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Carbon Transparency Initiative

Tracking Low Carbon Progress. ClimateWorks. June 7, 2015, Bonn , Germany.

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Carbon Transparency Initiative

  1. 1. Carbon Transparency Initiative Tracking Low Carbon Progress June 7, 2015, Bonn
  2. 2. CarbonTransparencyInitiative 2 The CTI allows for the exploration of progress toward building a low-carbon economy. It uses an “open source,” indicator-led methodology that allows for in-depth analysis of the driver metrics underpinning decarbonization and the examination of GHG outcomes based on additional policy packages, preventing policies, or market shifts. Trends and forecasts Learning from historic trends while also forecasting technologic shifts underway, the CTI improves on prior methods Leading Indicators Both a sector and region analysis of driver and outcome metrics allows a view into what drives decarbonization and where Transparency Data, assumptions and calculations are open and transparent, addressing many of the pitfalls of other “black-box” calculations RESEARCH PARTNERS Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Climate Action Tracker, International Council on Clean Transport, International Energy Agency, McKinsey, World Resource Institute and Regional Foundations EF-USA, EF-China, ECF, and LARCI REGIONS OF FOCUS – Phase One & Phase Two METHODOLOGY
  3. 3. CTI presents a forward-looking Current Development Scenario 3 • The CTI seeks to create a transparent, granular, and consistent current development scenario based on current policies, decarbonization trends, and energy related investments from 2015 • This scenario assumes continued effort implementing, supporting and defending current policies and legislation or cautious implementation of proposed laws and regulations to be adopted • The tool allows for analysis of decarbonization metrics, trends and future emissions in terms of activity and intensity levels • It also allows for an exploration of accelerated policy efforts, technology shifts and the impacts of policy or market setbacks
  4. 4. Fundamental analysis of key drivers Intensityforecast Key drivers ▪ Energy efficiency ▪ % gas flared ▪ BOD in water ▪ Methane intensity ▪ Power demand from each sector Power ▪ Expected GDP growth ▪ Energy efficiency Other Industry ▪ Waste/capita ▪ % recycling ▪ % collections Waste Waste ▪ % EAF ▪ Fuel source ▪ Energy efficiency Steel ▪ % Limestone in clinker ▪ % Dry Kiln ▪ Fuel source Cement Historic macro-trends and implemented policies Stock in-use curves and saturation points used to determine demand level Steel Cement Transport Forecasted based on historic energy demands and expected efficiency improvements Chemicals Other industry Methodology O&G 3rd-party analyses Source used ▪ IEABuildings ▪ Techton ▪ IHS Consultancy ▪ CMAI Chemicals ▪ BP statistical review ▪ Rystad Ucube O&G ▪ BNEFPower ▪ IEABuildings ▪ ICCTTransport Activityforecast Sourcematerials:Keyemissiondriversbysector,historicmacrotrends,majorpolicies,and3rd- partyanalyseswereusedtoforecastactivityandintensitylevels 4 O&G Consideration of future legal limits (e.g. flaring)
  5. 5. Proposedmethodologyfor‘Buildings’ 5 BUILDINGS Key intensity metrics Key activity metrics Total Buildings Emissions MtCO2e Emissions of Residential Buildings, MtCO2e Emissions of Service Buildings MtCO2e … same methodology Total floor area (Activity) m2 Carbon intensity of area MtCO2e/m2 Energy usage PJ / household Carbon Intensity of Fuel MtCO2e/PJ Energy usage PJ / m2 Cooking Appliances Water Heating Oil Other Coal Electricity (Indirect) Gas Cooling Lighting Heating Energy share % Carbon intensity MtCO2e/PJ Calculated separately for residential & services
