EIA Study Team . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 10 2 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, LEGISLATION & GUIDELINE . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 11 2.1 NATIONAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 11 2.2 PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (REVIEW OF IEE/ EIA) REGULATIONS 2000 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 12 2.3 THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS (NEQS) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 12 2.4 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY 2005 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 14 2.5 PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL ACT, 2014 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 15 2.6 SINDH WILDLIFE PROTECTION ORDINANCE, 1972 AND AMENDMENTS 2001 . ... ... ... . . . 15 TOC—|
  3. 3. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi xs§l—4—i—10SMANI EVVIEFVV; r-. m.. a.. ..‘3.. w.; . n. ;,T‘, vnam, Environmental Impact Assessment Report 2.7 THE IUCN RED LIST . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 16 2.8 THE FOREST ACT, 1927 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 17 2.9 THE ENVIRON MENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES, 1997 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 17 2.10 WORLD BANK GUIDELINES ON ENVIRONMENT . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 17 2.11 REVIEW AND CATEGORIZATION . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 18 2.12 IFC PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... "20 2.13 PERFORMANCE STANDARD: SOCIAL & ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT9flfiEM . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... "20 2.14 PERFORMANCE ST ANDARD: LABOR AND WORKING CONDITIONS . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 21 3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 22 3.1 STUDY AREA . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 23 32 PURPOSEOFTHEPROECT . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. "25 3.3 DELINEATION OF THE ROUTE . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 28 3.4 CONSTRUCTION WORKS . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 29 3.4.1. Water Intake Work . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 29 3.4.2. Design Considerations . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 30 3.4.3. Design Concepts of Intake Structures . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 31 3.4.4. Types of Intake Systems . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 31 3.4.5. Pump House . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 32 3.4.6. Stilling Chamber and Discharge Weir . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 34 3.4.7. Lake Outlet Modifications . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 34 3.5 EXISTING WATER SUPPLY . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 35 3.6 WATER DEMAND . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 36 3.6.1. Total Water Abstraction . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 36 3.7 DESIGN PERIOD AND PROJECT WORK PLAN . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 37 3.8 DESIGN DETAILS . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 37 4. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE AND PROFILE OF THE PROJECT . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 39 4.1 PHYSICAL RESOURCES . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 39 4.1.1. Geology . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 39 4.1.2. Seismic Risk zones . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 40 4.1.3. Topography . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 41 4.1.4. Soil . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 42 4.1.5. Drainage Pattern . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 43 TOC- ll
  4. 4. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &’L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' swm . ... ... ... . 9.. ., . ... ,.. ., . ..~. ... ,, Environmental Impact Assessment Report 4.1.6. Bathymetry of Kinjhar Lake . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 44 4.1.7. Climate . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 45 4.1.8. Impact of Climate Change . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 53 4.1.9. Surface Water Resources . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 56 4.1.10. Environmental Analysis . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 60 4.2 ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 69 8.3.1. Ecological Zones . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 69 8.3.2. Avian Diversity . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 73 8.3.3. Protected Areas . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 74 8.3.4. Biodiversity in the Project Area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 76 8.3.5. Loss of Local Fauna and Flora Species . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 82 4.3 Socioeconomic Resources . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 91 8.4.1. Land-use . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 91 8.4.2. Settlements . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 93 8.4.3. Agricultural Land . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 95 8.4.4. Industries . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 95 8.4.5. Landscapes . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 95 8.4.6. Trees Count . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 96 8.4.7. Road Network . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 97 8.4.8. Types of Settlements in Study area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 100 8.4.9. Professions . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 101 8.4.10. Socioeconomic Activities . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 101 8.4.11. Impacts . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 102 8.4.12. Positive Impacts . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 104 5 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 106 5.1 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE FOR INTAKE SYSTEM . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 106 5.2 ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS FOR WATER TREATMENT PLANT . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 106 5.2.1. Alternative 1 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 106 5.2.2 Alternative 2 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 107 5.2.3 Alternative 3 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 107 6. PUBLIC CONSULTATION . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 109 6.1 ISSUES OF THE AREA . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 111 6.2 DEMOGRAPHY . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 111 6.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 113 TOC-Ill
  5. 5. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi xs§l—4—i—10SMANI em. ..-n; ~m. m.. ..7.w. ; nwjw v. .~. u-om Environmental Impact Assessment Report 7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS & MITIGATION MEASURES . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 117 7.1 OVERVIEW . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 117 7.2 POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 117 7.2.1. Construction Impacts and Mitigation measures . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 117 7.2.2. Operation and Maintenance Impacts . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 122 7.3 POTENTIAL POSITIVE IMPACT S . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 123 7.3.1. Construction Phase . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 123 7.3.2. Operational Phase . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 124 8. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 126 8.1 ENVIRON MENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 126 8.2 REPORTING . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 131 8.2.1. During the construction phase: .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 131 8.2.2. During the operating and maintenance phases KW&SB will submit the following reports to SEPA . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 131 9. CONCLUSIONS . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 132 9.1 RECOMMENDATIONS . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 133 TOC- IV
  6. 6. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi xs§l—4—i—10SMAN| em. ..-n; r-m. ..a. ... ‘3.. w.; . I. I.; ,T‘, vnam, Environmental Impact Assessment Report LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-1: K-IV Water Supply Scheme Project Location . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3 Figure 1-2: Components of EIA . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 6 Figure 3-1: Site map of K-IV water supply scheme . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 23 Figure 3-2: Deh Map of K-IV Bulk Water Supply Scheme . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 24 Figure 3-3: Delineation of K-IV Route through DGPS . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 28 Figure 3-4: K-IV Canal section detail . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 37 Figure 3-5: Fore-bay at High Point (Plan) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 37 Figure 3-6: Fore-Bay at High Point (Plan and section) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 38 Figure 4-1: Geology of Study area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 40 Figure 4-2: Seismic Risk zones . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 41 Figure 4-3: Topography of Intake area of K-IV Project . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 42 Figure 4-4: Topography of Marc Hill . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 42 Figure 4-5: Soil map of Study Area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 43 Figure 4-6: Drainage pattern of Study area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 44 Figure 4-7: Climograph of Karachi . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 46 Figure 4-8: Annual Hourly Solar Radiation . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 47 Figure 4-9: Annual Hourly Air Temperature and Humidity . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 48 Figure 4-10: Frequency distribution of temperature . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 49 Figure 4-11: Frequency Distribution — Relative Humidity . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 49 Figure 4-12: Monthly Temperature Range —Averages, Upper & Lower Limit . ... ... ... ... ... . . . 50 Figure 4-13: Monthly Humidity Range —Averages, Upper and Lower Limit . ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 50 Figure 4-14: Ground temperature Variation . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 51 Figure 4-15: Average Hourly Wind Speed —Annual Distribution . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 51 Figure 4-16: Annual Wind rose of Study Area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 52 Figure 4-17: Average wind speed and temperature of Thatta . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 53 Figure 4-18: Wetlands in Sindh . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 56 Figure 4-19: Kinjhar Lake . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 58 Figure 4-20: Haleji Lake . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 59 Figure 4-21: Hedero Lake . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 60 Figure 4-22: Air Quality Sampling . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 64 TOC—V
