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WW1 Passcehdaele: The Story of Captain Lawrence Jones

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WW1 Passcendaele: The Story of Captain Lawrence Jones This ppt tells the story of the son of Rev Gustavus Jones of St Paulinus church, Crayford, Kent. It cover the story of his family and himself up to his death at Passchendaele in 1917

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WW1 Passcehdaele: The Story of Captain Lawrence Jones

  1. 1. The Story of Captain Lawrence Jones A Field of Mud Passchendaele 1917 Canadian War Museum
  2. 2. Source 1: 1851 Census Heath House Headley Surrey Name Age William Champs Jones 58 Louisa Ann Jones 43 Louisa Jane Jones 22 Fanny M Jones 9 Maria Jones 17 Esther Jones 8 Alfred G Jones 8 Carroline A Jones 4 Gustavus J Jones 3 Edward S Jones 1 Elizabeth C Thomas 24 Henry Faithful 28 Headley Surrey in Ecclesiastical District of Winchester Name Relation Age Occupation Where Born William Champion Jones Head 58 Director of Joint Stock Bank Norfolk Yarmouth Louisa Jane Jones Wife 43 Copenhagen British Subject Louisa Jane Jones Dau 22 Mexico British Subject Servants of William Champion Jones Esq Phoebe Gatton 21 Servant Ann Quel 20 Servant Mary An Wickenden 19 Servant Mary Childs 18 Servant 1851 Census National Archives
  3. 3. Lawrence Jones Family Lawrence Jones father, Gustavus Jones gained his unusual first name from his Danish mother Louisa Ann who was from Copenhagen the capital city of Denmark. The family lived in an elite area of Surrey, Headley known as “Little Switzerland” in a large mansion house known as Heath House with sweeping views of the surrounding countryside. Peter DanielPeter Daniel
  4. 4. Source 2(a) : Grandfather William Champion Jones London Evening Standard - Wed 21 Oct 1863 The London and South American Bank (later the London Bank of Mexico and South America) was a British bank founded in London in 1863 which opened its first subsidiary in August 1863 in Lima. It became the principal bank in South America and issued notes for 5, 25, 100 and 1000 pesos Dublin Evening Post - Tues 23 Dec 1823 Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1820 a number of British Merchant banks took stakes in Mexican silver mines and in two foreign loans issued on behalf of the new government. Mexico had been the main country supplying Europe’s precious metals for centuries. William Champion Jones seized the opportunity to make his fortune.
  5. 5. Source 2(b) : Grandfather William Champion Jones William Champion Jones set off from Veracruz, Mexico on May 6th 1842. This port had been the place where galleons laden with silver had set off for Mexico’s imperial conqueror Spain. Now William Champion Jones was returning to Engalnd with his fortune made. Immigrant Passenger Lists National Archives
  6. 6. Source 3: 1861 Census 1 Queen’s Gardens Paddington Name Age William C Jones 68 Louisa A Jones 53 Louisa J Jones 31 Henry G Jones 24 Esther J Jones 18 Alfred G Jones 16 Caroline V Jones 14 Gustavus Jones 13 Edward S Jones 11 Charles F Jones 9 Edward S Jones 17 Johnson Gilbert 22 Mary Marton 32 Matilda Kelly 27 Elizabeth Sumerton 28 Henrietta M Harvey 20 The Jones family were very wealthy and able to live a life of luxury in a London town house at 1 Queen’s Gardens Paddington. They kept their country home, Heath House. 1861 Census National Archives
  7. 7. Source 4: 1871 Census 33 Queen’s Gardens Paddington Name Age Occupation William C Jones 78 Bank Director Louisa A Jones 63 Louisa J Jones 42 Charlotte G Jones 35 Esther J Jones 28 Gustavas J Jones 23 BA Cambridge Student Edward F Jones 21 Clerk Charles F Jones 19 Clerk William Champion Jones moved along the same street from number 1 to number 33 Queen’s Gardens. 1871 Census National Archives
  8. 8. D A c B E Source 4: 1871 Census 33 Queen’s Gardens Paddington Name Age Occupation 1) Mary Ann Hoggett 39 Cook 2) Ann Nicholas 24 House Maid 3) Sarah Wood 24 House Maid 4) Eliza Henson 22 Kitchen Maid 5) Charles Hy Gilbert 25 Footman –A Victorian Town House
  9. 9. Source 5: Charles Booth Poverty Map of London 1889 Booth Map Westminster Archives
  10. 10. Source 6:Death of Grandfather William Champion Jones When William Champion Jones died in 1876 at the age of 83 his son Gustavus had finished his studies at Cambridge when he had trained to become an Anglican priest. At the age of 28 he now had to forge a life of his own and accept a very different life than he had at Queen’s Gardens. St Mary’s Headley Surrey burial records 18766187/1/4 Surrey History Centre England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1966 Principle Registry
  11. 11. Source 7: 1881 Census 32 Smith Square Westminster 32 Smith Square Westminster Name Age Occupation Where born Henry Poole 77 Master Mason Middx Westminster Harriet A Poole 49 No Occupation Do Henry E Poole 41 Bank Clerk Do Elisabeth M Poole 34 School Mistress Do Walter George Sellers 14 Apprentice short hand writer Do Catherine Kelly 34 Domestic Servant Ireland Mary Kelly 14 Domestic Servant Ireland Gustavus Jones 33 Curate of St John’s Westminster Glamorgan Swansea Church passage now maintained in adjoining streets Smith Square was close to a crime ridden area known of Westminster known as the Devil’s Acre. The contrast between this area and Queen’s Gardens would have been quite dramatic for Gustavus Jones. 1881 Census National Archives Booth Map Westminster Archives