  6. 6. Aunique methodology improves forecasting 6 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Traditional forecast CTI forecast 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 203015 25202010 Steel Production in China Mt of steel produced Car ownership in the US Cars/1000 people • Traditional forecasts rely on linear extrapolations and GDP growth, and assume a constant EAF-BOF ratio • CTI, based on a stock in-use curve forecasts total amount of steel necessary in an economy as a key driver of steel production. In addition, EAF-BOF ratios are dynamic. • Unlike traditional forecasts that forecast vehicle fleet linearly, surpassing population size, CTI considers saturation point • EVs and other technologies may be completely overlooked if forecast is done purely based on historic trend
  7. 7. ExampleofKeyAssumptions-China Metric Units 2015 2030 Source Forestry Emissions MtCO2e 232 151 U. of Maryland/Team assumptions Carbon Intensity of Oil MtCO2e/TWh 0.77 0.77 BNEF Carbon Intensity of Gas MtCO2e/TWh 0.53 0.53 BNEF Carbon Intensity of Coal MtCO2e/TWh 0.96 0.96 BNEF Auxiliary power consumption % 14 7 IEA GDP/cap k$-2005 PPP 7.0 24.6 SSP Population Millions 1349 1390 SSP Residential floor space/cap m2 27.9 45.7 IEA Energy usage (direct + indirect) KWh/m2 107.8 95.1 IEA Car Ownership Cars/1000 people 50 252 Dargay's research Energy required MJ/km 3.1 2.6 ICCT Distance/car Km/car 16,411 16,411 ICCT Waste intensity tCO2e/t of waste 0.30 0.29 Waste Atlas Wastewater emissions MtCO2e 219 225 IPCC Waste generated Mt of waste 443 634 Waste Atlas Share of gas flared % 2.5 1.0 World Bank Total volume of crude oil Mboe 3,239 5,849 Rystad Ucube, BP T&D Losses % 7 7 IEA Service floor space/cap m2 5.8 7.3 IEA Total volume of natural gas Mboe 873 1,577 Rystad Ucube, BP Power Buildings Transport O&G General Waste, Forestry and Ag
  8. 8. 21 38 3 6 Agriculture Cement 86 Steel 75 Waste Power Other industry3 53 Transport O&G 43 Chemicals 43 Buildings 27 -7 0 9 -8 -6 10 -35 -10 26 -19 Key drivers of overall increase in GHG emissions ▪ Strong activity growth across all sectors drives increase in total GHG emissions ▪ Over 75% increase in steel and cement activity – Over 90% of net volume increase from China – Production increase in India amounts to over 10% of additional net volume ▪ Moderate improvements in emission intensities do not offset strong increase in activity Industry Since2005,activitygrowthhasbeendrivingtheincreaseinGHGemissions 1 UNITS: Power (TWh); Transport (Passenger-kms); O&G (Mboe); Buildings (m2); Chemicals ($ created); Steel (tons of steel); Cement (tons of cement); Other industry ($ created); Waste (tons of waste); Forestry (Mha lost); Agriculture: (# of non-dairy cattle) 2 Measured by CO2e emissions per unit of activity 3 Decline in carbon intensity is driven by a shift to more value-add and less carbon intensive industries Activity growth1 2005-2015, % Intensity change2 2005-2015, %
  9. 9. 6 -7 -7 Waste 25 Agriculture Other industry3 74 Cement Steel Chemicals 81 Buildings 32 O&G 13 Transportation 81 Power 30 -9 -8 16 -28 -24 -23 -17 10 -22 -22 Activity growth1 2015-2030, % Intensity change2 2015-2030, % Key drivers of GHG emission growth ▪ Activity growth across most sectors: – Service buildings space – Chemical usage – Car ownership – Waste-producing consumption ▪ GHG emissions increase despite decreasing carbon intensity driven by: – Shift towards RE – Technological progress with energy efficiency gains – More efficient appliances – Better car technologies Industry Between2015and2030emissionintensityimprovementswilllargely counteractivitygrowth,butstillnotoffsetitcompletely 1 UNITS: Power (TWh); Transport (Passenger-kms); O&G (Mboe); Buildings (m2); Chemicals ($ created); Steel (tons of steel); Cement (tons of cement); Other industry ($ created); Waste (tons of waste); Forestry (Mha lost); Agriculture: (# of non-dairy cattle) 2 Measured by CO2e emissions per unit of activity 3 Decline in carbon intensity is driven by a shift to more value-add and less carbon intensive industries
  10. 10. China’semissiongrowthwillslowdownsignificantlywithinthenext5years;India’semissionsare expectedtodoublebetween2010and2030 10 GHG emissions GtCO2e 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 6 14 11 1 3 0 5 2 4 13 12 9 8 10 7 15 ▪ Emissions will continue decreasing in developed regions, but will increase in the emerging regions ▪ China’s emissions are expected to reach a plateau by 2020, mainly driven by reduced activity in the cement and steel industry ▪ India’s emissions are expected to increase rapidly until 2030 Key takeaways 1 1 The decrease in 2011-2014 numbers is caused by the forestry sector SOURCE: UNEP, Global Insights, McKinsey’s Global Growth Model, WRI CAIT 2.0, team analysis, ICCT, BNEF, FAO, IEA, EIA, IHS, UNFCCC, World Steel Association, IPCC, University of Maryland and Waste Atlas