  7. 7. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi Environmental xs§l—4—i—10SMANI em. ..-R; ~mI. a.. . >. r.. .; n. w.v v. .~. u-om Impact Assessment Report Figure 4-23: Noise monitoring sites around K-IV Project Area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 66 Figure 4-24: Average noise quality analysis . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 68 Figure 4-25: Low noise quality analysis . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 68 Figure 4-26: High noise quality analysis . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 69 Figure 4-27: Ecological zones of K-IV project . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 70 Figure 4-28: Area of Ecological zones . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 70 Figure 4-29: Flora found in Plain area zone of project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 71 Figure 4-30: Flora found in Mountain zone of project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 72 Figure 4-31: Flora found in river valley zone of project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 72 Figure 4-32: Flora found in wetland zone of project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 73 Figure 4-33: Avian diversity found in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 73 Figure 4-34: Game reserves in Sindh Ramsar Sites . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 75 Figure 4-35: Ramsar Sites of Sindh . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 75 Figure 4-36: Wildlife Sanctuaries of Sindh . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 76 Figure 4-37: IUCN Red List categories . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 76 Figure 4-38: Grasses observed in Ecological zones of K-IV project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 79 Figure 4-39: Bushes observed in Ecological zones of K-IV project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 80 Figure 4-40: Medium height trees observed in Ecological zones of K-IV project area . ... .. . . 80 Figure 4-41: Fully grown trees observed in Ecological zones of K-IV project area . ... ... ... .. . . 81 Figure 4-42: Domestic animals in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 82 Figure 4-43: Mammals and reptiles found in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 82 Figure 4-44: Prosopis cineraria in the existing environment of K-IV Site . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 83 Figure 4-45: Prosopis Cineraria (an endangered plant species on K-IV site) . ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 84 Figure 4-46: Tecamella undulate (an endangered plant species on K-IV site) . ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 85 Figure 4-47: Techamella undulate in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 86 Figure 4-48: Commiphora wightii in K-IV mountain areas . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 87 Figure 4-49: Salvadora aleaides (Peelu) found in dry river beds . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 89 Figure 4-50: Capparis decidua in existing K-IV environment . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 89 Figure 4-51: Acacia Senegal in existing environment of K-IV site . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 90 Figure 4-52: Acacia nilotica in K-IV site . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 90 Figure 4-53: Prosopisjuliflora in K-IV . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 91 TOC- VI
  8. 8. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &’L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' swm . ... ... ... 9.. ., . ... ,.. ,, . ..~. ... ,, Environmental Impact Assessment Report Figure 4-54: Euphorbia caducifolia (Cactus) in K-IV . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 91 Figure 4-55: Land use map of K-IV project route . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 92 Figure 4-56: Land cover of Study area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 92 Figure 4-57: Goths along K-IV Project Route . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 95 Figure 4-58: Major Landscapes of project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 96 Figure 4-59: Trees on Route . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 96 Figure 4-60: Trees Count on 500’ ROW . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 97 Figure 4-61: Road Network . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 98 Figure 4-62: Non-metaled tracks . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 99 Figure 4-63: Metaled Tracks . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 99 Figure 4-64: Way to Kinjhar Lake . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 100 Figure 4-65: Types of Settlements in Study area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 100 Figure 4-66: Profession of local people in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 101 Figure 4-67: Socio-economic activities in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 102 Figure 4-68: Distance of Cement Factories from K-IV project . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 103 Figure 4-69: Direction of Plume of cement factories . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 103 Figure 4-70: Cement factories . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 104 Figure 4-71: Local Impacts on Flora . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 104 Figure 4-72: Alternative sources of water in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 105 Figure 4-73: Agricultural Land in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 105 Figure 6-1: Public Consultation during Socioeconomic Survey . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 110 Figure 6-2: Goths Present along K-IV Project Route . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 110 Figure 6-3: Literacy Rate . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 111 Figure 6-4: Localities around Project Area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..112 Figure 6-5: Reason of Residence in the area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 112 Figure 6-6: Important/ Highlighted Issues . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . .112 Figure 6-7: Awareness among People about K-IV Water Supply Development . ... ... ... ... .. 113 Figure 6-8: Face Floods During Monsoon Season . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 113 Figure 6-9: Opinion about K-IV Development . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 114 Figure 6-10: Environmental Issues . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 114 Figure 6-11: Heritage Sites near Project Area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 114 TOC- VII
  9. 9. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi xs§L4—7—i0SMANI em. ..-N; Mum. .. >arrn] M¢pwv v. .~. u-om Environmental Impact Assessment Report Figure 6-12: Access to Clean Drinking Water . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 115 Figure 6-13: Attitude towards K-IV Water Supply Scheme . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 116 LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1: Drinking Water Quality Standards . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 13 Table 3-1: K-IV System Implementation Plan: Salient Feature Phase-I 260 MGD . ... ... ... .. . . 22 Table 3-2: Land Requirement for all Phases . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 22 Table 3-3: K-IV System Implementation Plan (Time Frame for All Phases of K-IV Project). 22 Table 3-4: Town and Deh Distribution of K-IV Project . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 24 Table 3-5: Water Supply . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 35 Table 3-6: Per Capita Demand . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 36 Table 3-7: water demand and Population Project . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 36 Table 4-1: Water quality parameters . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 60 Table 4-2: Chemical Analysis of K-IV Project area Water Samples . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 61 Table 4-3: Bacteriological Analysis of K-IV Project area Water Samples . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 61 Table 4-4: Chemical Analysis of K-IV Project area Water Samples (Intake Point of Kinjhar Lake) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 62 Table 4-5: Air quality sampling . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 63 Table 4-6: Standards of Pollutants . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 63 Table 4-7: Air Quality Assessment at AAS-4 Site . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 65 Table 4-8: Principle of operation . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 65 Table 4-9: National environmental quality standards for noise by PEPA 1997 . ... ... ... ... ... .. 67 Table 4-10: Field analysis of Noise levels . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 67 Table 4-11: Birds Diversity of Project Area and their Ecological Status . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 74 Table 4-12: IUCN Conservation Status . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 77 Table 4-13: List of Plant species in project area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 77 Table 4-14: List of Plant Species found in project area with their ecological status . ... ... .. . . 78 Table 4-15: Land Use of Study Area . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 92 Table 4-16: List of Goths / Settlements along K-IV Project Route . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 93 Table 4-17: List of Goths along K-IV project Route with Population . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 93 Table 8-1: Environmental Management Plan . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . .126 TOC- VIII
