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The Origins of Taste

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In the last lecture, we explored things from a bio-psychosocial perspective. Today we're going to emphasize the role of socio-cultural influences in shaping behaviour and health

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The Origins of Taste

  1. 1. ORIGINS OF Taste
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES . Students will be able to: + Describe the sociological and cultural origins of personal preference. + Explain how personal preferences impact young people’s health.
  3. 3. ACTIVITY
  4. 4. Where do our tastes and preferences come from? How do they impact our health?
  5. 5. Pre-Industrial Industrial Mechanical Solidarity Organic Solidarity Homogenous Heterogeneous Collective Individualistic High Social Integration Low Social Integration Consensual Norms Anomie Industrial Post-Industrial Higher Social Integration Lower Social Integration More Civic Engagement Less Civic Engagement Secondary Associations Tertiary Associations Higher Social Capital Lower Social Capital Higher Social Trust Lower Social Trust Durkheim Putnam
  6. 6. Group Isolates Recognizes Authority Values Personal Freedom Accepts Risk Collectivists Recognizes Authority Values Solidarity Avoids Risk Individualists Disregards Authority Values Personal Freedom Manages Risk Dissenters Disregards Authority Values Solidarity Embraces Risk Grid
  7. 7. Speech Codes “Speech and thought have been elaborated as specialized tools for decision- making, but the social structure still retains a strong grip on its members, even to the extent that its underlying assumptions are not challenged.” “Speech forms are firmly embedded in a stable social structure. The primary use of language is to affirm and embellish the social structure which rests upon unchallengeable metaphysical assumptions.” “Here are the people who live using elaborated speech to review and revise existing categories of thought. To challenge received ideas.” “The social structure has lost its grip...is unstable, a transitional phase…the individual is valued above the social structure.” Family Control Elaborated Restricted PositionalPersonal
  8. 8. Linguistic Determinism Linguistic Relativity
  9. 9. Step 1. Draw a visual diagram of your social network using circles to represent people and lines to represent connections between them. Step 2. Complete the TopHat survey based on the scale below. 10 min Never or Definitely No 1 Always or Definitely Yes 9 ACTIVITY
  10. 10. 1. Which country are you from? 2. How many years have you lived in Canada? 3. I'd rather depend on myself than others. 4. I rely on myself most of the time; I rarely rely on others. 5. I often do "my own thing." 6. My personal identity, independent of others, is very important to me. ACTIVITY 7. It is important that I do my job better than others. 8. Winning is everything. 9. Competition is the law of nature. 10. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused. 11. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud. 12. The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. 13. To me, pleasure is spending time with others. 14. I feel good when I cooperate with others. 15. Parents and children must stay together as much as possible. 16. It is my duty to take care of my family, even when 1 have to sacrifice what I want 17. Family members should stick together, no matter what sacrifices are required. 18. It is important to me that I respect the decisions made by my groups. Collectivism
  11. 11. EXOSYSTEM MESOSYSTEM MICROSYSTEM YOU MACROSYSTEM CHRONOSYSTEM Ecology Social
  12. 12. Field Habitus Capital
  13. 13. Step 1: Get together with a partner. Step 2: Discuss classical art / music / poetry / film / or literature as if you are a serious connoisseur and critic of these topics. Step 3: At the end of the time decide which of you were “more convincing” regarding your knowledge of the subject. Step 4: Partner with another team and have the “winners” face off. Step 5: (Repeat until we have a winner). ACTIVITY 10 min