  12. 12. St John's Smith Square St John's Smith Square is a former church in the centre of Smith Square, Westminster, London. Sold to a charitable Trust as a ruin following firebombing in the Second World War, it was restored as a concert hall. This Grade I listed church was designed by Thomas Archer and was completed in 1728. It is often referred to as 'Queen Anne's Footstool' because as legend has it, when Archer was designing the church he asked the Queen what she wanted it to look like. She kicked over her footstool and said 'Like that!', giving rise to the building's four corner towers. Charles Dickens, in Our Mutual Friend, described it as appearing to be "some petrified monster, frightful and gigantic, on its back with its legs in the air". However today St John's is regarded as one of the masterpieces of English Baroque architecture. Gustavus Jones former home, 32 Smith Square later became the headquarters of the Conservative Party and is now the London base of the European Commission.. St John’s Smith Square Westminster Archives
  13. 13. Source 8(a): A Curate in the Devil’s Acre Smith Square was close to a crime ridden area known of Westminster known as the Devil’s Acre. Gustavus Jones worked as a curate or assistant to the vicar Archdeacon Jennings. Helping the poor of the area through education was seen as a key task. The One Tun Ragged School, Perkins Rents, c.1870 Museum of LondonWestminster Archives
  14. 14. The Devil’s Acre Westminster The Devil's Acre was a notorious slum near Westminster Abbey in Victorian London. The Devil's Acre was on and behind Old Pye Street, Great St Anne's Lane (now St Ann's Street) and Duck Lane (now St Matthew Street) in the parish of Westminster St Margaret and St John. In the 19th century it was considered one of the worst areas of London — in 1850 Charles Dickens called it The Devil's Acre in Household Words. Cardinal Wiseman coined the word slum to describe its streets. In recent times the area which formed the parish that Gustavus Jones worked in as a curate was used as a setting for the computer game Assassin’s Creed. “….the moral plague-spot not only of the metropolis, but also of the kingdom.” Charles Dickens Household Words 1850 Gustave Doré for Douglas Jerrold's "London” Westminster Archives
  15. 15. Source 8(b): A Curate in the Devil’s Acre Smith Square was close to a crime ridden area known of Westminster known as the Devil’s Acre. The contrast between this area and Queen’s Gardens would have been quite dramatic for Gustavus Jones.
  16. 16. Source 9: Rev Gustavus Jones’s Marriage Certificate 295 January 30th 1890 Gustavus John Jones Ethel Annie Angus Full Full Bachelor Spinster Clerk in Holy Orders Christchurch Vicarage Forest Hill Kent Low Gosforth Hall William Champion Jones George Angus Gentleman Gentleman General Registry Office 1890 Marriage solemnised at the Parish Church in the parish of Gosforth in the county of Northumberland
  17. 17. Source 10: Lawrence Jones’s Birth Certificate 375 Fourth March 1895 Christ Church Vicarage Forest Hill Lawrence Henry Boy Gustavus John Jones Ethel Annie Jones formerly Angus Clerk in Holy Orders G J Jones Father Christchurch Vicarage Forest Hill Sixth April 1895 George Philips Registrar General Register Office
  18. 18. Source 11: 1901 Census Vicarage South Road Forest Hill The Vicarage South Road Forest Hill London Name Age Occupation Where born Gustavus J Jones 53 Clerk in Holy Orders Wales Swansea Ethel A Jones 37 No Occupation Northumberland Wallsend Lawrence H Jones 9 Kent Forest Hill Basil M Jones 5 Do Colin C Jones 1 Do Elisabeth Deveate 38 Cook Domestic Sussex Seddlescombe Florence C Ashborne 21 Parlour Maid Warwick Wormlighton Francis L Hudson 22 Nurse London Limehouse 1901 Census National Archives Lewisham Archives
  19. 19. Ancient County of Kent Historically, much of what is now the south- east quadrant of London was a suburban and rural part of Kent. However, since the 19th century this urban region has been detached administratively from remaining more rural county. When the County of London was created by the Local Government Act 1888, the new county incorporated part of north west Kent including Forest Hill, Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich and Lewisham. Deptford
  20. 20. South London Press - Saturday 16 October 1880 Source 12: Gustavus Jones in the Community South London Press - Saturday 4 November 1882