  10. 10. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi Environmental Impact Assessment Report GKBWS KWSB MG D IEE/ EIA PEPA SEPA NCS NEAP NEQS Mg/ l NCCW IFC EHS CDGK ROW JICA PO. A MOU GOP GOS NPSH M3/d KB Feeder ACRONYMS Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Karachi Water and Sewerage Board Million Gallons per Day s§Lt—7—l~0SMANI sna. ... —n; 1-rm. m.7.. m., n. ;,T‘, vnam, Initial Environmental Examinationl Environmental Impact Assessment Pakistan Environmental Protection Act Sindh Environmental Protection Agency National Conservation Strategy National Environmental Action Plan National Environmental Quality Standards Milligram per Liters National Council for Conservation Wildlife International Finance Co—operation Environmental Health and Safety City District Government Karachi Right of Way Japan International Cooperation Agency Port Qasim Authority Memorandum of Understanding Government of Pakistan Government of Sindh Net Positive Suction Head Cubic Meter per Day Kalri — Baghar Feeder TOC - IX
  11. 11. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &*L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' Environmental Impact Assessment Report GPCD Gallons per Capita per Day PMD Pakistan Meteorological department W/ Syd Watt per Square Yards F. T.U Formazin Turbidity Unit W/ m2 Watt per Square Meter GEB Global Energy Balance Archive OG DC Oil and Gas Development Cooperation NMDA National Disaster Management Agency IPCC International Panel for Climate Change GCM Global Circulation Model UTM Universal Transverse Mercater MSL Mean Sea Level IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature DCK DHA City Karachi WHO World Health Organization WTP Water Treatment Plant LAA Land Acquisition Act, 1894 TOC-X
  12. 12. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi ‘ Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From I(injhar Lake To Karachi $‘. :*L‘“‘—‘Ea°sMAN' _ «m. ..m >r. .., cm I. ..m. . Environmental Impact Assessment Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Water supply is a serious challenge in a mega city like Karachi. As the size of the city reached to 20 million marks, the requirement of bulk water supply is overwhelming. Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KW&SB) is supplying bulk water through GKBWS, K-ll, K—| |l and other schemes to Karachi since 1958. It has been given through Kinjhar Lake for the last 50 years. Bulk water supply of 100 MGD was also given to Karachi through Hab Dam, which was not enough to fulfill the requirements of the city. Therefore, a new feasible water supply corridor from Kinjhar started named as Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply K-IV Project. Hence, this project will be expected to generate the on—time supply of bulk water for next 50 years. K-IV project will start from the Kinjhar Lake and passed from the proposed route and will terminate near Northern bypass at Khairo Brohi Goth. K-IV project is 124 km long corridor and width of canal is 35.07 m. Furthermore, this project will supply 650 MGD to Karachi for the next 50 years. In future, it will supply 1430 MGD after extension and execute the demand for additional 30 years. The Corridor which will supply the bulk water to the Karachi city is named as ”Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV Project. The Karachi water and Sewerage Board is the proponent of the project. The K-IV project is in design stages, which will be completed by M/ S Osmani 84 Company (Pvt. ) Ltd. According to the PEA (Pakistan Environmental Act), EIA is mandatory for the projects which fall in Schedu| e—I| , including the "Water supply and management projects" category (F). Hence, this Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been initiated by KWSB and conducted by M/ S Osmani & Company (Pvt. ) Ltd. with the help of University of Karachi to evaluate the environmental impacts of the K-IV project. As provided in the Master Plan, Preliminary Design, Field Studies and Environmental analysis of the K-IV Project that the Design of the Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply K-IV is strongly founded on Environmental principles and International standards. Although there are few significant negative impacts but would be of short term, especially, during the construction stages. However, there are a few negative impacts that would be expected during the operational stage but there intensity could be reduced by taking appropriate measures which are already in place in the relevant sections of this EIA. The objectives of this EIA are: 0 To assess the existing environmental and social baseline conditions of the project site; 0 Identify the likely impacts of the proposed project on the natural and socioeconomic environment, predict and evaluate these quantitatively wherever possible and determine their significance in the light of technical and regulatory concerns, as well as those related to public perceptions; ES—|
  13. 13. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &*L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' Environmental Impact Assessment Report WM pm: mm MW 1» To analyze the impacts of design and construction phases of K-IV project for the adverse environmental impacts; 0 Propose mitigation measures for potential impacts of the project during the construction and operational phases; 0 To develop an Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP) for the adverse environmental impacts; and a To draft an EIA report for submission to the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). K— IV Corridor is located in Karachi and Thatta Districts. It is approximately 1000 feet wide ROWs which fall in the north of the existing K—l| & K-III corridor. Furthermore, it extends in east-west direction from Kinjhar Lake to Karachi. It starts from Kohistan Chak No. 2 (Thatta) and ends to Deh Allah Phihai (Gadap town, Karachi). K- IV PROJECT SITE KHV noun: Hodafn Lake j Roads K-IV Reservoirs N T Railway Track ' " Lake, — K-IV Route River: A : K-IV Chainage C] 19,, " 3,. ,,. ,d, ,,y 0 J I 12 10 :4 I 2 K-IV Alllonmnol Iuflor (: ) Dlslrlct Boundary Kiiomnlevs ES-01: K-IV Site and Situation PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Greater Karachi bulk water supply scheme K-IV mainly aims to meet the deficit of potable water for the mega city of Karachi. Presently, the Karachi city is drawing 1200 cusecs (65OMGD) approved quota of water from Indus River which is totally insufficient for the dense population of the entire city of Karachi. For the growing water demand of Karachi the allocation for Karachi up to vision 2025 may be increased by another 1200 cusecs, raising total allocation to 2400 cusecs by the government under national cause without effecting supply of water quota of Thatta district for agricultural purposes. POSITIVE IMPACTS OF K-IV PROJECT ES-ll
  14. 14. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &’L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' (run-rrrv . ... ... ,.. . am, .. ... .,, .. .~. ... ,, Environmental Impact Assessment Report Water is very important and basic need for the growing city like Karachi. Following points would justify the existence of K-IV Project: 0 K-IV project will provide access to 650 MGD potable bulk water to Karachi, a city serious deprived of water, especially the low income areas; It K-IV project will generate thousands of employments to the local people in construction phase and hundreds ofjobs will be available in operation and maintenance phases; a This project will generate handsome revenues for KW&SB; 0 Widening and leveling of the main access road to the proposed K-IV water scheme and the construction of access routes to the K-IV water scheme will improve onsite access and general accessibility in the area; o Improved water quality for domestic consumption reduced the risk to the health of the consumers and dependents of water sources that could translate into economic and financial saving through less health expenses; o Improved water quality that in turn will reduce potential risk of water borne diseases to the consumers; a The provisions of the water supply through K-IV project from Kinjhar Lake may lead to an increase in visitors to the area as it enhance the beauty of the area and hence increase the tourism opportunities in the area; and 0 The construction of the project will create demand for goods and services required by the workers. The impact though small, is positive for small traders and shop keepers in the area. NEED for an EIA The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 requires proponents of all projects involving any change in the environment, to submit an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report, to the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). According to the Environmental Assessment Procedures, October 1997, Schedule II, Section F (4), Water supply and management projects require an EIA. Therefore, an EIA is mandatory for the proposed for the Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply K-IV Project. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR EIA A comprehensive methodology on the basis of primary and secondary data is adopted. A flow diagram (Figure ES-02) is showing the EIA procedures. The screening and scoping of the project will decide the fate of EIA, as per the schedule outlined by SEPA and also provide the relevant summary of the literature. Scoping will closely look at the design, construction and ES-Ill
