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Appropriate Technologies for Rural Sanitation in Punjab

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Choice of suitable wastewater treatment in villages. Onsie or Sewerage? Which Sewerage System

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Appropriate Technologies for Rural Sanitation in Punjab

  1. 1. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Appropriate Technologies for Rural Sanitation in Punjab M.P. SinghM.P. Singh B. Tech.(Civil); M.I.E. (Mech.)B. Tech.(Civil); M.I.E. (Mech.) EarthizenzEarthizenz email: mpsingh@earthizenz.orgemail: mpsingh@earthizenz.org Presented on behalf of VILLAGE LIFE IMPROVEMENT FOUNDATION (VLIF)
  2. 2. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems AVAILABLE OPTIONS:AVAILABLE OPTIONS:  Onsite Sanitation:  Conventional Sewerage System  Settled Sewerage ( Small Bore)  Shallow Sewerage ( Simplified Sewerage) PF, VIP, Septic Tank & Soak Pit SEWERAGE SYSTEM & TREATMENTSEWERAGE SYSTEM & TREATMENT
  3. 3. 4 Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Described in the Manual on Sewerage & Sewage Treatment 1993, MoUD, GOI Designed for Urban areas Requires Minimum 150-200 lpd/caput water supply at the beginning of the design period. Minimum Diameter of pipe is 150 mm under the above manual. Described under Section 3.70 of the Manual on Sewerage & Sewage Treatment 1993 , MoUD, GOI. Specially provided for Peri- Urban Areas, Dense Rural Areas and Dense Settlements Can run on 40 lpd/caput water. Minimum Diameter of pipe is 110mm under the above manual. Conventional SewerageConventional Sewerage Shallow (Simplified) SewerageShallow (Simplified) Sewerage Conventional Sewerage V/s Shallow SewerageConventional Sewerage V/s Shallow Sewerage
  4. 4. 4 Earthizenz ecofriendly systems The range of d/D used in the design is 0.5 and 0.8 as per above Manual. Self Cleansing Velocity > 0.6 m/s Often taken as 0.75 m/s Peak Factor is taken as 2.5 to3 No minm. Value of Peak Flow taken Manning Equation is used  All design done for end of design period. The range of d/D used in the design is 0.2 and 0.8. A Self Cleansing Velocity of 0.5 m/s has been successfully used for over 25 years Peak Factor taken as 1.8 Minm. Value of Peak Flow taken as 1.5 litres/sec (approx. Peak flow from flushing a toilet) Macedo-Manning Equation is used. Conventional SewerageConventional Sewerage Shallow (Simplified) SewerageShallow (Simplified) Sewerage 1) Sewer gradient designed forSewer gradient designed for start of Design Periodstart of Design Period 2) Dia. Designed for end ofDia. Designed for end of design period.design period. 1) Sewer gradient designed forSewer gradient designed for start of Design Periodstart of Design Period 2) Dia. Designed for end ofDia. Designed for end of design period.design period. Conventional Sewerage V/s Shallow SewerageConventional Sewerage V/s Shallow Sewerage
  5. 5. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Case Studies from RecentCase Studies from Recent VillagesVillages
  6. 6. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems GURU KI DHAB S.S. No.No. ItemItem Cost in RsCost in Rs ConventionalConventional SystemSystem SimplifiedSimplified SystemSystem Increase +Increase + DecreaseDecrease -- 1.1. Survey & DesignSurvey & Design 100000100000 100000100000 00 2.2. Underground SewerageUnderground Sewerage SystemSystem 23428132342813 16557661655766 + 687047+ 687047 3.3. Baffled Septic TanksBaffled Septic Tanks 372250372250 372250372250 00 4.4. Planted FilterPlanted Filter 930055930055 930055930055 00 5.5. Street ConcretingStreet Concreting 34004253400425 34004253400425 00 6.6. Water Supply SystemWater Supply System 16579471657947 400000400000 + 1257947+ 1257947 7.7. Street LightingStreet Lighting 350000350000 350000350000 8.8. ComputersComputers 200000200000 200000200000 TOTALTOTAL 93534909353490 74084967408496 + 1944994+ 1944994 42% HIGHER 414% HIGHER
  7. 7. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems KanechKanech (Sewer between Junction B20 &B50)(Sewer between Junction B20 &B50) Sewer Length 300M Current Population 50 Projected Population 100 water supply 130 liter per capita daily return factor 0.85 Taking peak hour factor as 3 Flow in sewer 20 hours Discharge per second = 100 x 130 x 0.85 x 3 = 4.6 liter/second 20 x60 x 60 or = 0.0046 Cubic meter/ sec Discharge Calc. for Conventional Sewerage
  8. 8. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems KanechKanech (Sewer between Junction B20 &B50)(Sewer between Junction B20 &B50) In case of conventional sewer minimum diameter of pipe used in Punjab is 200 mm, least but not recommended is 150 mm id and the required discharge to get the self cleansing velocity of 0.75 m/s in the S.W. pipe sewer is 6.83 liter/s6.83 liter/s Which is more than the discharge even at theWhich is more than the discharge even at the end of the Design Period. At the beginningend of the Design Period. At the beginning the sewrer will either choke or will needthe sewrer will either choke or will need unrealistic slopes.unrealistic slopes.
