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Inclusive development for civil registration


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Presentation by Kristen Wenz (UNICEF) at the international conference on innovations in Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) systems - Ottawa on 27-28 February 2018. See more at

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Inclusive development for civil registration

  1. 1. Inclusive Development for Civil Registration Kristen Wenz Child Protection Specialist (Birth Registration), New York, NY 27, February 2018 © UNICEF/UNI197921/Schermbrucker
  2. 2. Behavioral theory Impacts on Behavior Bounded rationality’s principle: limited information or consequences results in minimal impact on behavioral change Good information, and prompt feedback, direct benefits are key factors that enable people to make good decisions Status Quo Bias: reflected in a human aversion to change. Social norms signal appropriate behavior or actions taken by the majority of people. Inter-general non-registration, peer pressure. Example gender roles and power dynamics for decision making or financial control. Inertia is what happens when people do not make an active choice. Changes in default options from opt-in to opt-out can be an effective strategy. Instead of having to take action to enroll (opt-in), you have to make an effort to (opt-out) Time Discounting and Present Bias: Future discounting is another explains low retirement savings rates, unhealthy life style choices in youth. Procrastination. Bad habits need behavioral nudges and rewards to see immediate benefit and shift behaviors. SMS reminders, and financial or reward incentives Behavioral Economics
  3. 3. • Ongoing conflict and insecurity leading to largescale displacement of the population • Many health facilities (where birth notification takes place) destroyed by conflict • High rates of child rights violations, including involvement of children in armed forces and groups, child marriage and missing children • Lack of legal framework • High levels of poverty, severe food insecurity • Disease outbreaks and malaria • Difficulty in accessing areas, from insecurity, and poor infrastructure during the rainy season 3
  4. 4. 4 * Teaching hospitals are managed at national level and are based in Juba, Wau and Malakal ** Birth notification is only possible at some PHCCs and PHCUs Payam Boma County State State Hospital Teaching Hospital* Public Health Care Unit PHCU Public Health Care Centre PHCC $Distance and cost of travel, sometimes charged for service Insecurity Birth notification Birth notification Birth notification** Survival needs, e.g. food, are the first priority ? Uncertainty about the birth notification process County Hospital Birth notification Health system structure and challenges for birth notification Insecurity Insecurity
  5. 5. Influencers in S. Sudan: Senior Government Officials Schools, Hospitals Village Chiefs, Religious Leaders, Community Volunteers, Midwives Peers Fathers
  6. 6. 245,864 people reached in Bentiu district through trained community mobilisers. Women 63% Men 37% Reached with BN messages in 2017 Women Men
  7. 7. Current birth notification journey 7 Understand the benefits Birth of child Child is birth notified Home Hospital Access to information and services Duty as a parent to fulfil Convenience of location Access to information Child is not birth notified Lack of information and understanding Logistical challenges Lack of understanding of the benefits Logistical challenges Doctor or the Midwife at the hospital does the notification Most parents informed about birth notification after the birth of their child TBAs and local chiefs provide information about birth notification but this is not organised or a common occurrence
  8. 8. Switching gears……
  9. 9. Framework of supply and demand factors that affect birth registration coverage rates Review of the empirical literature on incentives that have increased birth registration coverage- specifically in the context of cash incentives and social transfers. More than 200 articles were reviewed, and 42 (23 academic and 19 grey) were selected for this study based on relevance. NOTE: This paper was prepared by the Identification for Development (ID4D) initiative at the World Bank Group. Thanks to Kristen Wenz (UNICEF), Robert Palacios (World Bank Group), and Samuel Mills (World Bank Group) for their preparation of this paper.
  10. 10. Poverty, Social Cash Transfers, and Birth Registration • 149 countries have various forms of social protection programs, such as cash transfer programs, school feeding programs, and fee waivers. • Each year, social support programs lift 69 million people from absolute poverty and 97 million people from relative poverty. • Cash transfer programs linked to formal bank accounts have shown to be effective in increasing the number of “banked” individuals. HOWEVER… • Countries spend relatively small amounts on social transfer programs and have significant coverage gaps (on average only 20 percent of the poor are reached) which results in a limited impact on global poverty reduction. • Almost all cash transfer schemes require registration of some form, often a birth certificate or other type of legal identity.
  11. 11. 11 Civil Registration– UNICEF for every child ©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0098/NOORANI Framework of Barriers Supply barriers Demand Barriers Policies Cost Inadequate Infrastructure Distance Limited Capacity of staff Cultural Insufficient financing Exclusion Systemic Challenges Lack of awareness Fragmentation and Lack of Coordination Lack of access
  12. 12. 12 Civil Registration– UNICEF for every child ©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0098/NOORANI 72.9 21.1 42 93.3 84.1 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Brazil South Africa Nepal Impact (over 10 years) National Average Condition For CT 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Conditional CT Unconditional CT Administrative Requirement Comparison of conditionality Increase by type
  13. 13. ©UNICEF/SUDA2014-XX228/Noorani 13 Thank You