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Lectures Vaccari - Biological Nutrient Removal and Recovery Technologies

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Sustainable Water - Energy - Centric Communities school
May 9 - 13, 2016 – Lake Como School of Advanced Studies

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Lectures Vaccari - Biological Nutrient Removal and Recovery Technologies

  1. 1. Biological Nutrient Removal and Recovery Technologies David A. Vaccari dvaccari@stevens.edu Cities of the Future Lago di Como May 13, 2016
  2. 2. Before activated sludge (courtesy of James Barnard) Sanitation – the sustainability issue of the day October 10-14, 2009
  3. 3. Activated sludge 1914 (courtesy of James Barnard) Part of the revolution in sanitation (together with drinking water disinfection and filtration) 3 Thanks for support of The Worshipful Company of Grocers
  4. 4. Activated Sludge Process 4 Aeration Tank Secondary Sedimentation q PX=M/V F/M = q/M LV = q/VMCRT = M/P
  5. 5. Hetertrophic Organisms • Floc-forming under starved growth conditions  low F/M, high MCRT • Heterotrophs – like us!  C6H12O + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + cells  Bacteria  Protozoans  Zooplankton
  6. 6. Some main points from A&L • Full nitrification was considered as required for a stable effluent • Nitrification needed longer aeration time • Nitrifiers growth decline with lower temperature • Nitrifiers growth decline with pH • The disappearance of nitrogen was a mystery • The surplus sludge was unusually rich in phosphorus • Granular sludge was formed in the batch reactors
  7. 7. Some main points from A&L papers and discussions • Full nitrification was considered as producing a stable effluent • Nitrification needed longer aeration time • Nitrifiers growth decline with lower temperature • Nitrifiers growth decline with pH • The disappearance of nitrogen was a mystery • The surplus sludge was unusually rich in phosphorus • Granular sludge was formed in the batch reactors
  8. 8. Conventional Nitrification-Denitrification (1.0) – Charles B. Bott, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE – Hampton Roads Sanitation District) 9
  9. 9. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOBs) Nitrosomonas Nitrosospira Nitrosococcus NH4 + + 3/2 O2  NO2 - + H2O + 2 H+ 10 Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOBs) Nitrobacter (Proteobacter) Nitrococcus Nitrospina Nitrospira (Xenobacteria) NO2 - + ½ O2  NO3 - Overall: NH4 + + 2 O2  NO3 - + H2O + 2 H+
  10. 10. Denitrification – Heterotrophs, again! 11 • Facultative  use oxygen if available, otherwise nitrite or nitrate • Many proteobacter  Pseudomonas, E. Coli, etc. • CH2O + NO3 -  CO2 + N2 + H2O + OH- + cells  Saves half of the oxygen used for nitrification and returns half the alkalinity
  11. 11. Stoichiometry Compared Heterotrophic Aerobic Growth: • CH2O + O2  CO2 + H2O + cells Autotrophic Nitrification: • NH4 + + 3/2 O2  NO2 - + H2O + 2 H+ • NO2 - + ½ O2  NO3 - • NH4 + + 2 O2  NO3 - + H2O + 2 H+ Heterotrophic (Facultative) Denitrification • CH2O + NO3 -  CO2 + N2 + H2O + OH- + cells 12
  12. 12. Activated Sludge Process 13 Aeration Tank Secondary Sedimentation
  13. 13. 14 Aeration Tank (Nitrification) Secondary Sedimentation Anoxic Tank (Denit) Nitrification/Denitrification: Modified Lutzak-Ettinger
  14. 14. Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification (SND) is possible 15 • Low DO operation • Micro anoxic environment in center of flocs • Requires DO control • Has design and control concerns
  15. 15. Annamox – Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation NH4 + + NO2 - = N2 + 2H2O (ΔG° = -357 kj mol-1)
  16. 16. 17 – Charles B. Bott, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE – Hampton Roads Sanitation District)
  17. 17. 18 Nitritation/Denitritation - Nitrite Shunt (2.0) – Charles B. Bott, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE – Hampton Roads Sanitation District)
  18. 18. 19 Partial Nitritation + Anammox = Deammonification (3.) – Charles B. Bott, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE – Hampton Roads Sanitation District)
  19. 19. 20 – Charles B. Bott, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE – Hampton Roads Sanitation District)
  20. 20. Bardenpho Pilot Plant 1972 (courtesy James Barnard) P Mixed Liquor recycle 3:1 Settled Sewage Effluent Aeration Zone Dead Zone Anoxic Zone Anoxic Zone Biomass recycle 25 mm dia holes Aeration Zone 67 32 0.2 The purpose of the dead zone was to allow relative adjustments to the other zones 100 m3/d
  21. 21. Biological Phosphorus Removal 22 http://www.lenntech.com/phosphorous-removal.htm Performance depends upon amount of rbCOD available (or generated) and is sensitive to temperature
  22. 22. Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) or Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR)
  23. 23. Orthophosphate 24 HO O O OH P O O OH P O O OH P O O OH P O O OH P OH O OH PHO pKa1 2.12 pKa2 7.21 pKa3 12.38 O- O OH PHO O- O OH P-O O- O O- P-O Polyphosphate OH O OH P VFA – Volatile Fatty Acids (Acetate, Butyrate, etc.) PHA – Polyhydroxyalkanoates PHB – Polyhydroxybutyrates
  24. 24. Biological Mechanism of Phosphorus Removal 25 rbCOD Obligate Aerobes Facultative Heterotrophs Anaerobic Zone Aerobic Zone VFA P P PP P P P PHB Poly-P PHB Poly-P P P P P No nitrates or O2 in Anaerobic Zone
  25. 25. Biological Mechanism of Phosphorus Removal 26 rbCOD Obligate Aerobes Facultative Heterotrophs Anaerobic Zone Aerobic Zone VFA P P P PP P P P PHB Poly-P P PHB Poly-P P P P P
  26. 26. 27 Smolders, et al, 1984
  27. 27. Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (PAOs) Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis Propionibacter pelophilus Actinobacteria 28 Glycogen Accumulating Organisms (GAOs) Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis Dominate at higher T - In contrast to nitrifiers More variety in taxonomy than nitrifiers
  28. 28. 29 Aeration Tank (BOD, NH4 +) Secondary Sedimentation Anaerobic Tank (VFA) Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR): Nitrification – Denitrification – Phosphorus Removal 3-Stage Bardenpho Process Does it all! Anoxic Tank (BOD, NO3 -)
  29. 29. Typical Flow sheets When using “Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification” (SND) much simpler process flow sheets are possible
  30. 30. VFA from Fermenters
  31. 31. Mixed Liquor Fermenter (MLF) (courtesy of James Barnard) • From experience at a number of plants fermentation of some of the mixed liquor was successful in achieving BioP and reducing nitrates • Mostly influent wastewater has very low VFA and even low rbCOD that could be fermented in the anaerobic zone • Solution – ferment some of the mixed liquor as happened in original pilot plant 100 m3/d pilot 1972
  32. 32. Reedy Creek, Florida 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Oct- 78 Jun- 80 Feb- 82 Feb- 84 Oct- 85 TotalP,mg/L First Few Aerators Turned Off Switching off Aerators - Disneyworld
  33. 33. Macrophyte Treatment Removes multiple nutrients plus produces energy
  34. 34. Can animals be used for waste treatment?
  35. 35. And Vermiremediation
  36. 36. Thank you, and Save the P! David A. Vaccari dvaccari@stevens.edu Department of Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering

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