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• Transport and its fossil fuel dependency
• Electric cars
• Electric networks
• Trains buses and public transport
TRANSPORT IS OVERWHELMINGLY
BASED ON FOSSIL FUELS
Internal combustion engine - possibly the greatest invention of all
new technologies in the 20th Century
Cars Planes Ships TrainsCars Planes Ships Trains
• Net zero emissions – batteries, steel, materials +++
• Lithium-ion battery has limitations
• Non-standard batteries vs. lease and switch standard batteries
• Fast charge vs. overnight
• Grid not designed for existing fuel station network
• Chicken-and-egg problem of charging networks
• Competition vs. planning approaches
ELECTRIC CHARGING NETWORKS
• As an integrated network, effectively non-existent
• Who has the duty to supply to the networks and charging points?
• Who has the duty to supply electricity for just charging?
• How do batteries back up both fast charging and the intermittency of renewables?
• Should regulation of DNOs and NG provide for fast charging investment ex ante?
• How will the costs be socialised?
• Natural gas + CCS
• Renewables using (intermittent) excess supplies to make ammonia & hydrogen
• Hydrogen into the existing gas grid – 10% or 20% max at any point on the system
• Fuel cells
• Hydrogen and shipping
• A really dirty means of transport – heavy fuel
• The source of carbon imports & consumption emissions
• The booming cruise ships
• Options are all off-grid – batteries, hydrogen…
• Must reduce world shipping demand, and hence world trade
AIRCRAFT AND AVIATION
• Fast expanding sector
• New airport almost weekly in China
• The electric aircraft and other options
• Time frame is decades
• Must reduce aviation demand, but it is rising fast
TRAINS, BUSES & PUBLIC TRANSPORT
• The easy bit for trains – electrification
• The inherent inflexibility of trains
• High speed networks to replace aviation
• Planning and buses
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