  11. 11. TherateofdecarbonizationintheUSandEU-28issignificantlyfasterthan thatofChinaandIndiainthe3keysectors 11 SOURCE: BNEF, ICCT, IEA, World Steel Association, team analysis -26 -21 -57 -23 -25 19 11 -29 -44 -18 Transportation Rate of decarbonization 2015-2030 by industry % change in emission intensity Key drivers Metric kgCO2e/ passenger- kmtCO2e/MWh Key takeaways  Technology improvements  Car ownership  EV penetration ▪ In Power, the EU-28 is decarbonizing more than twice as fast as all other regions between 2015 and 2030 ▪ In Transportation, the EU-28 is not decarbonizing as quickly as the US, mainly because of a better starting point ▪ In Buildings, EU-28 is decarbonizing through appliance efficiency and is on par with the US and Mexico ▪ While most regions are decarbonizing, the rate is insufficient to achieve a 2o scenario  Share of RE  Capacity factors  Carbon intensity of each fuel/ technology -8 -9 -22 -27 -26 Power1 Buildings kgCO2e/ m2 (residential)  Fuel source  Energy per m2  Appliance efficiency 1 Based on BNEF's analysis of capacity additions
  12. 12. CTIexecutivedashboard–2030 12 5 REGIONS SUMMARY VIEW Over- arching Power Transport Buildings Industry Sector $k-2005 PPP/capita GtCO2e % tCO2e/MWh % % driven by bus or rail KgCOe/Passenger-km m2/capita Thousand km/cap Kg of cement/capita $ chemical/capita $ industry/capita Kg of steel/capita MWh/capita KgCO2e/GDP $ Units KWh/m2 Cars/1000 people tCO2e/t of steel tCO2e/capita tCO2e/t of cement Metric GDP/capita Carbon intensity of GDP Total emissions % Electrification1 Power carbon intensity % Non-Hydro RE (generation) Public transport penetration Carbon intensity Distance travelled/cap Cement production Chemical volume Other industry volume Steel production Electricity per capita Electricity usage Car ownership Steel intensity Emissions per capita Cement intensity $57.8 0.31 6.5 29% 0.36 18% 7% 0.08 69 26 244 $1,095 $6,946 275 13.1 89 820 0.7 18 0.66 $36.6 0.23 4.4 27% 0.14 45% 14% 0.06 44 15 1574 $580 $3,655 296 7.4 60 683 1.0 8 0.65 $24.6 0.41 14.0 30% 0.55 16% 35% 0.06 46 15 1146 $468 $3,806 424 6.2 33 252 1.7 10 0.74 $8. 0.51 6.3 20% 0.61 19% 58% 0.04 17 9 547 $39 $199 182 1.6 30 110 1.2 4 0.71 $19.5 0.33 0.9 26% 0.33 30% 46% 0.10 46 10 376 $186 $1,759 214 4.0 16 397 0.7 7 0.67 ThousandsNumber of non-dairy cattle 70,254 60,794 123,667 188,299 31,501 Others Res floor space/capita 1 Percent of energy in the economy provided by electricity, including transportation
  13. 13. Policy Reduce CO2/GDP by 40-45% by 2020 compared to 2005 Increase % of non-fossil fuels in primary energy to 15% by 2020 Metric Increase % of non-fossil fuels in primary energy to 20% by 2030 Increase the share of natural gas to 10% of total energy supply Carbon intensity of GDP - kgCO2e/GDP Target year 2020 2030 2020 2020 Target 15% 20% 10% 0.69-0.75 CTI Forecast ???% ???% ???% 0.65 CHINA UNFCCC COP 15 Pledge % of non-fossil fuels in primary energy % of non-fossil fuels in primary energy % gas of total energy Billion tonnes of coal 2020 ??? ??? National Action Plan on Climate Change (2014-2020) UNFCCC COP 21 INDC Peak CO2 emissions by 2030 Peak Year ??? Limit coal to a maximum of 4.2 billion tonnes of coal by 2020 12th Five Year Plan (2011-2015) 700 GW of renewable energy capacity in 2020. GW of renewables 2015 700 GW ??? By 2020 emissions from steel, cement stabilize at 2015 levels Emissions of Steel sector Emissions of Cement sector 2020 2020 ??? ??? ??? ??? Reduce carbon intensity 17 % from 2010 levels by 2015 Carbon intensity of GDP - CO2/GDP Reduce carbon intensity 17 % from 2010 levels by 2015 Energy intensity of GDP - CO2/GDP 2015 2020 ??? ??? ??? ??? Are current policy and emission targets expected to be met? <2030 ???
