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14. [dis 5] real time research. methods

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14. [dis 5] real time research. methods

  1. 1. 1 Josep Mª Monguet & Alex Trejo 1 Real time research Methods
  2. 2. 2 Philosophy, approaches, strategies and research methods. Philosophy Approach Strategies Methods Methodologies
  3. 3. 3 Philosophy Approach Strategies Methods Constructivism Positivism Pragmatism Philosophy, approaches, strategies and research methods. Methodologies
  4. 4. 4 Philosophy Approach Strategies Methods Constructivism Positivism Pragmatism Deductive Mixt Inductive Quantitative Qualitative Philosophy, approaches, strategies and research methods. Methodologies
  5. 5. 5 Philosophy Approach Strategies Methods Methodologies Constructivism Positivism Pragmatism Deductive Mixt Inductive Quantitative Qualitative Case study Grounded theory Experiments Surveys Design Open questions Texts & image analysis … Closed questions Quantitative data analysis … Combination of methods Philosophy, approaches, strategies and research methods.
  6. 6. 6 Quantitative approach Variables can be controlled, at least to certain point
  7. 7. 7 Qualitative approach 1 d’Octubre 2017 Nothing can be well controlled and nobody knows what is going to happen.
  8. 8. 8 Mixt approach Just some aspects of research object can be controlled and measured.
  9. 9. 9 - - + Levelofagreementbetweenthe implicitsharesintheresearch Mixt Qualitative Quantitative Level of uncertainty and singularity of the research situation Quantitative vs. qualitative approach
  10. 10. 10 Quantitative dimension based on … numerical or logical data Quantitative vs. qualitative approach
  11. 11. 11 Quantitative dimension based on … numerical or logical data … gathered from an observable phenomenon Quantitative vs. qualitative approach
  12. 12. 12 Quantitative dimension based on … numerical or logical data … gathered from an observable phenomenon Complexity n. Variables Degree of complexity & number of variables* of the research Non experimental Experimental Quantitative vs. qualitative approach
  13. 13. 13 Qualitative multiple approaches … since 90’s gained momentum* … with the increasing complexity of society **. Quantitative vs. qualitative approach
  14. 14. 14 Qualitative multiple approaches … since 90’s gained momentum* … with the increasing complexity of society **. Object of study not well understood and not enough explored Quantitative vs. qualitative approach
  15. 15. 15 Qualitative multiple approaches … since 90’s gained momentum* … with the increasing complexity of society **. Object of study not well understood and not enough explored Seeking to stablish the meaning of a phenomenon* that it’s not well known. Quantitative vs. qualitative approach
  16. 16. 16 Approach Quantitative - Inductive Qualitative - Deductive Mixt Philosophy Positivist Constructivist Pragmatic Strategies Experiments Surveys Case study Grounded theory “Design guided …” Methods Numerical data Closed questions Text, audio & image analysis Open questions Combined methods Phenomena Observable and with an existing theory. Partially unknown and/or poorly studied Unknown but observable Degree of control It depends on the complexity & the resources to experiment Not much. Besides variables the work is based in many aspects not well defined. Increases gradually as the research advances Which is the best & possible approach? Qualitative, quantitative or mixt?
  17. 17. 17 Quantitative research - - + Levelofagreementbetweenthe implicitsharesintheresearch Quantitative Level of uncertainty and singularity of the research situation Experiment s Surveys
  18. 18. 18 1 Expressing the phenomena as a system • Identification of the variables to be studied • Relationships between variables, questions and hypotheses. • Measurement criteria of the different aspects (variables) of the phenomenon. 2 Measure behaviour of the system • Observation, measurement and data collection • Determination of validity and consistency of results using statistical methods. 3 Analysis of data to validate the model of the system • Conclusions in relation to the theory. Quantitative research Process
  19. 19. 19 Quantitative research Experiments How a specific treatment or action influences an outcome? Providing the treatment or action to group of subjects and withholding it from another group. Compare how both groups score on the outcome. Process: Dependent variableIndependent variable Control groupsExperimental groups ConstantsSystem
  20. 20. 20 Dependent variable Growth of plant Independent variable Colour of light Control groups White light Experimental groups Colour of light Constants Seed, Pot, Soil, H2O, light intensity System Relationship between colour of light and growth of plant Quantitative research Experiments
  21. 21. 21 Dependent variable Influence of treatment in disease Independent variable Treatment Control groups Patients with placebo Experimental groups Patients with treatment Constants Age, sex, other diseases, … System Relationship between treatment and disease Quantitative research Experiments
  22. 22. 22 Dependent variable Decision to by Independent variable Disposition to buy after ad intervention Control groups Customers without intervention Experimental groups Incomes & education Constants Age, sex, family, district, … System Relationship between exposition to intervention and buying behaviour Incomes education Quantitative research Experiments
