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2017 PDHPE End of Year Review

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The Year in Review: All topics & what you need to know
Core1: Health Priorities in Australia
Core 2: Factors Affecting Performance
Option 1: Health of Young People
Option 5: Equity and Health

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2017 PDHPE End of Year Review

  1. 1. 12PDHPE Year in review
  2. 2. Core 1 Health of Australians
  3. 3. Epidemiology Tells us: major illnesses and causes of death, identify areas of need, determine priority areas, monitor use of health service Does not tell us: explain why inequities exist, sociocultural impact on health, provide a holistic approach, does not focus on all components of health
  4. 4. HealthCareResponsibility
  5. 5. Medicare Provides access to free treatment as a public patient in public hospital Subsidised treatment by medical practitioners e.g. GP’s Increases equity and access to services for people of low SES Broad range of high quality health care provided including emergency health care Availability of bulk billing BENEFITS
  6. 6. Private Health Insurance Choice of hospital services Health cover while overseas Private rooms in hospital where available Subsidised ancillary cover e.g. physiotherapy, chiropractic care Shorter waiting lists for surgery Decreased demand on public facilities Peace of mind BENEFITS
  7. 7. Priority Areas Are selected according to: • principles of social justice • priority population groups • prevalence of condition • potential for prevention and early intervention • costs to individuals and the community SPP PIC
  8. 8. Health Priority Areas Cardiovascular disease Cancer (Lung, Skin, Breast)  Injury Mental health Diabetes mellitus  Respiratory Disease: Asthma
  9. 9. Health Promotion Cardiovascular disease: Swap it, don’t stop it Cancer (Lung, Skin, Breast): Daffodil Day  Injury (Motor Vehicle) Don’t Rush campaign Mental health R U OK? Day September 11th Diabetes mellitus: National Diabetes Week: July 10-16  Respiratory Disease: Asthma: World Asthma Day May 1 WHY? Raise awareness. Teach skills. Encourage medical check ups. Individuals make better decisions
  10. 10. Need to know Why they have been selected? Risk factors Protective factors Balanced diet Regular exercise No smoking Limit drinking Regular check ups
  11. 11. Health Priority Populations Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islanders Socioeconomically Disadvantaged  Rural & Remote Overseas Born People Elderly  People with disabilties
  12. 12. Need to be able sociocultural determinants of health, including family, peers, media, religion and culture socioeconomic determinants of health, including employment, education and income environmental determinants of health, including geographical location, and access to health services and technology. Major issues – illness & diseases Health promotion INEQUITIES THEY EXPERIENCE
  13. 13. Ottawa Charter Build healthy public policy Create supportive environments for health Strengthen community action for health Develop personal skills, and Reorient health services. Used as a checklist for health promotion to evaluate and monitor Be able to relate to ANY HP Jarkarta Declaration?
  14. 14. Growing & Ageing Population Growing = migration Ageing = less children, living longer Need to evaluate and adapt service to meet needs RETRAIN, INCREASE INFRASTRUCTURE, VOLUNTEERS EXAMPLES??
  15. 15. Core 2 Factors Affecting Performance
  16. 16. Energy Systems ATP-PC LACTIC ACID SYSTEM AEROBIC WITH OXYGEN • Duration • Fuel Source • Cause of Fatigue • By-Product • Recovery • Example of activity
  17. 17. NRG Extras Pyruvic Acid: Glycolysis breakdowns carbohydrates into pyruvic acid and results in a the production of two ATP molecules. Krebs Cycle: 2nd phase of aerobic metabolism. That further breakdown pyruvic acid into acetyl Cozyme A – a cataylst which produce 2 ATP molecules and by products C02 (exhaled by lungs) and Hydrogen which… Eletctron Transport System a series of chemical reactions that combines H molecules & produced sufficient energy to power resynthesis of ATP.
  18. 18. Types of training 4 types of training (and training methods) • Aerobic (continuous, fartlek, aerobic interval, circuit) • Anaerobic (anaerobic interval) • Flexibility (static, ballistic, PNF, Dynamic) • Strength (isometric, isotonic, isokinetic)
  19. 19. Principles of Training Principles of Training Progressive Overload The principle of progressive overload implies that a training effect is produced when the system or tissue is worked at a greater level that it is normally accustomed to working Reversibility Principal of training states that the effects of training are reversible Warm up & Cool down Warming up and cooling down are important components of all training and performance sessions. The warm up aims to prepare the body in readiness for the activity Variety The principle of variety states that athletes need to be challenged by not only the activity but also by the implementation of the activities Training Threshold The principle of training thresholds relates to levels of exercise intensity that are sufficient to produce a training effect. Specificity The principle of specificity implies that the greatest gains are made when activity in the training program replicates the movements in the game or activity.