  21. 21. Source 13(a): Lawrence Jone’s Education The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  22. 22. Source 13(a): Lawrence Jone’s Education Lawrence Jones started at King’s School Canterbury in September 1901 aged 9 The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  23. 23. Norman Staircase King’s School Canterbury 1908 and 2017 Can you see what is different since my time at the school from 1901- 1908? The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  24. 24. Source 13(b): Lawrence Jone’s Education The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  25. 25. Yates King’s School Canterbury 1906 The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  26. 26. These are the topics that Standards V and VI were meant to study at an ordinary state primary school compared to the subjects on the right that Lawrence studied at King’s School. Look below at ‘trades’ and ‘Familiar Folks.’ Why were ordinary pupils like taught about these particular jobs? Source 13(c): Lawrence Jone’s Education The King’s School Canterbury Archives St Michael’s School Log book 1899 Westminster Archives
  27. 27. Source 13(d): Lawrence Jones’s Education Spence form Grange Hall King’s School Canterbury 1906 The King’s School Canterbury Archives Spence scholars procession King’s School Canterbury 1906 Mint Yard King’s School Canterbury 1908 The Canturian, the King’s School Canterbury magazine, showed that both Lawrence and his brother George Augustus Champion were keen singers like their father. Note the school labelled them Jones I and Jones iiThe King’s School Canterbury Archives The King’s School Canterbury Archives The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  28. 28. Source 14(a): King’s School Spence Form Empire Day 1906 Empire Day was a special day at King’s The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  29. 29. Source 14(b): King’s School Spence Form Empire Day 1906 Spence Form Tuck shop 1906 From where in the Empire did the Rowntree’s chocolate come? The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  30. 30. Source 14(b): King’s School Spence Form Empire Day 1906 From 1898 Rowntrees had their own cocoa plantations in the West Indies Commons
  31. 31. In 1906 Kent County Cricket Club won the County Championship for the first time. Boys like Lawrence at King’s were expected to take a keen interest in cricket which was seen as a suitable pursuit for young gentleman. The British were given to believe the real reason which tipped the balance in their favour in the wars that created the British Empire was the superior character of its young men built in boarding schools like King’s while playing games like cricket. Kent versus Lancashire at Canterbury, 1906 Albert Chevallier Tayler Andrew Brownsword Foundation. Source 14(c): King’s School Spence Form Empire Day 1906
  32. 32. Source 15: King’s School Address Book 1906 Lodon Bridge 1908 From when Lawrence started King’s School Canterbury in 1901 until he left in 1908 his father was the Vicar of St Nicholas Church Southfleet The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  33. 33. Source 16:1911 Census The Rectory Crayford Kent Name Age Occupation 1) Gustavus John Jones 63 Clerk in Holy Orders Rector of Crayford 2) Ethel Annie Jones 47 3) George Angus Champion Jones 20 Farmer 4) Lawrence Henry Jones 19 Grain & shipping wkr 5) Basil Mathwin Jones 15 School 6) Trevor Champion Jones 8 School 8) Richard Wm Morrison 42 Painter manufactuer 9)Annie Gertrude Morrison 43 visitor 10) May Baker 30 Cook domestic 11) Louisa Hewer 29 Parlour maid 12) Dorothy Butler 20 House maid 1911 Census National Archives
  34. 34. St Paulinus Church Crayford The Reverend Gustavus Jones became Rector of St Paulinus, Crayford in 1908 and remained in post until 1926. The church looked quite different than it does today as the church tower was covered in ivy. The Reverend Gustavus Jones and his wife Ethel Annie were at the heart of the Crayford community organising events to raise money for the Crayford National School (now St Paulinus). This included a coronation Day in 1902 (left) and annual Empire Day celebrations (right c 1910) Peter Daniel Crayford Town Archive Crayford Town Archive Cambridge University Alumni
  35. 35. St Paulinus Rectory, Crayford The Reverend Gustavus Jones became Rector of St Paulinus Church Crayford in 1908 and was to remain in post until 1926. This is the rectory where he lived with his wife Ethel Annie and five sons. You can see from the plan it was a substantial house. It was demolished in Crayford Town Archive Crayford Town Archive Crayford Town Archive Crayford Town Archive
  36. 36. St Paulinus Rectory, and Crayford Schools Crayford’s first school had been built in Old Road in 1813. It was for both girls and boys and catered for 150 pupils. A new school for 100 boys was built in Iron Mill Lane, opposite the present site, in 1857 costing £900. In 1931, older pupils - those aged from 11 to 14 - were transferred to the new Central Schools. Disaster struck when the girls' and infants school was hit by a bomb in 1940. The children moved to the boys' school and it became mixed. Pupils continued to use the building until the 1970s. The new St Paulinus CE school was opened in 1973. In 1839 a school exclusively for girls and infants was built on the site of the present St Paulinus Court flats. In 1866 a new infant school was built next the girls' school. When Miss Laura White (headteacher girls' school 1906-1935) began her duties she was full of change and new ideas. She gave treats to girls whose attendance was good, bought lantern-slides, introduced cookery and hockey, covered the walls with bright pictures. Mr Darker (boys' head 1907-1933) expected staff to doff their hats to him each morning. He opened a school library and a school garden with 15 plots for pupils by 1915. Crayford OS Map 1897 Bexley Local Studies and Archives Crayford Town Archive