  15. 15. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &*l-‘-‘—‘°sMAN' Environmental Impact Assessment Report WM mm mm ‘mm implementation phases. The baseline studies will provide the existing conditions of the project area and record of the environmental characteristics. The probable impacts will be outlined in the mitigation chapter, whereas, at the end a comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (EMP) will be annexed. At various stages, the feedback of KW&SB has been sought and incorporated accordingly. The model illustrates the stepwise dynamics of EIA, but also the requirement for continuous reappraisal and adjustment, as indicated by the following flowchart: Description and Scoping evnlrmtion of Bnso: -line studios f Mitigation and , Presentation 0 < Moullorlug DH. “ Rem" I Fintliugs of lln! EIA Prupursulrs «ml Prescrip Lions 'I I I J ‘ ‘ Tecluaical Review > Figure ES-02: Flow chart showing steps for the preparation of EIA ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS, POLICY AND PROCEDURES CONSULTED For comprehensive review of available literature on environmental issues in the context of water scheme, following protocols, laws, treaties, and regulations were thoroughly consulted and incorporated in the development of K-IV project. International Treaties and Guidelines 0 The Convention on Biological Diversity 0 The Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979 0 The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, RAMSAR 1971 o Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Cites) - IUCN Red List a Asian Development Bank Environmental Requirements - The International Finance Standards at Other important International Agreements 0 United Nations Agenda 21 ES- IV
  16. 16. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &’L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' (run-rrrv . ... ... ... .. 9.. ., . i.. ,.. ., . ..~. ... ,, Environmental Impact Assessment Report National Policies and Plans 0 The National Conservation Strategy (NCS) at The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS) 1991 -I Follow—up of PNCs or National Environmental Policy 2005 0 Biodiversity Action Plan in National Resettlement Policy 0 Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 9 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 at Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA Regulations 2000 0 Sectoral Guidelines a National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) 0 The Forest Act 1927 ~ Sindh Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972 (SWPO) o Antiquities Act 1975 and the Sindh Cultural Heritage (Preservation) Act, 1994 in Institutional Frame work a Federal government Institution o Provisional Government Institution ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE CONDITIONS Up—to—date information about the existing environment has been gathered for the study area through extensive visits of the site area and its surroundings by environmental, social, ecological, water, air and soil quality experts. Air, water and soil quality monitoring was performed at the project location to examine the existing pollution levels of the K-IV project. a) Physical Environment Following parameters are used to study the Physical environment: a Land Resources 0 Water Resources a Water, Air and Noise Quality a Natural drainage and storm water; and c Other infrastructure (Public and private) b) Ecological Environment Ecological environment is covered these parameters: 0 Flora - Fauna ES—V
  17. 17. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &’L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' (run-rrrv . ... ... ... .. 9.. ., . ... ... , . ..~. ... ,, Environmental Impact Assessment Report - Migratory Birds 0 Endangered species (both for fauna and flora) c) Social and Cultural Environment Study of Social and Cultural Environment in project is carried out in all the Goths situated within the impact area of the project to explore the following objectives: 0 To assess the socio—economic conditions of the Project area; 0 Identification of the potential Project Affected Persons (PAPs) in the project demarcated area; 0 To ensure adequate public/ stakeholder consultations and participation; and c To identify the effects on the natural resources of the local community due to the implementation of the Project. POTENTIAL ENVIRON MENTAL IM PACTS The significant adverse and positive impacts may be generated by the project, the details of these provided in the following paragraphs. Construction Impacts and Mitigation measures Impacts on Physical Resources a. Interference with surface drains and groundwater table Usually encountered impacts on water and hydrology from this kind of projects are flooding, changes of groundwater levels, changes to stream flow including environmental flows, and changes to drainage patterns, and their extended impacts to human settlements, infrastructure and services, natural habitats, ecosystems, plants and animals. During the construction phase, no severe effect on water availability or hydrology is expected due to any of the construction activities. However, adverse effects on surface water bodies and vegetation through lowering of ground water levels have to be avoided and minimized by appropriate mitigation measures. Groundwater is recharged by rainfall and surface water. The other physical impact commonly associated with large—scale excavation (effects on surface and groundwater drainage) should again be minimal by the fact that this work will be conducted in the dry season. b. Dust generation from excavation & construction works The work will almost certainly be conducted in the dry season, so there is also a lot of potential for the creation of dust, from the excavation of dry soil and its storage, and ES-VI
  18. 18. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &’L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' (run-rrrv . ... ... ... . ». ... , . ... .., , . ..~. ... ,, Environmental Impact Assessment Report leveling on the ground. Action will therefore be needed to reduce physical impacts at both the construction and disposal sites, by controlling dust and reducing the amount of material to be dumped. c. Soil Stability/ Soil Erosion Loss of soil stability and soil erosion takes place due to the removal of vegetation cover, and numerous construction activities. It can cause loss of soil fertility and induce slope instability. Effective and efficient mitigation measures can not only reduce, but could improve the conditions over the existing conditions. Construction of access roads should be done in a manner that does not cause higher soil erosion and damage to road surfaces. All of these have to be mitigated where appropriate. d. Mining for construction material Large quantities of construction material like sand and aggregate will be required for reservoir and water treatment plant constructions. To avoid any impacts related to mining of material, the contractor will be required to obtain sand and other mining material required for construction only from licensed quarries. e. Quality of Air Air quality can deteriorate during the construction periods due to exhaust fumes, dust due to exposed surfaces of transported materials, from stockpiles of materials, rock blasting and crushing, creation of access roads etc. During operation of diesel or petrol driven machinery (use of fossil fuels, Carbon Monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and Sulfur Dioxide (502) would be released to the atmosphere. There can also be release of particulate matter (PM), hazardous volatile chemicals, and metals from specific point sources during construction activities. Due to rock excavation and transport, transport of other materials and earthworks there will be an increased vehicular traffic on most of roads of project area and the amount of dust released into the air, especially during the dry periods, will be significant. f. Noise When canals are excavated with the blasting method there will be large amounts of noise and vibration with negative impacts on humans and wildlife. Terrestrial fauna such as birds and mammals will be affected due to blasting required to construct the K-IV project. Construction of the canal segment using blasting in the K-IV project route will create high levels of disturbance to the animals of the hill sides and adjacent areas during construction. Ecological impacts There are no significant ecological resources in the project area (protected areas or rare or important species or habitats), so the construction should have no ecological impacts. Tree cover in the project area is very limited. Roadside trees should not be removed ES-VII
  19. 19. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &*L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' Erunrrrx; i-«mmm. >; rr-J M-on-vv Vtnwuorom Environmental Impact Assessment Report unnecessarily to construct canal, and to mitigate any such losses the Contractor should be required to plant and maintain two trees (of the same species) for each one that is removed. A total of 100 trees will be removed and will be replaced by 1000 trees in the ROWs by KW&SB. a. Impact on Economic Development During the laying of water supply canal near urban areas along the roads, various infrastructure services may be affected. It is inevitable that there will be an increase in the number of heavy vehicles in the town (particularly trucks carrying construction materials and removing waste), and this could disrupt traffic and other activities. These impacts will therefore need to be mitigated. b. Impact on Social and Cultural Resources There is invariably a safety risk when substantial construction is conducted in an urban area, and precautions will thus be needed to ensure the safety of both workers and citizens. The Contractor will be required to formulate and implement health and safety measures at construction sites. Operation and Maintenance Impacts a. Impacts on Physical Resources No adverse effects are expected for water availability or hydrology during this phase. But there will be minor changes in the natural stream flow pattern below the proposed project due to construction of project. The small streams, across which K-IV scheme passes, are non—perennia| . K-IV scheme intercepts number of streams. Water balance for the K-IV Project was prepared without expecting any inflow from this stream; as such their flow is not needed for K-IV project operations. These streams are un—gauged, and therefore it is not possible to release an exact, measured amount of water to them. However, it has been noted that appreciable flow occurs in these streams during monsoon season. The inflows from streams will be released to the same stream for irrigation and environmental uses. A main requirement for operation and maintenance will be regular operation of Water Treatment Plant (WTP) which involves various processes: pre—chIorination, alum dosing, flash mixing, flocculation, clarification, filtration, post—ch| orination, wash water re- circulation and sludge disposal systems pre—ch| orination, aeration, a| um—mixing, flocculation, clarification, filtration, and disinfection. b. Impacts on Ecological Resources As there are no significant ecological resources in or around the project area, any repairs or maintenance work and regular operation of WTP can be conducted without ecological ES-VIII