  9. 9. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems KanechKanech (Sewer between Junction B20 &B50)(Sewer between Junction B20 &B50) • From the chart for 100 mm id PVC sewer running at • d/D = 0.8 conditions. • V / √S = 7.4959 ------------ (1) • Q /√S = 0.0505 ------------ (2) • Equating both the equations we get • Q = 0.5 / 7.4959 x 0.0505 = 0.00505 cubic meter • Or = 3.37 liter/sec • Peak flow as per Duncan Mara q=1.8x10-5pw • Peak flow at the end of design period = 2.34 litres/sec • The system will run from beginning to the endThe system will run from beginning to the end
  10. 10. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Decentralised wastewater management
  11. 11. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems DecentralisedDecentralised WastewaterWastewater ManagementManagement DecentralisedDecentralised WastewaterWastewater ManagementManagement
  12. 12. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Filling the GapFilling the Gap ShallowShallow (SimplifiedSewerage)(SimplifiedSewerage) ConventionalConventional SewerageSewerage SystemSystem MostComplex Most Expensive INCREASING OMPLEXITY INCREASINGCOST PFPF SepticSeptic TanksTanks On-SiteOn-Site SanitationSanitation VIPsVIPs
  13. 13. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Simplified Sewerage Even Cheaper than On-Site Sanitation Systems at densities >160 pers/Hect.
  14. 14. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems CONVENTIONAL SEWERAGECONVENTIONAL SEWERAGE Highest Cost Highest O&M Min. 150-200 lpd/Cap water needed Ruled OUT No Big Rural Sanitation Prog. in India has ever adopted this as first choice.
  15. 15. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems SIMPLIFIED SEWERAGESIMPLIFIED SEWERAGE Low Cost Low O&M Min. 45-50 lpd/Cap water needed VLIF & other NRI NGOs have several successful examples of functional villages Workable From the beginning to the end of design period Workable From the beginning to the end of design period
  16. 16. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems SUCCESSFUL EXAMPLESSUCCESSFUL EXAMPLES SHALLOW SEWERAGE TECH.SHALLOW SEWERAGE TECH. S.NO. VILLAGE DISTRICT STATUS YEAR 1. Kharaudi Hoshiarpur Complete Functional 2003 2. Brahampur Ludhiana Complete Functional 2004 3. Dhingrian Nawan Sahahar Complete Functional 2006 4. Jian Hoshiarpur Complete Functional 2006 5. Langeri Hoshiarpur Complete Functional 2006 6. Jandiala Hoshiarpur Complete Functional 2007 7. Dohlron Hoshiarpur Complete Functional 2007 8. Awam Ghore Shah Hoshiarpur In Progress 2009 The Following Villages Completed by VLIFThe Following Villages Completed by VLIF in various Districts in Punjabin various Districts in Punjab
  17. 17. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems  Described under Section 3.70 of the Manual on Sewerage & Sewage Treatment 1993, MoUD, GOI  Conveys Unsettled Wastewater  Essentially Conventional Sewerage Stripped to its Hydraulic Basics  Excellent for dense villages and for retrofitting  Needs a min gradient of 1 in 214  Minimum pipe Diameter is 110mm ... ... Described under Section 3.60 of the Manual on Sewerage & Sewage Treatment 1993, MoUD, GOI Conveys Settled (solids Free) Sewerage Essentially needs a septic tank outside every house. Not suitable for dense villages where septic tanks can cause serious threat of contamination as well as safety of structures Does not need gradient as self cleansing Velocity is meaningless. Minimum Diameter of pipe: 90mm Shallow (Simplified) SewerageShallow (Simplified) Sewerage Settled (Small Bore) SewerageSettled (Small Bore) Sewerage
