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Growing managers

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A history of the last 100 years of management thinking as narrated by my good self to the Melbourne CTO school.

The motivation for this is a crash course in the big picture, seeing the trends over time and helping catch up with the latest ideas.

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Growing managers

  1. 1. Growing Managers CTO School, 4th September 2018 Craig Brown
  2. 2. Leadership vs Management Leaders Managers
  3. 3. 14 Principles of Management The 5 roles of management 1.Planning 2.Organizing 3.Staffing 4.Directing 5.Controlling 1.Division of work Authority and Responsibility Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination to the group Fair Remuneration Centralization and decentralization of decision making Chain of command Order for systems Equity & Fairness Stability of tenure of personnel Reward Initiative Esprit de corps
  4. 4. A Brief History of Management 1909 The 14 Principles of management, Henry Fayol 1919 Scientific Management, Frederick Taylor 1922 Bureaucracy, Max Weber 1933 Human Relations, Elton Mayo 1948 Leadership structures and behaviors, Ralph Stogdill 1948 Leadership orientation – tasks or people, Lester Coch and John French 1954 Hierarchy of needs, Abraham Maslow 1957 Theory X and Y, Douglas McGregor 1964 Maturity-immaturity, Chris Agyris 1965 Achievement theory, Davis McClelland 1966 Motivation Hygiene, Frederick Herzberg 1977 Situational leadership, Paul Hershey and Ken Blanchard 1982, 1993 The 14 Principles and System of Profound Knowledge, W Edwards Deming 1997 Scrum, Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland 2000 Leadership Styles, Daniel Goleman 2003 Agile Management, Alistair Cockburn 2009 Managing, Henry Mintzberg 2009 Mastery Autonomy, Purpose, Dan Pink 2010 Marty the Monster, Jurgen Appelo 2013 Project Oxygen, Google 2014 Reinventing Organizations, Frederic Laloux
  5. 5. Henry Fayol, 14 Principles of Management Also, The role of management 1.Planning 2.Organizing 3.Staffing 4.Directing 5.Controlling 1.Division of work Authority and Responsibility Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination to the group Fair Remuneration Centralization and decentralization of decision making Chain of command Order for systems Equity & Fairness Stability of tenure of personnel Reward Initiative Esprit de corps
  6. 6. Frederick Taylor, Scientific Management • Study the system • Decompose the parts • Identify optimal work practices • Design step by step work instructions • Experiment to improvement • Analysts and workers • Workers not literate in systems analysis • Analysts only know what they can see
  7. 7. Max Weber, Bureacracy Attributes and benefits; • hierarchical organization • formal lines of authority (chain of command) • a fixed area of activity • rigid division of labor • regular and continuous execution of assigned tasks • all decisions and powers specified and restricted by regulations • officials with expert training in their fields • career advancement dependent on technical qualifications • qualifications evaluated by organizational rules, not individuals
  8. 8. Elton Mayo and the Hawthorn Effect Mayo contended that the effect was due to the workers reacting to the sympathy and interest of the observers.
  9. 9. Stogdill Origins of contingency theory • Beginning of a long thread of management theory • People orientation vs transaction orientation • Context based vs defaults Leadership style Concern for people Concern for production Laissez faire Low Low Country club High Low Authority- compliance Low High Team High High Middle of the road Moderate Moderate
  10. 10. Self- transcendence Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Now with added Self-transcendence In his later years, Abraham Maslow explored a further dimension of needs, while criticizing his own vision on self-actualization. By this later theory, the self only finds its actualization in giving itself to some higher outside goal, in altruism and spirituality. He equated this with the desire to reach the infinite. "Transcendence refers to the very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos"
  11. 11. McGregor, Theory X and Y • Theory X Managers believe; • Staff are motivated by self interests • A “hands on” approach to management • Extrinsic motivators – rewards and punishments • Theory X Managers believe; • Staff are motivated by the value they contribute • Relationship based approach to management • Intrinsic motivators • Not a binary/linear scale • Different strokes • Feedback loops Theory Z in 1981 – manage the team not the individual
  12. 12. Argyris Maturity Model • Focus on personal growth along seven human attributes • Modelled on growth from children to adults • No best, or end. Just continuous growth Agyris is more known for double loop learning and systems thinking
  13. 13. McClelland, Achievement theory • We want to achieve on three dimensions • We each have different degrees to which we care about the three dimensions • Managers need to understand our motivations
  14. 14. Herzberg, Hygeine theory
  15. 15. 1977 Situational leadership, Hershey and Blanchard • Orient your leadership style to the readiness of the follower • Updated by Appelo in 2010