  20. 20. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &*L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' Environmental Impact Assessment Report impacts. The WTP design includes necessary facilities for safe disposal of back wash water (recirculation) and sludge (sludge drying beds), and therefore no impacts are anticipated. However, Destruction of vegetation around intake area and disruption areas will occur during operation. Interaction with wildlife within the area would be quite minimal. Contractor should ensure minimal removal of vegetation cover and trees. Consultation with the Sindh wildlife management will be scheduled. The chances of vector-borne diseases in the proposed project area through the K-IV scheme are also negligible, as the vector of malaria and dengue only developed in stagnant water. As the water is running the chances are quite minimal, however, any seepage in the vicinity of project may for the habitats for mosquitoes. c. Impacts on Social and Cultural Resources The operation & maintenance work will confine to within the facilities footprint, and no new areas will be disturbed or excavated. Therefore there are no likely impacts or risks. Potential Positive Impacts Construction Phase a. Stimulation of Local Economy and Employment Opportunities K-IV project indicate that 100 persons will be employed during the construction phase of the project. It is anticipated that during the construction phase engineers, architects, construction workers, truck drivers, equipment operators, security guards, surveyors, building contractors and unskilled labor, will all benefit from the project. Local contractors and workers will be utilized as much as possible. However if the required number of workers or level of expertise cannot be found within nearby communities, then contractors and workers will be sourced regionally, nationally and internationally, in that order of priority. The increased income for local residents will likely cause an increase in commercial activity in the nearby towns. b. Infrastructural Improvement Widening and leveling of the main access road to the proposed K-IV project and the construction of access routes to the K-IV project will improve onsite access. Additionally the installation of water reservoirs and recreational infrastructure will contribute to an overall improvement in the infrastructural capacity of the K-IV project route. Currently there is no formal recreational infrastructure on the property. ES- IX
  21. 21. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi : >?. ’L‘*‘—‘°M§flMAN' rut-err‘; .. ... ... ... .. ... , . ., . ... ... .., , Environmental Impact Assessment Report Operational Phase a. Improved Water quality Improved water quality for domestic consumption reduced the risk to the health of the consumers and dependents of water sources that could translate into economic and financial saving through less health expenses. In addition, savings will be realized from unnecessary purchase of water storage facilities/ containers. It will also reduce the water vending cost through donkeys. b. Reduction of water borne diseases Improved water quality that in turn will reduce potential risk of water borne diseases to the consumers. In addition to clean water, the personal hygiene in the served areas will also be enhanced, through encouraged use of acceptable water quality at household levels. c. Potential Tourist attraction The provisions of the water supply through K-IV project from Kinjhar Lake may lead to an increase in visitors to the area as it enhance the beauty of the area. There will likely be school trips as well as visits by persons who are interested in viewing the nature. This may lead to increased commercial activity in the nearby towns. d. Goods & Services The demand for goods and services are directly related to the arrival of workers and establishment of a working area. The construction of the project will create demand for goods and services required by the workers. The impact though small, is positive for small traders and shop keepers in the area. Development of the Environmental Management Plan An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the proposed project activities has been prepared. The EMP provides a framework for implementing and managing the mitigation and monitoring measures recommended in the EIA report. The EMP includes the following: 0 A mitigation and monitoring plan; «I Definition of roles and responsibilities of the proponent, contractors and monitoring teams; 0 Requirements for communication, documentation and training during the project; 0 Restrictions on design, timing and conduct of the project; and or Change Management Plan to cover unforeseen events/ environmental conditions during the project. The EMMP is a plan of action for mitigation / management / avoidance of the negative impacts of the project and enhancement of the project corridor. For each measure to be taken, its location, timeframe, implementation and overseeing / supervision responsibilities are listed. These components of the EMP have been given in the project EIA document ES-X
  22. 22. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi ‘ Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Karachi $‘. :’L‘“‘—‘Ea°sMAN' _ 5.. ... . W. .. W. .. I. ... ... . Environmental Impact Assessment Report which explains the environmental issues and the avoidance/ mitigation] minimization or enhancement measures adopted and/ or to be adopted during different phases of the project. CONCLUSION It has been revealed from the Design phase, Environmental and Field Studies, and EIA of the proposed K-IV Bulk water supply Project, Karachi that this canal project is strongly founded on environmental principles and international standards. Although there are few significant negative impacts but even they would be of short term especially during the construction stages and could be rectified EMMP. From this study, it has been revealed from this study that this project is highly significant for the future of Karachi and its development bring prosperity to the region; hence, this EIA recommends the construction of this project strongly. RECOMMENDATIONS Comprehensive mitigation measures have been proposed in the report to minimize the negative impacts and enhance the positive impacts of the Project. Salinity and water logging, water contamination, air pollution and high noise levels should be controlled with the use of good engineering practices including land management. ES—X|
  23. 23. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi xs§L4—3—l-OSMANI sna. ... —n; I-n. ..e. ...7.. r.. , n. .,T, v. .«. ..m, Environmental Impact Assessment Report 1 INTRODUCTION Water supply is a serious challenge in a mega city like Karachi. As the size of the city reached to 20 million marks according to recent estimates, the requirement of bulk water supply is inevitable. Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KW&SB) is supplying bulk water through GKBWS, K-ll and K—| || to Karachi since 1958. It has been provided through Kinjhar Lake for the last 50 years. Bulk water supply of 100 MGD was also given to Karachi through Hab Dam, which was not enough to fulfill the requirements of the city. In addition, the water supply of Hab Dam is dependent on seasonal rains. Now days, due to acute drought in the surroundings and the city area residents of the area receiving water from Hab dam are facing serious problems. As a result of this, ground water harvesting increases to a significantly high level which will cause reduction in ground water aquifer with a very fast way. If the situation prevails for next few years, it is very difficult to fulfill the demand of drinking water as the ground water has limited capacity. In addition without rain ground water will not recharge. Kinjhar Lake water is consistently supplied water because Kinjhar lake source of water is Indus River in addition to seasonal rains. The drought is mainly affecting southern part of Pakistan while the northern areas receive heavy rainfall which will enhance the flow of River Indus. Therefore, a new feasible water supply corridor from Kinjhar is proposed which named as Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply K-IV Project. This project will provide the consistent supply 650 MGD of bulk water for next 50 years. K-IV project will start from the Kinjhar Lake, passed from the proposed route and will terminate near Northern bypass at Khairo Brohi Goth. K-IV project is 124 km long corridor with a canal width of 35.07 m. In future, it will supply 1430 MGD after extension and meet the future demand for additional 30 years. The Greater Karachi bulk water supply scheme K-IV mainly aims to meet the deficit of potable water for this mega city of Karachi. Presently, the Karachi city is drawing 1200 cusecs (650 MGD) approved quota of water from Indus River which is totally insufficient for the dense population of the entire city of Karachi. For the growing water demand of Karachi the allocation for Karachi up to vision 2025 may be increased by another 1200 cusecs, raising total allocation to 2400 cusecs by the government under national cause without effecting supply of water quota of Thatta district for agricultural purposes. As per feasibility study of K-IV Project which was conducted in 2005 by the consultant, the lowest cost route was selected as best route after financial analysis of eight different routes from both capital &operation cost perspectives. Three appropriate termination locations were identified on this final route to build high Page - 1