  14. 14. Summary 141 A ‘continued effort’ scenario that relies on current legislation (detailed later in the document) 2 Refers to power, oil and gas, transport, buildings, steel, and cement Preliminary Results from CTI‘s Current Development Scenario1 key insights for 5 focus regions2  GHG emissions have increased by 2.3% p.a. during 2005-2014 and is forecasted to drop to 0.7% p.a from 2015 to 2030.  Emission intensity improvements counter, but do not fully outweigh activity growth  GHG emissions ‘center of gravity’ is shifting rapidly from US and EU-28 (70% in 1990 to 34% in 2030) to China and India  China’s emission growth will drop to 0.4% p.a. starting 2017 as China shifts from industry to services; India will double emissions by 2030  Approximately 30% of 2030 emissions3 are from new assets, providing opportunity for policy intervention  2030 emissions are ~65% above the 2o target
  15. 15. Vast majority of emissions targets are currently not being met and carbon intensity improvements insufficient to achieve 2o. However, significant opportunities remain: 30% of total emissions in 2030 will come from new assets, providing opportunities for policy interventions By switching part of its steel production to EAF, China can save ~316 MtCO2e in 2030 The big challenge is to decouple GDP and CO2 growth as ~50% of the global population will enter the industrialization phase in the coming two decades. Once economies have entered a service- heavy stage, the transport sector becomes the main focus (e.g. in China). Sectorfocus:Many opportunities lieahead
  16. 16. BNEF’smethodology,adaptedbytheCTI,reliesonmarketforcestoforecastlong-termpowercapacity additions,resultinginhigherREestimatesthanmanyothermodels SOURCE: BNEF, team analysis 58 15 111 41 151 52 44 30 171 53 35 30 2014 Capacity 1,325 430 (32%) 27 894 (68%) -59438 48 2030 Capacity 1,026 (50%) Retired Capacity Additions until 2016 Additions until 2030 51 2,071 1,044 (50%) 32 45 Additions until 2020 194 14 Wind Gas Oil Nuclear Other RE1 Coal Solar Existing development pipeline Forecast method: Policy targets Economical assessment 1 Includes Hydro, Geothermal and Biomass Age of existing infrastructure 0 500 1,000 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Fossil Fuels Non-Fossil Cumulative capacity by technology, GW POWER China is expected to increase its Non-Fossil capacity from 32% today to 50% by 2030 Electric capacity in the China GW
  17. 17. InTransportation,Mexicohasacarbonintensitycomparableto EU-28,despitealowercarownershiprate 17 SOURCE: ICCT, “Vehicle Ownership and Income Growth” by Joyce Dargay , 2007 789 534 97 25 228 155 84 72 34 84+147% -46% Car ownership Number of vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, 2015 Carbon intensity of transportation gCO2e/passenger-km travelled, 2015 91% 80% 45% 16% 49% Share of passenger-kms driven in an LDV ▪ Car ownership is the leading driver of transportation emissions ▪ By using more advanced technologies, the EU-28 has similar carbon intensities to Mexico with a much higher car ownership ▪ 49% of passenger-kms in Mexico today are driven by private vehicles TRANSPORT
  18. 18. Residential floor area per capita m2/cap Chinaisexpectedtoseeanetgrowthof65%inresidentialfloorspace 18 37 10 28 38 64 46 17 4644 69 2010 2030 8 1 6 15 24 11 1 7 19 25 Services floor area per capita m2/cap SOURCE: IEA, Team analysis BUILDINGS +65%
  19. 19. Proposedmethodologyforpower Emissions from power sector MtCO2e Total power consumption TWh Buildings Steel Cement Chemicals Power – own consumption Transport Oil & Gas Other industries Agricultural/Forestry Power losses Average carbon intensity MtCo2e/TWh Oil Gas Nuclear Coal Renewable Fuel power generation TWh Total power generation from all fuels TWh Capacity factor, % Installed capacity, GW 8760 hours/yr Carbon intensity of fuel MtCo2e/TWh Share of power generation % Buildings model Steel model Cement model Chemicals model IEA, forecasted as % of power generated Transport model Oil & Gas model Calculated from IEA data1 IEA IEA, forecasted as % of power supplied Source POWER 1 Power consumption from cement, steel and chemicals was subtracted from total industry consumption data published by IEA Key intensity metrics Key activity metrics 19