  37. 37. Source 17: Commuter to the City On leaving King’s School Lawrence Jones found a job as a clerk with a WH Müller & Co, a Dutch shipping, steel and mining company based in Bury Street in the city of London the company used the Baltic Exchange to trade shipping space for cargos like grain. He commuted every day on the train from Forest Hill to London Bridge. Outside of shipping W.H. Muller’s main interests were in mining in Spain and North Africa. Just after Lawrence left them in 1914 the company built the first steel framed office building in Europe. Holland House (inset) is the only building in London designed by Hendrik Petrus Berlage, the foremost Dutch architect of the 20th Century and was erected during WW1 in Holland House London Bridge 1908 Museum of London
  38. 38. War is Declared 4th August 1914 Illustrated London News December 1915 Westminster Reference Library
  39. 39. Source 18: Private Lawrence Jones’s Attestation • The Artists Rifles was established in 1860, in response to a perceived threat of French invasion. Drawn from musicians, architects, actors, authors and intellectuals as well as painters and sculptors, it had its headquarters in Burlington House, behind the Royal Academy. Here drill was held twice daily, with additional manoeuvres and musketry practice on Wimbledon Common and Hampstead Heath. • The group was organised in London by Edward Sterling, an art student, and comprised various professional painters, musicians, actors, architects and others involved in creative endeavours; a profile it strove to maintain for some years. • After the 1860s the voluntary recruitment basis of the regiment gradually broadened to include professions other than artistic ones. By 1893 lawyers and architects made up 24% of the unit, doctors followed with 10% and civil engineers 6%. Sculptors and painters totaled about 5% • The Artists Rifles was one of twenty-eight volunteer battalions in the London and Middlesex areas that combined to form the new London Regiment in April 1908. • Over fifteen thousand men served in the battalion during the First World War, more than ten thousand of them becoming officers. Artist Rifles HQ Dukes Rd Euston National Archives WO 339/30340
  40. 40. Source 19: Private Lawrence Jones’s medical National Archives WO 339/30340 Imperial War Museum
  41. 41. Artist Rifles Uniform Cap badge Button Artists Rifles Shoulder title 28th London Territorial Battalion (Artists Rifles) Illustrated London News Oct 1914 Westminster Reference Library
  42. 42. Source 20: Agreement to Serve overseas What was the Territorial Force? Up to 1908, Britain had a tradition of organising local part-time military units known as the Militia and the Volunteers, with the exception of service during the Boer War in South Africa (1899-1902) they remained at home local defence, units. The 1908 army reforms carried out by Minister of War Richard Haldane replaced them with the Territorial Force. It remained a part-time form of soldiering (hence the nickname "Saturday Night Soldiers"), whose stated role was home defence. Men were not obliged to serve overseas, although they could agree to do so. As the Artist Rifles were part of the Terretorial Force Lawrecne had to sign an agreement to serve abroad with them. National Archives WO 339/30340
  43. 43. Source 21: 28th London Artist Rifles War Diary October 1914 ABBOTS LANGLEY 26.10.14 C F G & H companies paraded at 9.45 and marched to WATFORD and entrained for Southampton SS AUSTRALIND Officers 30, NCOs and men 733, Horses 51, 4 cars, 5 ambulance cars, motorcycles 3 27.10,14 The transport lay in Southampton Water all day and sailed at dusk. 28.10.14 Arrived I Boulogne Harbour National Archives War Diary WO-95-128-4
  44. 44. Source 22:Casualty form active service National Archives WO 339/30340
  45. 45. A 2nd Lieutenant in the 2nd East Surrey Regiment Lawrence became a (one pip) 2nd Lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion East Surrey Regiment Westminster Archives
  46. 46. Source 23(a): Brothers in arms Lawrence’s older brother George Angus Champion Jones began his service in an Officer Training Corps at the Inns Of Court in the City whilst he was working in Bury Street. He then served as an acting Captain in the 7th East Surreys and finally with the Royal Engineers signals National Archives British Army WWI Medal Rolls Index Cards, 1914-
  47. 47. Source 23(b): Brothers in arms Basil Mathwin Jones eventually became a Captain in the King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. He served in Gallipoli and Flanders and ended the war as part of the British Army of Occupation on the Rhine Germany. The Scotsman - Wednesday 1 November 1922 National Archives British Army WWI Medal Rolls Index Cards, 1914- 1920  UK, British Army Lists, 1882-1962
