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Background and Update on Wisconsin TMDL Program

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Background and Update on Wisconsin TMDL Program

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Background and Update on Wisconsin TMDL Program

  1. 1. Background and Update on Wisconsin TMDL Program Brian Weigel Kevin Kirsch Bureau of Water Quality Wisconsin DNR
  2. 2. Cheese Production in WI 2017 Location of Facilities in WI Source: http://www.wisconline.com
  3. 3. Cheese Production in WI
  4. 4. Water Quality Standards • Designated Uses: • Fish & Aquatic Life • Public Health • Recreation • Water Quality Criteria: • Numeric: dissolved oxygen, pH, bacteria, toxic substances, phosphorus, etc. • Narrative: “no objectionable deposits,” “substances in concentrations or combinations shall not be harmful to humans, fish, plants, or other aquatic life.”
  5. 5. Phosphorus Criteria NR 102.06 • Rivers NR 102.06(3)(a) = 100 μg/L • Streams = 75 μg/L • All unidirectional flowing waters not in NR 102.06(3)(a) • Reservoirs • Stratified = 30 μg/L • Not Stratified = 40 μg/L • Lakes range from 15-40 μg/L • Lake Michigan =7 μg/L • Lake Superior = 5 μg/L • Exclusions • Ephemeral Streams • Wetlands • Lakes <5 ac
  6. 6. Water Quality Based Effluent Limits • Promulgation of statewide water quality phosphorus criteria • Calculation of effluent limits to meet water quality standards • There are two options available: • Calculate effluent limits using methods outlined in WI administrative code (NR 217) OR • Effluent limits derived from a total maximum daily load (TMDL).
  7. 7. What are TMDLs? • TMDLs are a pollution budget • Amount of a pollutant a waterbody can receive and still meet water quality standards. • Fair allocations amongst the sources • EPA requires that waters on the impaired waters list have TMDLs developed. • …Not new • >70,000 TMDLs completed nationwide since 1996 • 250+ in Wisconsin
  8. 8. Statewide TMDL Development 1. Wisconsin River Basin Phosphorus and TSS 2. Upper Fox-Wolf Basin Phosphorus and TSS 3. Milwaukee River Basin Phosphorus, TSS, and Bacteria 4. Lac Courte Oreilles (9 Element Plan) Phosphorus 5. Lake Mallalieu Phosphorus 1 2 3 4 5 http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/tmdls/tmdldevelopment.html
  9. 9. TMDL Development Steps • Monitor and summarize load data from all applicable sources • Estimate maximum pollutant load • Calculate allocations to meet water quality standards • Draft TMDL report • Public comment period (30 day) conducted by DNR • Respond to comments and submit TMDL to EPA for approval • Develop Implementation Plan • Nonpoint compliance voluntary based on cost sharing (see NR 151) • For point sources, WLA in next permit issued after approved TMDL.
  10. 10. Waste Load Allocation • WWTPs / POTWs • Industries • Permitted MS4s • Non-Metallic Mines • Construction Sites • NCCWs Load Allocation • Agricultural (includes load from CAFO land spreading) • Non-permitted Urban • Background Load Allocation Waste Load Allocation + + Margin of Safety
  11. 11. 11 Reserve Capacity & Allocations EXAMPLE DATA. Pie chart “slice” sizes do not reflect actual WI River TMDL data.
  12. 12. 12 Uncontrollable Load Controllable Load Reserve Capacity & Allocations Uncontrollable Load Uncontrollable Load EXAMPLE DATA. Pie chart “slice” sizes do not reflect actual WI River TMDL data.
  13. 13. Baseline for Point Sources (POTWsandIndustrialDischargers) • Baseline load = permitted concentration * design flow
  14. 14. Allocating Allowable Load to Sources LA WLA MOS RC Loading Capacity • Background • Agricultural • Non-Permitted Urban • General Permits • MS4s and WisDOT • POTWs • CSOs • Industrial Permits • Margin of Safety • Reserve Capacity
  15. 15. Develop Implementation Plan • TMDL serves as the foundation for developing a detailed implementation plan • Development of an implementation plan begins during TMDL allocation process • Generating restoration scenarios • Conducting feasibility analysis • Selecting best option that achieves pollutant load reduction • Form implementation team • Including affected stakeholders & partners
  16. 16. Future TMDL Priorities • Impaired Waters List is updated biennially • New water quality information will inform assessments • Regularly review the prioritization scheme and update as information becomes available • Incorporate public comment (WDNR, EPA and stakeholders) to determine priority areas & reevaluate previous designations
  17. 17. Prioritization Considerations • Public health concerns • Severity of impairments • Recovery potential • Ongoing water quality studies or restoration work • Social / economic importance and impact on effluent limits • Stakeholder engagement
  18. 18. Questions?

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