  14. 14. PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG MEN Gay KG. Card, H. Armstrong, N. Lachowsky, Z. Cui, J. Zhu, R. Hogg, D. Moore, E. Roth. “’A Latent Class Analysis of Substance Use among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men.” Culture, Health, and Sexuality. (Under Review). KG. Card et al. “Assessing the Longitudinal Stability of Latent Substance Use Classes among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence. (Under Review).
  15. 15. SurveyDesignAnalysisInterpretation C γ1 γ2 γ3 γ4 γ5 K1 K2 K3 γ6 γ7 γ8 γ9 Indicators Latent Variables Classes
  16. 16. SD D A SA γ1 γ2 γ3 γ4 γ5
  17. 17. SD D A SA γ1 γ2 γ3 γ4 γ5
  18. 18. ANY SUBSTANCE REPORTED BY MORE THAN 30 PARTICIPANTS.
  19. 19. 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2 3 4 5 6 7 AIC BIC CAIC Adjusted BIC
  20. 20. Step 1: In groups of three or four, write down different patterns of drug use – or drug use sub- cultures – that you are aware of or imagine to exist. Step 2: Discuss what factors and influences give rise to these patterns of substance use Step 3: Describe how your readings – particularly those on common-liability and difficult early childhood experiences – relate to the factors identified in step 2. ACTIVITY 5 min
  21. 21. Class Names Limited Drug Use Conventional Drug Use Sex Drug Use Club Drug Use Street Drug Use Assorted Drug Use Distribution 296 (36.7) 203 (25.9) 90 (11.4) 69 (9.5) 82 (12.1) 34 (4.5) Alcohol 75.6 100.0 84.3 98.6 75.8 92.9 Marijuana 29.6 79.7 74.0 90.2 70.1 93.2 Tobacco 23.2 43.1 47.0 69.1 69.9 84.9 Erectile Drugs 10.9 22.2 78.0 8.5 14.7 66.8 Poppers 20.1 36.9 74.8 51.9 32.7 73.7 Crack 0.7 0.0 14.5 3.2 39.1 58.6 Cocaine 0.9 15.2 44.6 72.5 44.1 96.3 Crystal 1.3 5.0 77.2 2.3 38.7 100.0 Speed 0.0 0.6 6.5 16.6 10.9 48.0 GHB 0.6 2.0 86.5 33.4 13.3 81.7 Ecstasy 0.0 20.2 65.7 89.1 4.8 83.3 Ketamine 0.0 2.7 41.3 43.2 0.0 91.2 Mushrooms 0.0 14.9 5.1 51.7 1.4 36.5 LSD 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.5 4.2 30.7 Heroin 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.9 35.8 Codeine 2.4 1.2 5.7 3.6 15.8 35.9
  22. 22. Assorted Drug Use Street Drug Use Club Drug Use Sex Drug Use Conventional Use Age 0.95 (0.91, 0.99) 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 0.93 (0.89, 0.96) 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale 1.13 (1.02, 1.26) 1.04 (0.97, 1.11) 1.14 (1.06, 1.23) 1.12 (1.04, 1.20) 1.03 (0.99, 1.09) Escape Movie Scale 1.07 (1.00, 1.14) 1.09 (1.05, 1.15) 1.03 (0.98, 1.08) 1.08 (1.03, 1.13) 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) Non-Gay Identified 2.97 (1.14, 7.72) 3.16 (1.63, 6.10) 1.86 (0.85, 4.08) 1.22 (0.51, 2.90) 1.48 (0.82, 2.68) HIV-Positive 5.97 (2.18, 16.34) 1.75 (0.92, 3.32) 0.73 (0.24, 2.22) 3.98 (2.07, 7.65) 1.03 (0.61, 1.74) Annual Income > $30,000 1.06 (0.41, 2.79) 0.77 (0.39, 1.50) 1.15 (0.62, 2.12) 2.92 (1.59, 5.35) 0.94 (0.62, 1.42) Stably Housed 0.23 (0.08, 0.63) 0.29 (0.14, 0.59) 1.46 (0.42, 5.04) 0.66 (0.27, 1.62) 0.77 (0.38, 1.57) Occupation (vs. unemployed) Professionals/Upper Class 0.58 (0.20, 1.75) 0.30 (0.15, 0.61) 0.59 (0.28, 1.26) 0.41 (0.20, 0.83) 0.97 (0.57, 1.67) Working Class/Lower Class 1.04 (0.39, 2.76) 0.42 (0.22, 0.81) 0.62 (0.29, 1.32) 0.57 (0.28, 1.15) 1.21 (0.71, 2.06) Income from Drug Sales. P6M 19.77 (3.65, 106.89) 2.12 (0.32, 14.2) 6.51 (1.11, 38.29) 9.24 (1.72, 49.8) 2.17 (0.39, 12.04) Attended Group Sex Events. P6M 3.26 (1.39, 7.63) 0.77 (0.4, 1.49) 0.77 (0.38, 1.58) 2.41 (1.34, 4.31) 1.22 (0.77, 1.94) Attend Gay-Bars/Clubs. P6M 0.79 (0.33, 1.88) 1.02 (0.56, 1.86) 4.37 (1.56, 12.26) 0.89 (0.47, 1.69) 2.32 (1.37, 3.92)
  23. 23. 12.2% 10.9% 24.5% 28.3% 11.8% 12.0% 10.7% 10.7% 27.4% 28.5% 13.4% 9.6% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Visit 1 Visit 2 Visit 3 Visit 4 Visit 5 Proportion(%)ofparticipantsineachclass Street Drug Use Limited Drug Use Club Drug Use Sex Drug Use Conventional Drug Use Assorted Drug Use
  24. 24. In your readings, Anzman et al. discussed the role of parental influence on shaping children’s early eating Behaviour. Relate your readings to what we have discussed in todays lecture – particularly with respect to Bourdieu’s theories of cultural production. Quiz - TopHat 10 min

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