  23. 23. 23 A numeric description of trends or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population. Generally using questionnaires or structured interviews Quantitative research Surveys
  24. 24. 24 I like this car very much 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Totally agree Totally disagree Quantitative research Surveys
  25. 25. 25 1.I think this car has an efficient ecofriendly engine 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.I think car is very comfortable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3.I think car has a beautiful design 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4.I think car is very spacious 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5.I think this car is very reliable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quantitative research Surveys
  26. 26. 26 Likert scale is a psychometric scale based on questionnaires. to scaling responses in survey research, There are different types of rating scales. - Respondents specify their level of agreement on a symmetric agree-disagree scale for a series of statements. - Captures the intensity of feelings or opinions about items Likert scales validity and reliability Quantitative research Surveys
  27. 27. 27 Criteria for good measurement Reliability Measures are free from random error and yield consistent results. Validity Scale measures what was intended to be measured. Sensitivity Accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses. Likert scales validity and reliability Quantitative research Surveys
  28. 28. 28 Qualitative research - - + Levelofagreementbetweenthe implicitsharesintheresearch Level of uncertainty and singularity of the research situation Qualitative Grounded theory Case study
  29. 29. 29 Approach to gain focus. Seeking to stablish the meaning of a phenomenon* that it’s not very well known. Qualitative research Process Three general strategies (methodologies): • Case study • Narrative and/or phenomenological Research • Grounded theory / “Design based research”
  30. 30. 30 … the most common qualitative situation: Studying a phenomenon in its real context with no clear boundaries The researcher works in a case or cases of real-world where an intervention will impact on the context. Also used for quantitative research Cases 1. How technology is being used and impacts on one organization. 2. How a new commercial strategy impacts on clients perception and behavior Qualitative research strategy Case study
  31. 31. 31 Narrative research study the lives of individuals, asking them to provide stories about their personal experiences. The researcher aggregates the information gathered in a narrative, presenting a chronological or ordered view. When stories and experiences are from the same phenomena, then it is considered Phenomenological research Based in the use of interviews. Cases 1: Discovering what matters to tourist that travel and stay in a place. 2: Understand how the workers react to the setting up of a new software.. Qualitative research strategy Narrative and/or phenomenological research
  32. 32. 32 … from sociology The design of research is constructed in a process that advances gradually from the “ground”. New theory “grounded” in participant’s views, collected in interactive process with researcher. Actions involving participants, and data collected may be very different depending on research undertaken. Cases: 1. Finding patterns of behaviour of users of a new system or a new model. 2. Studying a new pedagogical strategy. Qualitative research strategy Grounded theory
  33. 33. 33 Approach to gain focus. … to observe, ask, analyse … using a diversity of Techniques (Methods) Seeking to stablish the meaning of a phenomenon* that it’s not very well known. • Focus group • Participant observation • Action Research • … Qualitative research Process
  34. 34. 34 Group of people A particular case is doing individual depth interviews, to get unique views from each respondent, without being influenced by other people [Questions are prepared in advance]Is asked about perceptions, opinions, beliefs, or attitudes ? In relation to a product, service, concept or idea. [Selected carefully considering authority] [Researcher records the meeting] Qualitative research methods Focus group
  35. 35. 35 Researcher gains a close involvement with a group of individuals & their activity Other techniques of participant observation techniques: - User shadowing - Costumer journey mapping - Garbology - … Through an intensive relationship with people in their own environment. [A cultural group or a particular community] [The researcher collects data using a diversity of strategies] Qualitative research methods Participant observation
  36. 36. 36 The research way is build progressively to solve a particular problem and at the same time producing guidelines for best practice. Data, collected gradually, guides research When Action - research is undertaken in an organisation will improve their strategies, practices and knowledge of their environment. [Any technique can be used] [Involves actively participating in a changing situation] [Responsible of situation] Qualitative research methods Action research
  37. 37. 37 Josep Mª Monguet & Alex Trejo 1 Real time research Methods
  38. 38. 38 - - + Levelofagreementbetweenthe implicitsharesintheresearch Mixt Qualitative Quantitative Level of uncertainty and singularity of the research situation