  48. 48. Source 23(c): Brothers in arms Lawrence’s younger brother Colin became a Lance Corporal in the Machine Gun CorpsNational Archives British Army Service records 1914-18 National Archives British Army Service records 1914-18
  49. 49. Source 24: Postcard Home to Reverend Gustavus jones Lawrence sent this postcard home to his father showing him what had happened to some of his friends from the Artist Rifles who had gone to France in October 1914 Peter Daniel 2017
  50. 50. Source 24: Postcard Home to Reverend Gustavus jones Lawrence posted this card back to his father on the 7th May 1915 having just arrived in France. Do you think this is an optimistic or pessimistic card from Lawrence to his father. Peter Daniel 2017
  51. 51. Source 25: 2nd Battalion East Surrey Regt May 1915 Diary The National Archives' reference WO 95/2353/1 Place Date Summary of Events and information October 1917 Remarks HOUTKERQUE 15.5.15 Battalion in Billets Draft of 154 arrived 15th Also Capt G.S.W. Malling. Lts C Mead, J.A. Hart. A.J.T. Fleming Sandes and L
  52. 52. The 2nd Battle of Ypres 1915 The Germans had taken all of Belgium except for 5 mile region around Ypres. In the 2nd Battle of Ypres in 1915 they turned to poisonous gas to try and take Ypres from the French, British and Canadians holding the city The Second Battle of Ypres, 22 April to 25 May 1915 Richard Jack Canadian War Museum
  53. 53. Western Front 1914-18
  54. 54. Ypres- “Wipers” Peter Daniel 2017
  55. 55. Source 26: 2nd Battalion East Surrey Regt May 1915 Diary Place Date Summary of Events and information October 1917 Remarks VLAMERTINGHE 24.5.15 About 3am the whole line held by the battalion was heavily gassed with asphyxicating gasses and the right near the railway attacked. C Company on the right with two companies 8th Middlesex retired and no trace of the company (100 men) has yet been found (30.5.15) Enemy gained some trenches. Casualties Other Ranks Killed 5, wounded 19, missing 157. Admitted to hospital suffering from gas Lieutenant O.M.James 2nd Lieutenant L.Jones The National Archives' reference WO 95/2279/1 • Germans released 160 tons of Chlorine gas • Victim drowned from fluid build in their lungs • French panicked and fled leaving 4 mile gap in the line but Germans too surprised to react • British Soldiers urinate on their handkerchief and hold it to their mouth to protect themselves Chlorine Gas at Ypres April 22 1915
  56. 56. Source 27:Return to Blighty Gassed 2nd Lieutenant Lawrence Jones returned to England aboard the hospital ship HMHS St David. Although hospital ships were clearly marked with the red cross this did not stop them being torpedoed by German U Boats patrolling the Channel. On his return to England Lawrence was given leave and returned to the family homeat the Rectory beside St Pualinus Church. He then had to go up to Westmsinter to appear in front of a medical board at Caxton Hall National Archives WO 339/30340
  57. 57. Source 28:Proceedings of a Medical board On the evening of 22 April 1915, near Ypres, in Belgium, the first gas attack occurred at Ypres. This attack, used chlorine gas. By 20 May 1915, British troops had been issued with a 'Black Veil' mask, which was soaked in a solution of sodium hyposulphate, sodium carbonate, glycerine and water. The Black Veil would provide about five minutes protection against a normal concentration of chlorine, and was suitable as a stopgap defence, but the need for a more reliable respirator was clear. Lieutenant L Jones 2nd East Surrey Regt serving at Ypres on 24th May 1915. the board find that on the date at the place noted this officer was in the trenches when poisonous gas was used by the enemy. He had a respirator which acted well for a time but was soon overcome; coughed a great deal, eyes watery and painful, very weak for days afterwards. Still complains of debility and attacks of dizziness EOC London District Caxton Hall Lawrence had a Black Veil respiratorNational Archives WO 339/30340
  58. 58. Improvements to Gas masks The P helmet, PH helmet and PHG helmet were early types of gas mask issued by the British Army in the First World War, to protect troops against chlorine, phosgene and tear gases. Rather than having a separate filter for removing the toxic chemicals, they consisted of a gas-permeable hood worn over the head which was treated with chemicals. From 1916-18 the British issued the Small Box Respirator to protect against chemical attack
  59. 59. Source 29(a):Patient in a Mayfair Private Hospital Lady Evelyn Mason’s Hospital for Officers 16 Bruton Street 10 VII 15 2nd Lieutenant L Jones This officer was admitted on May 27th into the above hospital with a history of being gassed on May 24th . He had a pain in the chest and coughed a good deal and had a feeling apparently to be drown. He had a medical board on June 3rd . The heart and lungs are now normal but he complains of feeling dizzy after exercise. A Roger jones MD Medical OfficerNational Archives WO 339/30340