  20. 20. Physiological Adaptations/Response to Training  Heart Rate  Resting Heart Rate  Stroke Volume  Cardiac Output  Oxygen Uptake  Lung Capacity  Haemoglobin Levels  Muscle Hypertrophy  Fast vs Slow Twitch Fibres
  21. 21. What you need to be able to do… Relate Types of Training Principles of Training Physiological Adaptations GIVE EXAMPLES OF ACTUAL ACTIVITIES
  22. 22. Motivation Positive vs Negative Internal vs External Know examples, definitions
  23. 23. Anxiety & Arousal Trait Anxiety is a person’s general level of anxiety linked to daily living. State Anxiety is situational, it relates to how a person responds to a certain situation. Arousal is a specific level of anxiety and can be experienced prior to and during performance.
  24. 24. Inverted U A Under-aroused Performance may suffer from factors such as lack of motivation, disinterest, poor concentration and inability to cope with distractions. B Optimal arousal Balance between level of motivation and ability to control muscular tension, which could be increasing as a result of the desire to perform well. C Over-arousal Feelings characterised by anxiousness and apprehension, resulting in excessive concern about performance. Increased muscle tension, possible mental confusion as individual tries to process messages during skill execution, resulting in poor performance. ‘Easier’ activities or activities using more muscle groups require a higher arousal level that needs to be sustained for length of activity
  25. 25. Factors that impact arousal Factors that impact arousal: • Self-expectation: how the individual expects to perform • Expectation by others: how a person perceives others, such as their coach or parents, expects them to perform • Experience: which determines how the individual handles the increased pressure at higher levels of competition • Financial pressures: such as whether the individual's livelihood depends on their performance • Level of competition: whether the individual is playing a round or a final • Degree of difficulty: with higher levels of arousal generally being associated with more difficult tasks • Skills finesse: fine motor skills (for example, shooting and balancing) generating higher levels of arousal than produced by gross motor skills (for example, running).
  26. 26. Managing Anxiety Techniques  Relaxation  Concentration  Visualisation  Self-Talk Know examples & how they work
  27. 27. Nutrition PRE •Balanced diet •Hydration •Carb loading •Tapering DURING •Hydrate •Light meals •Carbs – glycogen •Avoid salt/high fat POST • Proactive recovery • Refuel • Rehydrate • Active rest KNOW AMOUNTS & EXAMPLES OF FOODS
  28. 28. Supplements Sufficient amount from a balanced and varied diet but can IMPROVE PERFORMANCE Vitamins/Minerals eg. Iron/Calcium – maximises haemoglobin (energy)/ strengthen bones Protein – assists recovery/ builds muscle Creatine – maximises energy for power movements, improves resynthesises of ATP Caffeine – increase concentration, metabolises fat. Improves aerobic & anaerobic function
  29. 29. Recovery  The ability to recover after competition and training is essential in ensuring that optimal performances can be maintained.  Physiological strategies: remove by-products eg. cool- down, refuel  Neural Strategies replenish nervous system eg. hydrotherapy, massage  Tissue Damage Strategies aim to minmise tissue damage & promote healing eg. Crynotherapy (ice bath), hot/cold immersion  Psychological Strategies disengage the athlete from performance to reduce anxiety eg. relaxation, meditation
  30. 30. Skill Acquisition Cognitive Associative Autonomous KNOW CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH & TYPES OF PRACTICE
  31. 31. Nature of Skill Open vs Closed skills Gross vs Fine Discrete, serial, continuous Self paced vs externally paced Be able to classify specific sport skills
  32. 32. Practice Methods Massed practice is preferable for: • highly skilled performers • highly motivated performers. Distributed practice is preferable for: • the novice • in situations where energy demands are high • when the task is difficult or boring. FOR TRAINING SESSIONS
  33. 33. Practice Methods Whole method • practising a skill in its entirety eg. softball serve Part methodis preferable for: • breaking the skill in to sub-skills and teaching parts individually before bringing it togethers eg. volleyball serve FOR TEACHING SKILLS
  34. 34. FEEDBACK Feedback provides information about the performance that allows the learner to adjust and improve or continue efficient performance. PURPOSE reinforcing the correct or desired response motivating the performer to improve or maintain the performance correcting the action as a result of information received about the errors.