  20. 20. SOURCE: Team analysis Proposedmethodologyfor‘Transport’ TRANSPORT 1 Marine transport is not included because there is no regional allocation; it accounts for ~10% of global transport emissions Key intensity metrics Key activity metrics Total Transport Emissions1 MtCO2e Trucks Passenger Rail 2W 3W LDV Buses Aviation Total vehicles Millions of vehicles Distance travelled Km/car Energy required MJ/km Emission intensity gCO2e/MJ Passenger activity Billion passenger-kms Energy required MJ/passenger-km Emission intensity gCO2e/MJ Calculated separately for each type of fuel: gasoline, diesel, CNG/LPG, Fuel Cell, Electric Freight activity Billion ton-kms Energy required MJ/ton-km Emission intensity gCO2e/MJ Freight Rail 20
  21. 21. Proposedemissionsdrivertree OIL & GAS Fuel combustion emissions Transport volume Mboe/year Upstream emissions MtCO2e Downstream emissions MtCO2e Production volume Mboe/year Energy efficiency, MWh/Mboe Carbon intensity MtCO2e/MWh Fraction of production flaring/ venting/fugitive, % Refinery/petchem throughput, Mboe/year Emissions from oil & gas sector MtCO2e Legacy oil and gas fields (extraction until 2010) New oil and gas fields (extraction post 2011) Unconventio- nal extraction Fugitive emissions fr. crude oil Fugitive emissions from gas Emissions from refining Conventional extraction Midstream emissions MtCO2e Offshore Onshore1 Onshore Offshore2 Production volume, Mboe/year Venting emissions Flaring emissions Fugitive emissions Fraction of transport volume fugitive % Fugitive emisisons factor PJ/Mboe, tCH4 /PJ, MtCO2e/MtCH4 Emissions factor MtCO2e/Mboe Refinery/petchem throughput, Mboe/year Fraction of throughput flaring/venting/fugitive, % Carbon intensity, MtCO2e/MWh Fuel combustion emissions Import National production Export Emissions from petchem Conventional crude Unconventional crude Emisisons factor MtCO2e/Mboe Venting emissions Flaring emissions Fugitive emissions Key intensity metrics Key activity metrics 21
  22. 22. CO2 intensity differencex% Key intensity metrics Key activity metrics Source: Available And Emerging Technologies For Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions From The Iron And Steel Industry-EPA-Sep 2012 Impacts of energy market developments on the steel industry-74th Session of the OECD Steel Committee-Paris, 1-2 July 2013 Emissions from steel industry MtCO2e Emissions from existing assets MtCO2e Emissions from new assets MtCO2e … same methodology Emission intensity tCO2e/ t of steel steel production t Stock year N t Renewal rate % Based on stock in use per capita/ GDP analysis CO2 intensity coal/oil/ gas Share coal/oil/gas CO2 intensity coal/oil/ gas Share coal/oil/gas Delta stock year N – year (N-1) t Stock renewal t Process CO2 intensity tCO2e/ t of steel 58% Direct energy intensity tCO2e/ t of steel 30% Indirect energy intensity (captured in power model) TwH/t of steel 12% Process CO2 intensity tCO2e/ t of steel 10% Direct energy intensity tCO2e/ t of steel 40% Indirect energy intensity (captured in power model) TwH/t of steel 50% Share of BOF in the existing fleet % BOF2 emission intensity tCO2e/ t of steel Share of EAF in the existing fleet % EAF emission factor tCO2e/ t of steel x4 Steel consumption t Adjustment factor1 % … New technology 1 Including import/export considerations 2 including EAF/DRI STEEL Proposedupdatedmethodologyfor‘Steel&Iron’ 22