Editor's Notes

  • La dimensió quantitativa de la recerca es basa en la utilització de dades numèriques o lògiques obtingudes d’un fenomen observable
    Grau de complexitat i número de de variables de la recerca

    * A limited amount of variables is always assumed, and these variables are seen as independent from external factors, measurable, and holding mathematical relationships between each other.
  • * A limited amount of variables is always assumed, and these variables are seen as independent from external factors, measurable, and holding mathematical relationships between each other.
  • * A limited amount of variables is always assumed, and these variables are seen as independent from external factors, measurable, and holding mathematical relationships between each other.
  • Múltiples aproximacions qualitatives

    … han guanyat projecció des dels 90’s * amb

    l’increment de complexitat de la societat **

    Quan l’objecte d’estudi ni s’entén
    ni ha estat gaire explorat
    * En el passat, les ciències socials i humanes, per por de ser menys respectables, tendien a treballar principalment amb mètodes quantitatius de ciències naturals.
    ** Al estudiar fenòmens altament complexos i contingents, el nombre de variables és massa alt per ser manejat per mètodes quantitatius.

    *In the past, social and human sciences, for fear of looking less respectable, tended to work mainly with quantitative methods of natural sciences.
    ** When studying highly complex and contingent phenomena, the number of variables is too high to be handled by quantitative methods.
  • Múltiples aproximacions qualitatives

    … han guanyat projecció des dels 90’s * amb

    l’increment de complexitat de la societat **

    Quan l’objecte d’estudi ni s’entén
    ni ha estat gaire explorat
    * En el passat, les ciències socials i humanes, per por de ser menys respectables, tendien a treballar principalment amb mètodes quantitatius de ciències naturals.
    ** Al estudiar fenòmens altament complexos i contingents, el nombre de variables és massa alt per ser manejat per mètodes quantitatius.

    *In the past, social and human sciences, for fear of looking less respectable, tended to work mainly with quantitative methods of natural sciences.
    ** When studying highly complex and contingent phenomena, the number of variables is too high to be handled by quantitative methods.
  • Múltiples aproximacions qualitatives

    … han guanyat projecció des dels 90’s * amb

    l’increment de complexitat de la societat **

    Quan l’objecte d’estudi ni s’entén
    ni ha estat gaire explorat
    * En el passat, les ciències socials i humanes, per por de ser menys respectables, tendien a treballar principalment amb mètodes quantitatius de ciències naturals.
    ** Al estudiar fenòmens altament complexos i contingents, el nombre de variables és massa alt per ser manejat per mètodes quantitatius.

    *In the past, social and human sciences, for fear of looking less respectable, tended to work mainly with quantitative methods of natural sciences.
    ** When studying highly complex and contingent phenomena, the number of variables is too high to be handled by quantitative methods.
  • In the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), a few years ago, interfaces where developed from perceptual and cognitive models. Nowadays, social and organizational models of interaction have become the center of interest, and research tend to be based on socio-technical approaches inspired in the social sciences.
    “There is an evolution from usability – seen as just effectiveness, flexibility, and satisfaction – toward a concern with the human experience of living with technology.” A. Dias de Figueiredo, 2010
  • Narrative research is an enquiry from humanities, in which the researcher studies the lives of individuals, asking them to provide stories about their personal experiences. The researcher aggregates the information gathered in a narrative, presenting a chronological or ordered view.
    When the participants provide stories and experiences from the same phenomena, then it is considered Phenomenological research, common in philosophy and psychology and based in the use of interviews.
    Case 1: Discovering what really matters to visitors and tourist that travel and stay in a place.
    Case 2: Understand how the workers of a company react to the setting up of a new software tool.
  • … from sociology
    The design of research is constructed in a process that advances gradually.

    The enquiry is grounded in the views of participants that are collected through an interactive process with the researcher.

    The actions involving participants may be very different depending of the research to be undertaken. The role and the training of the researcher is critical in this sort of research.

    Case: Finding patterns of behaviour of users of a new system or a new model.
  • In the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), a few years ago, interfaces where developed from perceptual and cognitive models. Nowadays, social and organizational models of interaction have become the center of interest, and research tend to be based on socio-technical approaches inspired in the social sciences.
    “There is an evolution from usability – seen as just effectiveness, flexibility, and satisfaction – toward a concern with the human experience of living with technology.” A. Dias de Figueiredo, 2010

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