  35. 35. TYPES OF FEEDBACK Internal (come from individual) vs External (comes from external source) Concurrent (during performance) vs Delayed (after performance) Knowledge of Results (numbers) vs Knowledge of Performance (looks) KNOW EXAMPLES, WHEN TO USE – MOST EFFECTIVE, TYPES OF LEARNERS
  36. 36. Characteristics of skilled performer Kinesthetic Sense Anticipation Consistency Technique Mental Approach/Confidence TACCK
  37. 37. Objective vs Subjective Performance methods Objective performance measures are those that involve an impartial measurement, that is, without bias or prejudice. Eg. stopwatch, criteria Subjective performance measures are influenced by the observer's personal judgment of how the skill was performed eg. judges High jump measurements are highly objective whereas appraising sports like karate require interpretation of special rules thus subjective Recognise tests/results/evaluations as either subjective or objective
  38. 38. You can make them more objective measurement systems - electronic timers or touchpads checklists - that list elements required in the performance e.g. style and technical components rating scales - a degree-of-difficulty sheet that provides a marking scale for movements established criteria - a set of rules, procedures or guidelines of how to assess the performance.
  39. 39. TESTS MUST BE… VALID AND RELIABLE Validity refers to a test's ability to measure what it is meant to. The validity of a test can be reinforced by comparing the results with expected values or standards tables. Reliability refers to the ability of a test to reproduce similar results when conducted in similar situations and conditions. Reliability in testing can be improved by the use of similar procedures, conditions and equipment as originally prescribed KNOW TYPES OF TESTS & BE ABLE TO JUSTIFY
  40. 40. Personal vs Prescribed Criteria  A personal judging criterion involves the judge using their ideas, feelings, opinions, expectations and experiences to make an assessment of a performance. The assessment is not based on data, but rather the judges' view and is frequently used such as when coaches select teams. This method of assessment is often totally subjective and is open to discrepancy and criticism.  Prescribed judging criteria uses a set of guidelines or checklist established by a governing body of that sport. The more rigorous the criteria, and the more competent the judges in applying the criteria, the more objective is the appraisal
  41. 41. Option 1 Improving Performance
  42. 42. Nature of Young People’s lives Developmental stage: motivation, values, sociocultural, SES Family & Peers: Beliefs, values, dependence $$ Prevailing youth culture: identity, connectedness, belonging Influence of global events: technology, impact on society – behaviours. Know examples Link to impact on YP
  43. 43. Determinants of Health Individual: Genetics, Knowledge, Skill Sociocultural: Peers, Family, Media Socioeconomic: Education, Employment, Income Environment: Geographic location, technology Be able to compare Risks & protective factors
  44. 44. Health issues that impact YP Mental health Body Image Alcohol consumption Violence Road Safety Sexual Health Gambling Cyberbullying Party crashes • Nature • Extent • Risk & protective Factors • Coping skills
  45. 45. Skills & Actions to enable young people to attain better health? Building positive self concepts Building a sense of connectedness Resilience Health literacy & accessing help Communication skills Community service & involvement Creating a sense of future Apply to health issues Explain why?!
  46. 46. Option 5 Equity & Health
  47. 47. Factors that create health inequities Daily Living Conditions Quality of early years of life  Genetics & Environment (Nature vs. Nurture)  Socioecomic status of parents  Sociocultural factors Access to transport Socioeconomic factors  Access/level of education  Occupation/income  Know issues/extent  Support network  Apply health determinants  Health promotion initiative
  48. 48. Populations that experience inequities ATSI People living in rural and geographically remote locations Culturally and Linguistically diverse backgrounds Incarcerated Homeless People living with HIV/AIDs The aged  Know issues/extent  Support network  Apply health determinants  Health promotion initiative (Government strategy)
  49. 49. Social Justice Framework Empowering individuals in disadvantaged circumstances Empowering disadvantaged communities Improving access to facilities services Encouraging economic and cultural change Apply to health issues & inequity populations

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