  16. 16. Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge & 14 Principles 1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service 2. Adopt the new philosophy. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. 3. Eliminate the need for massive inspection by building quality into the product in the first place. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of a price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move towards a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs. 6. Institute training on the job. 7. Institute leadership . The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets do a better job. 8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company 9. Break down barriers between departments. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. • Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute with leadership. • Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers and numerical goals. Instead substitute with leadership. 11. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. 12. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. This means abolishment of the annual or merit rating and of management by objectives. 13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. 14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody's job.
  17. 17. Schwaber and Sutherland, Scrum • Manage the team • Manage the system • Clear impediments • Don’t manage the individual • No managers even!
  18. 18. Daniel Goleman, Leadership styles Style Fit for Unfit for Directive There is a crisis, When deviations are risky When you need to learn/are inexperienced When your team are already experienced Authoritative Clear directions and standards are needed, and the leader is credible When you need to learn/are inexperienced, as they need guidance, and/or when the leader is not credible. Affiliative Used with other styles. The work is routine and not challenging. Where there is unhealthy conflict in the workplace. Performance is inadequate – affiliation does not emphasise performance Crisis situations need strong direction Participative People work in teams Staff have experience and credibility Steady working environment People are not aligned, there is a crisis – no time for consultation, or there is a lack of competency and close supervision required Pace setting People are highly motivated, competent Little direction/coordination required When managing experts When workload requires assistance from others When development, coaching & coordination required Coaching Skill needs to be developed, Employees are motivated and wanting development The leader lacks expertise, When performance discrepancy is too great – coaching managers may persist rather than exit a poor performer, In a crisis
  19. 19. Alistair Cockburn • Maintain sponsorship and support • Look ahead • Manage for culture • Manage at the boundaries • Guest leadership (adding to Goleman)
  20. 20. Simply Managing Henry Mintzberg Art, science and craft
  21. 21. Dan Pink’s Mastery, Autonomy, Purpose
  22. 22. Jurgen Appelo, Management 3
  23. 23. Google’s Project Oxygen (re:work) • Be a good coach • Empower your team and don't micromanage • Express interest in employee's success and well-being • Be productive and results-oriented • Be a good communicator and listen to your team • Help employees with career development • Have a clear vision and strategy for the team • Have key technical skills, so you can help advise the team. • Collaborating across the organization • Good, on time, Decision making
  24. 24. Frederick Laloux Reinventing Organizations Teal Organizations are characterized by the following; • Self Managing • Wholeness • Evolutionary purpose No judgement, of course.
  25. 25. In summary… Full of myths, old memes and ever-evolving Human complexity and human adaptability Good managers are adept at adapting It is an art, science, craft, and nobody is perfect You may have also noticed the diversity problem
  26. 26. A Brief History of Management 1909 The 14 Principles of management, Henry Fayol 1919 Scientific Management, Frederick Taylor 1922 Bureaucracy, Max Weber 1933 Human Relations, Elton Mayo 1948 Leadership structures and behaviors, Ralph Stogdill 1948 Leadership orientation – tasks or people, Lester Coch and John French 1954 Hierarchy of needs, Abraham Maslow 1957 Theory X and Y, Douglas McGregor 1964 Maturity-immaturity, Chris Agyris 1965 Achievement theory, Davis McClelland 1966 Motivation Hygiene, Frederick Herzberg 1977 Situational leadership, Paul Hershey and Ken Blanchard 1982, 1993 The 14 Principles and System of Profound Knowledge, W Edwards Deming 1997 Scrum, Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland 2000 Leadership Styles, Daniel Goleman 2003 Agile Management, Alistair Cockburn 2009 Managing, Henry Mintzberg 2009 Mastery Autonomy, Purpose, Dan Pink 2010 Marty the Monster, Jurgen Appelo 2013 Project Oxygen, Google 2014 Reinventing Organizations, Frederic Laloux
  27. 27. What I saw at Aconex
  28. 28. ~35 Melbourne ~14 Bangalore
  29. 29. 16 San Fran 120+ Melbourne 7 Sydney 60+ Bangalore 46 offices 8 Dev centres 250+ R&D staff 18 Munich 9 Duisburg 9 Paris 12 Nottingham 900+ Total staff
  30. 30. What do managers and leaders do? Share the value story Coaching and supporting Facilitate goal setting One on ones & performance feedback Connect people across teams Clear blockers