  60. 60. Source 29(B):Patient in a Mayfair Private Hospital At the outbreak of WW1 Lady Evelyn Mason (1870-1944) opened a convalescent Hospital for Officers at 16, Bruton Street, off Berkeley Square. It had 30 beds, which were all occupied by December 1914. Later, the Hospital had 50 beds and was affiliated to Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital at Millbank. Lady Evelyn herself acted as Commandant. The Hospital closed in 1918. The building has been replaced by Berkeley Square House, a rented business centre provided by Regus. Queen Elizabeth II was born next door at 17 Bruton Street on 26th April 1926 Lady Evelyn Mason’s Hospital for Officers 16 Bruton Street, Mayfair, W1X 3LB Westminster Archives
  61. 61. Lady Evelyn Mason’s Hospital for Officers 16 Bruton Street After an initial burst of patriotic enthusiasm, finding the money to keep private hospitals running began to worry the rich. By late 1915 this was certainly the case at Lady Evelyn Mason’s Officer Hospital, 16 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Historians have tended to stress the luxury lavished on wounded officers in comparison to rankers and so it seemed first to Captain Roland Pelly, son of the Canon of West Ham. He was wounded at Gallipoli, shot in the mouth: ‘Jaw broken, tongue torn, cannot swallow or speak.’ he found the Bruton Street hospital ‘v. swell. Very nice and comfortable… only fear that it may be too swagger and one may get fussed. One girl nurse had the impudence to say. “Poor weak kiddy: he looks fourteen.” and I am unable to answer back!’ Pelly got on well with the nurses and his medical treatment was first class. But within tow or three weeks those fears of swagger and fuss had flown and the meretriciousness of Bruton Street, ‘the abominations of this place’ had begun to get on his nerves: ‘everything done for Economy and comfort not thought of, nurses quarters a piggery etc Why not 20 beds (instead of 40) decently?’ There were problems over the cold (‘No fire again-O Lady Evelyn!’), over provisions (‘brought some brown sugar which Lady economy cannot run to giving me’) and over the autocratic way ‘this ridiculous house’ was run. ‘Clogg (his surgeon) gave me leave to go away for Sunday by Lady E’s rule is if anyone goes away they stay away-so “that’s that.” It was ‘quite a wrench leaving Bruton Street’ a couple of weeks before Christmas, but this was due to friendships he had forged with some nurses an not regret at leaving Lady Economy and her aristocratic style. Lady Evelyn, no doubt, thought she was doing her best, and the responsibilities must have been a strain on both her purse and her nerves. There was some compensation for Lady Evelyn, though in feeling that ‘her bit’ for the war effort was not insignificant and some satisfaction that this was recognised in the society pages and court circulars and in the conversation of her friends. Zeppelin Nights Jerry White The Tatler - Wed 13 Feb1918
  62. 62. 16 Bruton Street W 2nd Lt L Jones The above officer was gassed on May 24th 1915 and was admitted into Lady Evelyn Mason’s Hospital 16 Bruton Street London W about May 30th . At the time of admission patient had considerable pain in the chest with a good deal of difficulty breathing. Now there are no physical signs in chest or lungs. He is very much improved. Patient however states that for the last four weeks he has suffered from a considerable amount of diarrhoea. His sight in his right eye is poor but he has been presented glasses for this aspect. Yours faithfully A Rodrigues Medical Officer Source 29(c):Patient in a Mayfair Private Hospital National Archives WO 339/30340
  63. 63. Source 30(a): Fit for Duty He is improving Is the Officer fit for General service? No If not fit, how long likely to be unfit? One month Is he fit for service at home? Yes He has recovered Is the Officer fit for General service? Yes National Archives WO 339/30340National Archives WO 339/30340
  64. 64. Source 30(b): Fit for Duty After being passed fit by the Medical Board at Devonport on November 4th 1915 Lawrence was able to spend two years serving at home. This meant he did not have to go back to the Western Front in 1916 and so missed the terrible Battle of the Somme. On the first day, 1st July 1916, nearly 20,000 soldiers were killed including fellow East Surrey Regiment officer Captain Billie Neville. He gave out four footballs for his men to kick over ‘No Man’s Land’ to take their minds off assaulting the German positions at Montauban. Lawrence was fortunate to miss the whole of the Battle of the Somme that ended in November 1916. Captain Billie Neville The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  65. 65. Source 31: COMPANY COMMANDER
  66. 66. In April 1917 Lawrence returned to Flanders just before the Third Battle of Ypres –By the end of WW1 1,700,000 soldiers on both sides were killed or wounded at Ypres and many civilians. Ypres The Cloth Hall Ypres 1918 Imperial War Museum
