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HELM TALKS: Net Zero Lecture 3

  1. 1. AGENDA • Transport and its fossil fuel dependency • Electric cars • Electric networks • Hydrogen • Aircraft • Ships • Trains buses and public transport
  2. 2. TRANSPORT IS OVERWHELMINGLY BASED ON FOSSIL FUELS Internal combustion engine - possibly the greatest invention of all new technologies in the 20th Century Cars Planes Ships TrainsCars Planes Ships Trains
  3. 3. ELECTRIC CARS • Net zero emissions – batteries, steel, materials +++ • Lithium-ion battery has limitations • Non-standard batteries vs. lease and switch standard batteries • Fast charge vs. overnight • Grid not designed for existing fuel station network • Chicken-and-egg problem of charging networks • Competition vs. planning approaches
  4. 4. ELECTRIC CHARGING NETWORKS • As an integrated network, effectively non-existent • Who has the duty to supply to the networks and charging points? • Who has the duty to supply electricity for just charging? • How do batteries back up both fast charging and the intermittency of renewables? • Should regulation of DNOs and NG provide for fast charging investment ex ante? • How will the costs be socialised?
  5. 5. HYDROGEN • Natural gas + CCS • Renewables using (intermittent) excess supplies to make ammonia & hydrogen • Hydrogen into the existing gas grid – 10% or 20% max at any point on the system • Fuel cells • Hydrogen and shipping
  6. 6. SHIPS • A really dirty means of transport – heavy fuel • The source of carbon imports & consumption emissions • The booming cruise ships • Options are all off-grid – batteries, hydrogen… • Must reduce world shipping demand, and hence world trade
  7. 7. AIRCRAFT AND AVIATION • Fast expanding sector • New airport almost weekly in China • Heathrow • The electric aircraft and other options • Time frame is decades • Must reduce aviation demand, but it is rising fast
  8. 8. TRAINS, BUSES & PUBLIC TRANSPORT • The easy bit for trains – electrification • The inherent inflexibility of trains • High speed networks to replace aviation • Planning and buses