  31. 31. Criteria Best today Worst today Overall Faster time to market Days 4 weeks • Early ROI People buy on the promise 6-9 months ☹ Customer feedback Analytics, pilot groups etc. Interviews & help desk • Build the right products Sales are strong NPS is down ☹ Early risk reduction Building on our core New products • Better quality 3-4 production defects a year More teams = increased impact ☺ Predictability Most deliver to expectations Some a few weeks late* • Culture and morale Core is strong Acquisitions need support • Efficiency/Learning Plateaued and needs a kick Easy wins on the table ☹ Customer satisfaction Mixed Trending down ☹ > ☺ Alignment Aggressively strong Some temporary challenges ☺ Emergent outcomes No room at the moment Very brittle ☹ Why Agile? Then and now.
  32. 32. Criteria Best today Worst today Overall Faster time to market Days 4 weeks • Early ROI People buy on the promise 6-9 months ☹ Customer feedback Analytics, pilot groups etc. Interviews & help desk • Build the right products Sales are strong NPS is down ☹ Early risk reduction Building on our core New products • Better quality 3-4 production defects a year More teams = increased impact ☺ Predictability Most deliver to expectations Some a few weeks late* • Culture and morale Core is strong Acquisitions need support • Efficiency/Learning Plateaued and needs a kick Easy wins on the table ☹ Customer satisfaction Mixed Trending down ☹ > ☺ Alignment Aggressively strong Some temporary challenges ☺ Emergent outcomes No room at the moment Very brittle ☹
  33. 33. Criteria Best today Worst today Overall Faster time to market Days 4 weeks • Early ROI People buy on the promise 6-9 months ☹ Customer feedback Analytics, pilot groups etc Interviews & help desk • Build the right products Sales are strong NPS is down ☹ Early risk reduction Building on our core New products • Better quality 3-4 production defects a year More teams = increased impact ☺ Predictability Most deliver to expectations Some a few weeks late* • Culture and morale Core is strong Acquisitions need support • Efficiency/Learning Plateaued and needs a kick Easy wins on the table ☹ Customer satisfaction Mixed Trending down ☹ > ☺ Alignment Aggressively strong Some temporary challenges ☺ Emergent outcomes No room at the moment Very brittle ☹
  34. 34. Criteria Best today Worst today Overall Faster time to market Hours to days 2-3 months • Early ROI People buy on the promise 6-9 months. Some products. ☹ Customer feedback Analytics, pilot groups etc Interviews & help desk • Build the right products Sales are strong NPS is down ☹ Early risk reduction Building on our core New products • Better quality 3-4 production defects a year More teams = increased impact ☺ Predictability Most deliver to expectations Some are weeks late • Culture and morale Core is strong Acquisitions need support • Efficiency/Learning Plateaued and needs a kick Easy wins on the table ☹ Customer satisfaction Mixed Trending down ☹ Alignment Aggressively strong Some temporary challenges ☺ Emergent outcomes No room at the moment Very brittle ☹
  35. 35. Laloux’s culture model
  36. 36. Click to edit Master title style Power Fear Chaos Command authority Division of labour Transactional work Red Hierarchy Stability Long term view Controls Process Formal roles Amber Competition Profits Objectives Innovation Accountability Meritocracy Orange Shared Values Delight customers Engaged staff Stakeholder balance Culture over strategy Empowerment Green Higher purpose Distributed decision making Anti-fragile Wholeness Self management Evolutionary purpose Teal Laloux’s model
  37. 37. Click to edit Master title style Power Fear Chaos Command authority Division of labour Transactional work Red Hierarchy Stability Long term view Controls Process Formal roles Amber Competition Profits Objectives Innovation Accountability Meritocracy Orange Shared Values Delight customers Engaged staff Stakeholder Balance Culture over strategy Empowerment Green Higher purpose Distributed decision making Anti-fragile Wholeness Self management Evolutionary purpose Teal General performance
  38. 38. Click to edit Master title style Power Fear Chaos Command authority Division of labour Transactional work Red Hierarchy Stability Long term view Controls Process Formal roles Amber Competition Profits Objectives Innovation Accountability Meritocracy Orange Shared Values Delight customers Engaged staff Stakeholder balance Culture over strategy Empowerment Green Higher purpose Distributed decision making Anti-fragile Wholeness Self management Evolutionary purpose Teal Aspirations
  39. 39. We make plenty of mistakes
  40. 40. Values bring it together and take us forward Purpose Culture Structure Systems
  41. 41. I reckon you should consider this • Know where you are, and know where you want to be as an organization. • Spend more time talking about the mission and the culture. • Collaboration and connection across borders is critical. • Engineering culture isn’t the end of the line in management maturity. • Manage managers as a team. Shared goals included. • No manager is better than a bad manager. • Radical Candor… probably should be in the management memes, and part of induction. • Peer coaching probably beats one on ones. • What feedback systems do you have for managers’ performance and how transparent can it be? • The performance review is what you make it.
  42. 42. Growing managers Fin.

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