  18. 18. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Item Distance from Septic Tank Surface Water 50 ft Private drinking water well 50 ft Public drinking water wells Non-community system 50 ft Community System 500 ft All other water wells 50 ft Water Lines Pressure main 10 ft Pressure service connection 10 ft Property Lines 5 ft Foundations (except neighbors’) All foundations 10 ft Neighbors’ foundations All foundations 20 ft. IT IS OBVIOUS THAT IN SMALL HOUSES LOCATED NEXT TOIT IS OBVIOUS THAT IN SMALL HOUSES LOCATED NEXT TO EACH OTHER IT CAN BE TRICKY JOB MAINTAINING ALL THESEEACH OTHER IT CAN BE TRICKY JOB MAINTAINING ALL THESE Safe Distances of Septic Tanks from various structures
  19. 19. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems COST COMPARISON BETWEEN ULLANA (Based on Small Bore Technology) & BRAHAMPUR (Based on Shallow/ Simplified Sewerage) Data based on Cost Comparison made by Ministry of Rural Development Govt. of India
  20. 20. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems COST COMPARISONCOST COMPARISON UllanaUllana (Small Bore) -(Small Bore) - Executed by PSCSTExecuted by PSCST BrahmpuraBrahmpura ( Shallow/Simplified) -( Shallow/Simplified) - Executed by VLIFExecuted by VLIF S.NO. DESCRIPTION ULANA DETAILS BRAHMPURA DETAILS 1. Projected Design Population 2478 3500 2. Waste Generated/ Capita 80 litres 80 litres 3. Treatment Scheme Provided Aerobic followed by floculative lagoon Anaerobic, followed by recirculation filter and then lagoon 4. Green House Gases Let out at 210 different places Let out at one place and can be harnessed as biogas. 5. Per Capita Cost of Sewage collection System including manholes etc. Rs. 1455/- (High due to 210 septic tanks) (24,50,000/3500) Rs.700/- 6. Per Capita Cost of Treatment Plant Rs. 638/- (22,45000/3500) Rs. 642/- 7. Total Per Capita cost before pucca streets Rs. 2093 Rs. 1342 THUS THE PER CAPITA COST OF BRAHMPUR TECHNOLOGY IS ACTUALLY LESS BY NEARLY 30%THUS THE PER CAPITA COST OF BRAHMPUR TECHNOLOGY IS ACTUALLY LESS BY NEARLY 30% 8. Street Concreting: per capita cost Not done (3946000/3500) Rs.1128/- 9. Total per capita Sanitation cost Not done Rs. 2470
  21. 21. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Green House GasesGreen House Gases & Post KYOTO Changes in& Post KYOTO Changes in Small Bore SystemSmall Bore System
  22. 22. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems 1. Waste water from building 2. Sedimentation chamber 3. Pressure pipe sludge 4. Liquid pipe siphon action 5. Settlement chamber 6. Liquid to filtration 7. Infiltration system 8. Composting plant 9. Irrigation/secondary treatment Post Kyoto Changes in EI Nolson’s (Inventor of System) Concept of Small Bore System
  23. 23. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Sanitation Technology SelectionSanitation Technology Selection Is Simp. Sew. Cheaper than Onsite Sanitation? YES Is minm. 40LPD per Cap available? YES Do most houses have Safe Septic tanks? NO SimplifiedSimplified SewerageSewerage Can balance houses have septic tanks? Keeping safe distances from specified Structures? YES YES Settled (SmallSettled (Small Bore) SewerageBore) Sewerage NO NO Is Water Supply Augmentation Feasable?YES NO Go ForGo For onsite San.onsite San.
  24. 24. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems THE WAY FORWARDTHE WAY FORWARD
  25. 25. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems Self Sustaining SystemSelf Sustaining System Domestic SewageDomestic Sewage Kitchen WasteKitchen Waste Vegetables Plant WasteVegetables Plant Waste Non-edibleNon-edible de-oiled cakede-oiled cake Cow DungCow Dung TOTALSANITATIONSYSTEMTOTALSANITATIONSYSTEM Irrigation Irrigation Methane Gas Methane Gas Rich Organic Rich Organic Manure Manure Carbon CreditsCarbon Credits Runoff Rain WaterRunoff Rain Water RechargeRecharge Wells atWells at Flood PointsFlood Points
  26. 26. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  27. 27. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems
  28. 28. Earthizenz ecofriendly systems VILLAGE LIFE IMPROVEMENT FOUNDATION (VLIF)

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