  67. 67. Why did the British fight the 3rd Battle of Ypres? The 3rd Battle of Ypres is now known as Passchendaele. The British army did not want to fight this battle so soon after its huge casualties at the Battle of the Somme (July-Nov 1916) but events forced it to do so. 1 2 3 2) French Mutiny of 1917 •In April 1917 the French suffered a terrible defeat at the 2nd Battle of the Aisne •French soldiers had heard about the Russian Revolution •30,000 men decided to leave the trenches and walk home •50% of the French army refused to obey orders 3) P.M. Lloyd George was told that unless Zeebrugge was cleared of U Boats Britain would not be able to continue fighting the war in 1918. In Sept 1916, at Zeebrugge, German U-boats sank 50,000 tons of British ships 1) The Russian Revolution •This was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which deposed the Tsar and pulled Russia out of its alliance with Britain and France. •Germany could now focus on winning the war on the Western Front before American soldiers could get into the war
  68. 68. Source 32: 1st Btn. East Surrey Regt. Diary Sept. 1917 Place Date Summary of Events and information September 1917 Meteren 30th Septembe r Fine. A day of rest. Church services in the morning. The Devons and Cornwalls practised the coming attack over a taped course. The commanding officer (Lt Col M.J.Minogue MC) went into the line to reconnoitre. The attack is expected to take place in a few days time. Company Commanders are as follows: No 1 Company Captain H.C. Mason No 2 Company G.J.T. Sanders No 3 Company Captain A.L.Sutton No 4 Company Captain L Jones The National Archives' reference WO 95/1579/1
  69. 69. Source 33: 1st Btn. East Surrey Regt. Diary Sept. 1917Captain Lawrence Jones took the men he commanded from No 4 company  1st  Btn East Surrey Regiment to the Ypres front line at Ridge Wood. The National Archives' reference WO 95/1579/1
  70. 70. Source 33: 1st Btn. East Surrey Regt. Diary Sept. 1917 Cheering troops on B-type converted buses at Arras, France 1917 Imperial War Museum “The Battalion embussed at Meteren at 7am and moved to Ridge Wood (near Ypres).”
  71. 71. Source 34: 1st Btn. East Surrey Regt. Diary Sept. 1917The National Archives' reference WO 95/1579/1
  72. 72. Source 34: 1st Btn. East Surrey Regt. Diary Sept. 1917“Trenches were almost non existent and the men had to settle down in shell holes and scrape what cover they could..” Soldiers of the 16th Canadian machinegun regiment using shell holes as makeshift defences at Passchendaele Ridge. Imperial War Museum
  73. 73. Memorial Tablet Siegfried Sassoon (1886–1967). SQUIRE nagged and bullied till I went to fight, (Under Lord Derby’s Scheme). I died in hell— (They called it Passchendaele). My wound was slight, And I was hobbling back; and then a shell Burst slick upon the duck-boards: so I fell Into the bottomless mud, and lost the light. At sermon-time, while Squire is in his pew, He gives my gilded name a thoughtful stare: For, though low down upon the list, I’m there; ‘In proud and glorious memory’ ... that’s my due. Two bleeding years I fought in France, for Squire: I suffered anguish that he’s never guessed. Once I came home on leave: and then went west... What greater glory could a man desire? Australian soldiers walking over duckboards at Zonnebeke, Flanders, Belgium. 22nd of October 1917. Australian War Memorial. The unusually rainy weather in August/September 1917, made movement much more difficult and forced the British to keep to duck board tracks. This led to many casualties as the Germans found these tracks easy to identify and bombard with their guns Duck Board Tracks
  74. 74. Source 35: 1st Btn.East Surrey Regt. Diary Sept. 1917 The National Archives' reference WO 95/1579/1
  75. 75. Source 36: 1st Btn. East Surrey Regt. Diary Sept. 1917 At 6am on the 4th of October 1917 Captain Lawrence Jones and the 1st Battalion East Surreys supported the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry for an attack on Juniper Hill, which fell in the first rush. They then attempted to take the German positions at Polderhoek Chateau but were unable to do so due to a nest of German machine guns. The Germans then threw eight attacks between the Menin Road and Reutal which pushed the Surreys and the Cornwall’s back, with heavy casualties. During their handover to the Cheshire Regiment (in the dark) the men naturally bunched up keep in touch with each other and it was at this time that there was a sudden “strafe” after which Captain Jones was “reported missing believed killed” in the battalion war diary. The battalion history later describes Captain Jones as an ”excellent officer”. The National Archives' reference WO 95/1579/1
  76. 76. Source 37: Eye Witness Private R.Graham National Archives WO 339/30340
  77. 77. Polderhoek Chateau 1915 1913 1917 Imperial War Museum
  78. 78. Source 38: Obituary: ‘The Cantuarian’ Sevenoaks Chronicle - Fri9 Nov 1917 His commanding officer writes: “He was a very fine soldier, always showed the greatest coolness in action, and always set a high example of devotion to duty.” A Chaplain says: “He had made for himself a great position in the battalion, and his fellow officers always spoke of him with unqualified admiration and affection.” The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  79. 79. Source 39(a):Missing in Action The Rectory Crayford Kent April 11th 1918 Dear Sir, May I ask you to be kind enough to forward me the necessary forms for the purpose of making a claim in regard to the death of my son Captain Lawrecne Jones East Surrey Regiment who has been reported as killed in action in France on October 4th 1917. For a time he was reported as missing believed killed, but later the War Office reported him as killed. Believe me I remain Your obedient servant Gustavus Jones National Archives WO 339/30340 National Archives WO 339/30340