  24. 24. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. iL44—1lE30SMAN| ‘J7m-v'I’; ~~ym«. .. >. .—. .., «um. v. .-mu. Environmental Impact Assessment Report 1.1 1.2 1.3 capacity reservoirs which can easily be connected with the existing system and also to serve the future growth corridors of Karachi. With the planned acquisition of a 1000 feet corridor ROW during the first phase of K-IV which is being declared as area reserved for K-IV system in the Karachi Master Plan, ample space shall be reserved to undertake all phases of K-IV system with supply of 650 MGD of water, covering the needs of Karachi for the next 20 years. Hence having the capacity to accommodate a conveyance system capable of additional 1430 MGD to Karachi good for the needs of Karachi for an additional 30 years i. e. till 2050. K-IV corridor construction involves preparation of site, siphon and transition structures, pumping stations, canal, bank, lining, service roads, and regulators. It will also include the machinery like pumps, motors, mechanical screens, band screens, besides equipment and machinery for filtration, chlorination, and other related processes. NAME OF THE PROJECT The Corridor which will supply the bulk water to the Karachi city is named as “Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV Project”; the Karachi water and Sewerage Board (KW&SB) is the proponent of the project. PROJECT PROPONENT The Karachi Water & Sewerage Board is a consumer oriented utility service organization responsible for production, transmission and distribution of potable water to the citizens of Karachi. It also manages sewerage system within the city to ensure hygienic environment. It also develops scheme to cover shortfalls in services and collection of revenues for sustainable economic viability. K-IV project is going to address the problem of acute shortage of water in the city. PROJECT LOCATION K— IV Corridor is located in Karachi and Thatta Districts. It is approximately 124 km long which falls in the north of the existing K—| | & K—| || corridor. Furthermore, it extends in east-west direction from Kinjhar Lake to Karachi. It starts from Kohistan chak no. 2 (Thatta) and ends to Deh Allah Phihai Goth (Gadap town, Karachi). Page - 2
  25. 25. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi xs§L4—i—l-OSMANI sna. ... —n; m. ... ... ..7.. r.. ., n. .,T, vnam, Environmental Impact Assessment Report K- IV PROJECT SITE xérvrnour: Hedero Lake umji Lulu Roads [? '_ K-IV Reservoirs N C Rallway Track ' ' L. ..” 4 K-IV Roult ‘ mm»; A -—- K—lV crmnaoo [2 Town Boundary 0 3 5 11 15 =4 I 2 WV Allisnmnfl Buffer (:1 District Boundary Kilometers Figure 1-1: K-IV Water Supply Scheme Project Location 1.3.1. Environmental Settings 1.4 The K-IV Corridor will originate from Kinjhar Lake (Thatta), which is a wetland that declared as Wildlife Sanctuary and Ramsar Site as well. Moreover, it terminates at Goth Khairo Brohi near Northern Bypass. The topography of the area generally varied with elevation from 60 to 150 m. The natural vegetation in the area is scattered and mostly comprises of bushes and herbs with less faunal diversity. Ecologically the area may be divided into four ecological zones; including, Plains, Mountains, River Valleys and Wetlands. In addition, some dense pockets of agricultural fields are also found in the area which falls in Thatta district. With semi- arid climate, the project area mainly devoid of rainfall. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT The project area starts from the Kinjhar Lake (Thatta). Kinjhar Lake is spread over the area of 13,468 ha which is surrounded by a buffer zone of 5km radius. It is located at approximately 68°03‘E, 24°56'N at 70 m above mean sea level. Kinjhar Lake has a catchment of approximately 900 km2 which collects runoff from area between the Baran Nai basin (in north) and Malir basin (in west). The Kinjhar catchment extends north of the Karachi—Hyderabad National Highway and includes Kalu Khuhar. It is also in a natural depression, and its storage has been increased by approximately 20 km of embankments with maximum heights of 9 meters. Because of excessive seepage through the southern part of this embankment, the present top water level of the lake is held at about 51.6 ft RL, giving a maximum useable storage (down to 41 ft RL) of 125.45 ha. Raising the Top water level to its original design value of 54.0 Page-3
  26. 26. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. iL44—1lE30SMAN| ‘J7m-v'I’; ~~ym«. .. >. .—. .., «um. v. .-mu. Environmental Impact Assessment Report 1.4.1. 1.4.2. ft RL increases the useable storage to 157.828 ha with the surface area of the lake approximately 30,000 acres. The K-IV corridor is parallel to the National Highway with the distance of 7 km at initial stage. The total land of Karachi and Thatta approximately equal to 13,312.9 acres will be acquired for the K-IV project. More than 50 percent required area lies in Karachi District and rest lies in Thatta District. While the total required area for K- IV system is about 10, 410 acres that is distributed for 1000 feet ROW (9,340 acres), Reservoirs and Filter Plants (450 acres), Pumping Stations and Intake Areas (350 acres). This project is based on two stages pumping of water with a system of pumping stations, rising main and canals. In the initial phase of the project acquisition of 1000 ft corridor is planned. Ample space shall be reserved to undertake all the five phases of K-IV system with supply of 650 MGD covering needs of Karachi for next 20 years. Furthermore, the corridor shall still have future reservation area to undertake five additional future phases beyond K-IV project. Hence having the capacity to supply additional 1430 MGD to Karachi which will serve the water supply needs of Karachi for an additional 30 years. The proposed project includes designing, construction, operation as well as the proposed route maintenance. The corridor will have two pumping stations. Each pumping station contains four pumps having capacity of 33 MGD each, plus two stands by pumps with a depth of 100 ft. Main Advantages of Project 0 Stimulation of Local Economy and Employment Opportunities 0 Infrastructural Improvement 0 Improved Water quality o Reduction of water borne diseases 0 Potential Tourist attraction o Goods 8: Services Understanding the project activities Project activities will be collected from the TOR, inception report, feasibility report, interim report, final report and discussion with the client. After reviewing all the project details and essential information of the project a conclusion will be described. The project detail is provided in Chapter—5 of this report. Page—4
  27. 27. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. iL44—1lE30SMAN| ‘J7m-v'I’; ~~ym«. .. >. .—. .., «um. v. .-mu. Environmental Impact Assessment Report 1.5 1.5.1. 1.5.2. 1.5.3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) According to Pakistan Environmental Act, 1997 every project should go through with IEE or EIA, depending on Schedule it may fall. The IEE mainly includes preliminary environmental review in order to determine if the proposed project may lead to adverse environmental and socio—economic impacts and thus needs to undergo an EIA. The EIA report is required to be submitted to the concerned environmental protection agency (EPA) prior to start of construction work. Regulatory Requirement EIA is the mandatory requirement in most of the countries. In this context, Section 12 of Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 and Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Review of IEE/ EIA) Regulations 2000 require that every new development project in Pakistan has to be proceeded by an Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) depending upon the magnitude of the project and severity of impacts anticipated at the time of commissioning of the project. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency PEPA (Review of IEE/ EIA) Regulations 2000 categorize projects into two separate schedules depending on whether a project requires an; 0 IEE (Schedu| e—| ) 0 E| A(Schedu| e— II) The Regulations also require that all projects located near an environmentally sensitive areas need submission of an EIA. K-IV project both in terms of the project and sensitivity of the project demands an EIA. Main Objectives The key objective of this EIA study is to evaluate the proposed activities according to the given guidelines of PEPA standards. In addition, EIA is to evaluate the adverse impacts of this project on the environment of lake and its surroundings. Specially, impacts during the construction and operational phases of the project will be evaluated. On the basis of the above mentioned tasks following objectives of EIA has been set forth: Objectives of EIA To assess the existing environmental and social baseline conditions of the project site; Identify the likely impacts of the proposed project on the natural and socioeconomic environment, predict and evaluate these impacts quantitatively wherever possible and determine their significance in the light of technical and regulatory concerns, as well as those related to public perceptions; Page—5
  28. 28. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi xs§I—4—i—10SMANI em. ..-n; ~m. m.. ..7.w. ; nwjw v. .~. u-om Environmental Impact Assessment Report 1.6 1.7 To analyze the impacts of design and construction phases of K-IV project for the adverse environmental impacts; Propose mitigation measures for potential negative impacts of the project during the construction and operational phases; To develop an Environmental Management Plan (EM P) for the mitigation of adverse environmental impacts; and To draft an EIA report for submission to the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES Alternative proposed routes will also be reviewed for study the all outcomes. A review and analysis of these alternatives has been provided in Chapter 5 of this report. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR EIA STUDY In this EIA, a comprehensive methodology is adopted on the basis of primary and secondary data sources (Figure 1-2). Screening and scoping of the project will decide the fate of EIA. The baseline studies provided the existing conditions of the project area and record of the environmental characteristics. The probable impacts are outlined in the chapter 7, whereas, at the end a comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (EMP) has been annexed. At various stages, the feedback of KW&SB has been sought and incorporated accordingly. Screening C> St-opting / I‘k>s«-rfptinn and evaliintion of Impact Prediction Brtseliue slmlies Mitigation and I Monitoring l’I'opos. wIs rind Prescriptions Presentnfion of Findings of the EIA J_ Public Hearing <1 Drnfl Report 0 Tr-clinical Rr-view I / T? _ > Monitor-ing Figure 1-2: Components of EIA 1.7.1. Screening Screening is mainly divided into two sections. i) Placement of Project in an appropriate category i-e. EIA or IEE and ii) review of relevant legislation. Page—6