  23. 23. Proposedupdatedmethodologyfor‘Cement’ SOURCE: Carbon Transparency Initiative team 1 Advanced cement not based on limestone clinker (e.g., MgO clinker, geopolymer) 2 e.g., Slag or fly ash as byproducts of steel making or combustion processes, also includes gypsum 3 Indirect refers to electricity consumption which is already included in emissions of Power sector 4 Process emissions are CO2 emissions released by limestone during chemical calcination process in kiln GHG intensity differencex% Key intensity metrics Key activity metrics Emission intensity MtCO2e/Mt Cement produc-tion Mt Share of production % Energy intensity PJ/Mt clinker Energy share % Emission intensity MtCO2e/PJ Energy intensity of clinker production PJ/Mt clinker Emission intensity of fuel MtCO2e/PJ Electric energy intensity PJ/Mt Emission intensity of electricity MtCO2e/PJ Dry Wet Oil Gas Coal Renew- able x2 +33% +33% - Emissions from cement industry MtCO2e Emissions from legacy assets MtCO2e Emissions from new assets MtCO2e Fuel combustion emission intensity of clinker production MtCO2e/Mt clinker Process emission intensity of clinker production4 MtCO2e/Mt clinker >1.5 Cement production per capita t/cap Population Million Forecasting production: ▪ Based on relation between cement production and steel production, since both are used for similar applications Share of limestone clinker % Emission intensity limestone clinker MtCO2e/Mt clinker Share of advanced1 cement % Up to x8 Direct emission intensity advanced cement1 MtCO2e/Mt advanced cement Share of ‘zero-emission’ (by)products2 % Zero, MtCO2e/Mt byproduct Same calculations as for legacy assets ▪ New kiln assets for clinker production would all be dry-type kilns ▪ Unclear how fast advanced cements can become significant x9 Direct emission intensity MtCO2e/Mt cement Indirect emission intensity MtCO2e/Mt cement CEMENT 23
  24. 24. SOURCE: Team Analysis Proposedupdatedmethodologyfor‘Chemicals’ CHEMICALS Key intensity metricsKey activity metrics Process Intensity tCO2e/t of chemical Fuel combustion emissions tCO2e/t of chemical Indirect Energy Intensity tCO2e/t of chemical Oil Gas Coal Other Energy share % Carbon intensity MtCO2e/PJ Fuel energy required PJ/t of chemical Carbon intensity of fuel tCO2e/PJ Emissions from chemicals industry MtCO2e Emission intensity tCO2e/ t of chemical Chemical Produced mT of Chemical Each of the top 14 chemicals identified by IPCC as high GHG emitters were analyzed separately: Ammonia, Ethylene, Nitric Acid, HCFC-22, Adipic Acid, Methanol, Ethylene Oxide, VCM, Caprolactam, Calcium Carbide, Titanium Dioxide, Soda Ash, Acrylonitrile and Carbon Black 24
  25. 25. Proposedupdatedmethodologyfor‘Waste’ Key intensity metrics Key activity metrics PRELIMINARY 1 For simplification does not take into account Oxidation Factor, Decay Factor, Composting or the quality of the landfill management 2 Assumes open air burning has same emissions as incineration WASTE Emissions from waste industry MtCO2e Emissions from Wastewater Treatment MtCO2e Emissions from Landfill MtCO2e Emissions from Incineration & Open Burning MtCO2e MSW waste generated per capita Ton of waste/cap Population size Incineration/Burn Rate % Net Emission intensity landfills tCO2e/ t of organic waste Total Organic Waste Created1 Ton of organic waste Emission intensity incineration2 tCO2e/ t of waste MSW incinerated or open burned Ton of waste Domestic wastewater Emissions MtCO2e Industrial wastewater emissions MtCO2e BOD per capita Tons/capita/year Recovery Rate 1 - % Recovered Population size % Organic Waste % MSW waste generated per capita Ton of waste/capOrganic waste generated per capita Ton of organic waste/cap Population size Waste Collection Rate % Emission Intensity from wastewater tCO2e/ton of BOD Amount of organics in wastewater Ton of BOD / year Recovery Rate 1 - % Recovered Recycling Rate 1 - % Recycled waste 25