  80. 80. Source 39(b) Missing in action National Army Museum Registers of Soldiers' Final Effects This document shows the compensation paid to Rev Gustavus Jones on 30.8.1917 for Lawrence’s death. It consists of his final balance of pay plus a gratuity paid by the War Office - responsible for the administration of the British Army at this time. War Pensions were received as separate to this amount. Gustavus Jones received £ 153 4 shillings and 7 pence (£153 4s 7d) adjusted roughly for inflation this would be £6,598.05 in today’s money. The average amount according to the National Army Museum paid to a private was £10.35. When taking inflation into account, this is equivalent to just over £445.67 in today's money. Whilst the government was committed to providing financial support to the families of those killed in action, the sheer volume of deaths meant that the sums offered by the War Office seem relatively minor today. National Army Museum 36376 32928/3 Jones Capt L. H. 2 East Surreys Missing since 4.10.17 C P Base Transfer 4179 10/17 30.8.18 5 18 1 153 4 7 National Army Museum
  81. 81. Source 40:Captain Lawrence Jones’s Medals Pip Squeak Wilfred National Archives British Army WWI Medal Rolls Index Cards, 1914- 1920
  82. 82. Source 41(a):In Memoriam King’s School Canterbury Memorial The King’s School Canterbury Archives
  83. 83. Source 41(b):In Memoriam Captain Lawrence Jones is remembered on his father Gustavus’s gravestone in St Paulinus churchyard and by a plaque to the side of the altar in the church. The gravestone epitaph reads: “Nothing in my hand I bring, Simply to thy cross I Sylvia Smith Sylvia Smith Sylvia Smith
  84. 84. The Rev. Gustavus Jones made sure that his son Captain Lawrence Jones was remembered on the Crayford Town War Memorial which is outside of the Crayford Manor House Source 41(c):In Memoriam Peter Daniel Peter Daniel
  85. 85. Source 41(d):In Memoriam Commonwealth War Graves Commission Peter Daniel Captain Lawrence Jones was one of 300,000 British men killed at Passchendaele. 90,000 allied bodies were never identified, 42,000 bodies were never recovered from the mud. When this grave report was compiled on 9th July 1920 the whereabouts of Lawrence’s body was still unknown. Then to the relief of his family it was identified so that he was able to have a proper headstone. Now all of the Jones family could visit his grave in Hooge Crater Cemetery near to where he had died.
  86. 86. Captain Lawrence Jones is remembered with a plaque inside St Paulinus to the side of the altar. Welcome Home! The Stage - Thursday 23 October 1919 Bexley Local Studies and Archives Peter Daniel
  87. 87. How had WW1 changed Crayford? Crayford Ordnance Survey Maps 1861 and 1933 Hiram Maxim’s machine gun led to 15,000 working at Vickers by 1918 193 3 1861 Bexley Local Studies and Archives Bexley Local Studies and Archives Bexley Local Studies and Archives
  88. 88. Source 42: St Paulinus Burial Records- Crayford Town Archive Sylvia Smith Bexley Local Studies and Archives
  89. 89. Confusion about the date of Lawrence’s death The Rectory Crayford Kent 12.12.1917 The Secretary War Office Sir Re Captain Lawrence Jones 1st East Surrey Regiment The kit bag of the above officer who is my son and was reported “missing believed killed on October 6th 1917” is in the possession of Messrs Cox and Co Army Agents Charing Cross. I am given to understand I have your permission to claim the same and shall be grateful if you will give the matter your kind attention. I believe the actual date he was believed to be killed is October 4th 1917. I am Sir Your obedient servant Gustavus jones Rector of Crayford Kent War Office stamp 14th December 1917 National Archives WO 339/30340
  90. 90. Did Captain Lawrence Jones die in vain? December 5th 1918 The Secretary War Office South Kensington Sir, I beg to thank you for the cheque £159.5.11 received from the Army funds in connection with the estate of our dear son Captain Lawrence Jones East Surrey Regiment. He died gloriously without him our home can never be the same: but we thank God, the cause for which he fell, the cause of liberty, righteousness has been completely vindicated and that the sacrifice of the flower of our country’s youth has not been in vain. I am your obedient servant Gustavus Jones rector of Crayford Kent National Archives WO 339/30340
  91. 91. EPITAPHS OF THE WAR “Equality of Sacrifice” A.“I was a Have.” B. “I was a ‘have-not.’” (Together). “What hast thou given which I gave not?” RUDYARD KIPLING How did WW1 help to change Britain? Captain Lawrence Jones is buried in Hooge Crater Cemetery, Ypres, Belgium Peter Daniel
  92. 92. Sylvia Smith

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