  29. 29. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. iL44—1lE30SMAN| ‘J1m-v'I1; ‘l”7Iit(‘iIH >. .—. .., tum. we-mm. Environmental Impact Assessment Report 1.7.2. 1.7.3. Screening is the process of deciding on whether an EIA is required. Alternatively it may be based on site—specific information. Guidelines for whether or not an EIA is required will be country specific depending on the laws or norms in operation. Legislation often specifies the criteria for screening and full EIA. All major donors screen projects presented for financing to decide whether an EIA is required. Scoping Scoping is defined as the process of determining what are the most critical issues to the study and will involve community participation through public consultation. It is at this early stage that EIA can most strongly influence the outline of the proposal. Establishing Baseline Environment For the collection of baseline information following data will be gathered. a) Review of Secondary Data Secondary data includes the previous literature with respect to the proposed project. The previous proposed projects for the bulk supply water to Karachi city are also studied. b) Physical Environment Following parameters are used to study the Physical environment: 0 Land Resources 0 Water Resources 0 Water, Air and Noise Quality 0 Natural drainage and storm water; and o Other infrastructure (Public and private) c) Ecological Environment Ecological environment is covered these parameters: o Flora 0 Fauna 0 Migratory Birds 0 Endangered species (both for fauna and flora) d) Social and Cultural Environment Study of Social and Cultural Environment in project will carried out to design the required objectives: c To assess the socio—economic conditions of the Project area; 0 Identification of the potential Project Affected Persons (PAPs) in the project demarcated area; Page—7
  30. 30. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi ‘ Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Karachi $‘. :*L‘“‘—‘Ea°sMAN' _ «M. .. sr. .. W. .. I. ... ... . Environmental Impact Assessment Report 0 To ensure adequate public/ stakeholder consultations and participation; and o To identify the effects on the natural resources of the local community due to the implementation of the Project. e) Public Consultations Moreover, public consultations were conducted with the residents and stakeholders of the proposed project site during various field visits. 1') Field Data Collection Field data collection is carried out by the EIA Team. Specifically primary data and authenticated secondary dataset were collected for the various field studies. Detailed information based on environmental conditions related to physical, biological and socio—economic environment will be provided in further Chapters of this EIA report. g) Community Consultation The communities around the project area were consulted through interviews during field work. The main objectives of public consultation are to describe the community about the proposed project, its outcomes and note down their views and concerns about this project. Chapter 6 contains details about public consultation. h) Analysis of Data After collection of primary and secondary data a critical analysis will be made to evaluate the baseline conditions of the environment. o Physical environment: topography, geology, soils, surface and groundwater resources and climate; 0 Biological environment: habitat, flora and fauna; o Socio-economic environment: settlements, socio—economic conditions, infrastructure and land use; 0 Heritage aspects: sites of cultural, religious, archeological or historical significance. 1.7.4. Identification and Assessment of Impacts Environmental Impacts and effects of the proposed project have been evaluated on the bases of primary and secondary data sources and documented in Chapter 7. The physical, biological and socio—economic environments were main indicators for the assessment of this EIA study. Furthermore, it will be extended to the secondary data and expert's opinion. The details will be described in the Chapter—4. 1.7.5. Mitigation and Monitoring Page—8
  31. 31. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi xs§I—4—i—10SMANI em. ..-n; ~m. m.. ..7,w. ; nmjw Va-wvurnm Environmental Impact Assessment Report 1.7.6. 1.7.7. 1.8 Mitigation prescribed actions taken to prevent, avoid, reduce or minimize the impacts, or potential adverse effects, of a project. Monitoring of environmental conditions has been recommended for the future impacts of the construction and operation phases. The measures have to be taken at the project site will be necessary and continuous. Procedures are required for both active and inactive monitoring, which includes information regarding environmental damage and prevent future hazards. Development of Environmental Management Plan Development of Environmental Management Plan is a site specific plan which ensures that all necessary measures are identified and implemented in order to protect the environment and comply with environmental legislation. Before commencing the operation of a project, submission of environmental management plan (EMP) is mandatory under section 14 of IEE/ EIA Regulations 2000. Preparing Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan An environmental health and safety management plan will be developed for the risk reduction at the project site. Institutional capacity and agencies responsible for the implementation of maintenance was also reviewed and proposed the effective management, document, communication and monitoring plan for the effectiveness. STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT The structure of document is as follows: Chapter 1 Presents the background, objectives, scope and approach and methodology adopted for the study; Chapter 2 Describes the legislative and policy framework governing the project; Chapter 3 Provides an overall description of project; Chapter 4 Provides general environmental and social baseline conditions of the project; Chapter 5 Analysis of alternatives; Chapter 6 Summarizes the main concerns raised by stakeholders during various public consultations; Chapter 7 Screening of environmental impacts of the project and appropriate mitigation measures; Chapter 8 Provides an environmental management and monitoring plan; Chapter 9 Provides conclusions and recommendations. Page-9
  32. 32. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi . Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi 691-‘“‘—LE3°sMAN' . (Iv--IV-V; A-trvnou-n Pw-‘N Mlw-nu Vornuolvr Environmental Impact Assessment Report 1.9 The EIA Study Team 1. Mr. Arif Osmani Director ( Mapping/ GIS/ Environment) Dr. Jamil Kazmi Team Leader (Geograph er/ Social Scientist) 3. Dr. Ghazala Rubab Environmental Engineer Dr. M. H. Arsalan GIS Specialist 5. Dr. Saima Shaikh Ecologist Ms. Farheen Khanum Senior Environmentalist Ms. lbtasama Tamiz Junior Environmentalist M. Abdul Jabbar Junior Environmentalist Mr. Shahbaz khan Mr. Yawar Abbas Field Surveyor Field Surveyor Page-10
  33. 33. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. iL44—1lE30SMAN| ‘J7rvrv'I’; ~~m. «.. . >. .—. .., «um. v. .-mu. Environmental Impact Assessment Report 2 2.1 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, LEGISLATION & GUIDELINE As the first step of screening major legislation, rules and protocols have been reviewed and discovered in the following section: NATIONAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY The National Conservation Strategy (NCS) is the primary policy document of the Government of Pakistan (GoP) on national environmental issues. The Strategy approved by the Federal Cabinet in March 1992 was also recognized by International Financial Institutions, principally the World Bank. The NCS had identified 14 core areas including conservation of biodiversity, pollution prevention &abatement, soil &water conservation and preservation of cultural heritage. It had also recommended immediate attention to the stated core areas in order to preserve the environment of Pakistan. A mid—term review of the NCS in 2000 concluded that achievements under the NCS were primarily awareness raising and institutional building rather than meaningful improvement of the environment and natural resources and that the NCS was neither designed nor adequately focused as a national sustainable development strategy (GoP, November 2002). Thus the need for a more focused National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) was formulated and approved by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council in 2001 to practically improve the national environment with emphasis on poverty reduction, and economic as well as sustainable development. NEAP now constitutes the national environmental agenda and its core objective is to initiate actions that would safeguard public health, promote sustainable livelihoods and enhance the quality of life of the people of Pakistan. The Government of Pakistan GoP and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have jointly initiated an umbrella support programme called the NEAP—Support Programme that was signed in October 2001 and implemented in 2002. The development objective supported by NEAP support programme is environmental sustainability and poverty reduction in the context of economic growth. The objectives of new policy have total 171 guidelines on sectoral and cross sectoral issues. The objectives of new policy include assurance of sustainable development and safeguard of natural wealth of country. The following are the approved Sectoral Guidelines, most of these guidelines are very important to consider in a bulk water supply project such as K-IV scheme: o Water Supply and Management 0 Air Quality and Noise Page—11
  34. 34. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From l(injhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. iL44—1lE30SMAN| ‘J7rvrv'I’; ~~m. «.. . >. .—. .., «um. v. .-mu. Environmental Impact Assessment Report 2.2 2.3 0 Waste Management o Forestry o Biodiversity and Protected Areas o Climate Change and Ozone Depletion 0 Energy Efficiency and Renewable resources 0 Agriculture and Livestock 0 Multilateral Environmental Agreements 0 Biodiversity Action Plan The key to protection of the biological heritage of Pakistan lies in the involvement of local people and in the support provided by competent institutions for conservation and sustainable use. The Government of Pakistan has recognized the importance of these measures in the preparation of National Conservation Strategy and in becoming a signatory to, and ratifying, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994. Developing the Biodiversity Action Plan for Pakistan in the year 2000 has been the most significant direct steps towards addressing the biodiversity loss. PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (REVIEW OF IEE/ EIA) REGULATIONS 2000 The PEPA review of IEE and EIA regulations 2000, prepared by the PEPA under the powers conferred upon it by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, provide the necessary details on the preparation, submission and review of the IEE/ EIA. These regulations classify projects on the basis of expected degree of severity of environmental impacts and list them in two separate schedules. 0 Schedule-I lists projects that may not have significant environmental impacts and require an IEE. o Schedu| e—| | lists projects of potentially significant environmental impacts requiring preparation of an EIA. THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS (NEQS) The NEQS were first promulgated in 1993 and were last revised in 2000. They comprise the basic guidelines for liquid effluent and gaseous emissions of municipal and industrial origin to comply with. These standards present the maximum allowable concentration for liquid effluent before its discharge into sea, inland water 8: sewage (total 32 parameters to comply with) and gaseous emissions in the ambient air from industrial sources (total 16 parameters to comply with). During the construction and operation phase of the project NEQS will apply to all effluents and emissions. NEQS for municipal and industrial effluents, selected gaseous pollutants from industrial sources, motor vehicle exhaust and noise, Page—12
  35. 35. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi A Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi &’L‘—‘—‘°sMAN' W. .. . ... ... ... .. ... , . ... ... ., . ..~. ... ,. Environmental Impact Assessment Report ambient air quality and ambient noise and drinking water quality have been provided in the PEPA 1997 Act. Table 2-1: Drinking Water Quality Standards as o 3 ('7 ID 3 R’ N L". o 3 VI 0'. ‘ W 3 a. 9’: o. (H USEPA (mg/ ll Parameters E : i: 0 Chemical Parameters Aluminium (Al) 0.05-0.02 Ammonium (N H3) Antimony (Sb) Arsenic (As) Barium (Ba) Boron (B) Cadmium (Cd) Chloride (Cl) Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu) Cyanide (CN) Fluoride (F) Iron (Fe) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) Molybdenum (Mo) Nickel (Ni) Nitrate (N03) Nitrite (N02) Selenium (Se) Silver (Ag) Sodium (Na) Sulphate (S03) Residual Chlorine Zinc (Zn) hysical Parameters 7 U) 0.006 0.05 U) 9.0 I'‘. ‘3 O uJl U'| IJ o 0 1 2 '7‘ IV I-l I-I 8 9 20 1 Z U) 2 U) IJ N Z .0!" In cum NF’ .02 .0 . °!‘. ‘3 2!” Z Oi- i-V3 cu i. ic>i- O 3 5 cu U1 . °iA" A I” oo "‘ '0 ow“: .0 9-‘ N Lulu 53 I-'* 0 U1 U1 M II E E E — — — — as 5*’ 0 U1 0 ‘D (3 I e O -I 5 15 TCU Non Objectionable] Acceptable Non Objectionable] Acceptable < 5 NTU < 500 mg/ l < 1000 6.5-8.5 28 Taste 3TON 30 1 Turbidity Total hardness TDS 0.5-5.0 NTU W ‘§ Page-13
  36. 36. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. iL44—4lE3OSMANI ‘J-1m-v'r; ~»m. «r. . >. .—. .., Hannrrq . (~mm. ,. Environmental Impact Assessment Report Concentration Standards Parameters NEQs WHO USEPA (me/ I) (mg/ I) (mg/ I) Biological Parameters 35 Total Coliforms 2.4 Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample Source: 5.R. O. 1062(I)/2010 (The Gazette of Pakistan) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY 2005 The National Environment Policy (NEP) aims to protect, conserve and restore Pakistan's environment in order to improve the quality of life of the citizens through sustainable development. Some of the objectives are directly relevant to bulk water supply schemes. The objectives of the Policy are: a) Conservation, restoration and efficient management of environmental resources. b) Integration of environmental considerations in policy making and planning processes. c) Capacity building of government agencies and other stakeholders at all levels for better environmental management. d) Meeting international obligations effectively in line with the national aspirations. e) Creation of a demand for environment through mass awareness and community mobilization. The NEP also addresses the issues of clean drinking water and gave certain recommendations in order to provide sustainable access to safe water supply and conserve the water resources. The effectively manage and country's recommendations are to! a) Develop a legal and policy framework for promotion of safe drinking water in Pakistan. b) Increase coverage of water supply and water treatment facilities. c) Establish a water quality monitoring and surveillance system. d) Make installation of water treatment plants as an integral component of all drinking water supply schemes. e) Promote | ow—cost water treatment technologies at the community and household levels. Page—14
  37. 37. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. ~iL44—1lE30SMAN| ‘J7m-v'I’; ~~mr«. .. >. .—. .., «um, i. .-mu. Environmental Impact Assessment Report 2.5 2.6 f) Promote appropriate technologies for rain water harvesting in rural as well as urban areas. g) Encourage artificial recharge of groundwater in arid and semi—arid areas. h) Promote metering of water consumption to discourage the indiscriminate use of water for industrial and municipal purposes. i) Enact Water Conservation Act and relevant standards to foster water conservation. j) Promote integrated watershed management. k) Monitor sustained freshwater flows into the marine eco—systems. I) Establish standards for classification of surface water bodies. m) Launch phased programs for cleanup and gradual upgradation of the quality of water bodies. PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL ACT, 2014 The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 2014 is the basic legislative tool empowering the government to frame regulations for the protection of environment. However, this legislation is still pending in National Assembly. The Act is broadly applicable to air, water, soil and noise pollution, as well as to handling of hazardous wastes. Penalties have been prescribed for those who contravene the provisions of the Act. The powers of the Federal and Provincial Environmental Protection Agencies (EPAs) were also considerably enhanced under this legislation and they have been given the power to conduct inquiries into possible breaches of environmental laws either of their own accord, or upon the registration of a complaint. Under section 12 of Act, no project involving construction activities or any change in the physical environment can be commence unless the fulfillment of prerequisite i. e. to conduct IEE or EIA and a report submitted to the Federal or Provincial EPA. SINDH WILDLIFE PROTECTION ORDINANCE, 1972 AND AMENDMENTS 2001 This ordinance provides for the preservation, protection, and conservation of wildlife by the formation and management of protected areas and prohibition of hunting wildlife species declared protected under the ordinance. The ordinance also specifies three broad classifications of the protected areas: 0 National Parks; 0 Wildlife Sanctuaries; and 0 Game Reserves. Activities such as hunting and breaking of land for mining are prohibited in national parks, as are removing vegetation or polluting water flowing through the park. Wildlife sanctuaries are areas that have been set aside as undisturbed breeding Page—15
  38. 38. Detailed Design and Construction Supervision of Greater Karachi Bulk Water Supply Scheme, K-IV From Kinjhar Lake To Karachi ss‘. ~iL44—1lE30SMAN| ‘J7m-v'I’; ~~mr«. .. >. .—. .., «um, i. .-mu. Environmental Impact Assessment Report 2.7 grounds and cultivation and grazing is prohibited in the demarcated areas. Nobody is allowed to reside in a wildlife sanctuary and entrance for the general public is by special dispensation. However, these restrictions may be relaxed for scientific purpose or betterment of the respective area on the discretion of the governing authority in exceptional circumstances. Game reserves are designated as areas where hunting or shooting is not allowed except under special permits. Two amendments to the Ordinance were issued in January and June 2001 respectively pertaining to oil and gas exploration activities within national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. The first amendment allowed the Government to authorize the laying of an underground pipeline through protected areas. The second amendment allowed exploration and production activities within national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. The K-IV project Route Karachi’s ecosystem which includes the Project site falls in a protected area or wildlife sanctuary. Legalization of hunting on disappearing creatures in Pakistan and specifically the hunting of houbara bustard has been allowed as the preservation method for local wild animal habitat. However, because of the lukewarm attitude of the authorities that be, this method of conservation has failed in its mission. The wildlife department is hardly able to monitor the actual number of animal or bird killed as against the legally allowed numbers, and that makes it hard to control the trophy hunters. Big—game hunting is banned in Pakistan vide the above regulations, except in community controlled areas with an existing limitation on exact kinds and numbers of species as well as countries they can be exported in. There is decline in such species as cranes, geese, storks, pelicans, and houbara bustards, which are migratory birds. THE IUCN RED LIST Some animal species are already extinct in Pakistan, and many are internationally threatened. The 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals classifies 37 species and 14 sub—species of mammals that occur in Pakistan as internationally threatened or near threatened. The Red List is based on field data that is more than 10 to 15 years old and needs to be reassessed. The country also provides critical habitat to 25 internationally threatened bird species and 10 internationally threatened reptile species. According to the National Avian Research Centre in Abu Dhabi, with houbara's birth rate of 5 percent a year and if number of houbara keeps decreasing at the same rate with more than 6,000 being bagged by hunting parties and more than 4000 Page—16

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