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Swansea Council’s open-path
monitoring and dynamic AQ
forecasting system.
Duncan Mounsor (Enviro Technology)
Tom Price (City and County of Swansea)
IAQM Monitoring Air Quality – Making Sense of Measurements and New Techniques.
30th April 2019, London.
Summary of presentation:
• A whistle-stop tour of open-path (remote-sensing) and
spectroscopy.
• What is the Opsis DOAS open-path system, how does it work
and what can it measure?
• Open-path monitoring benefits, applications, approvals.
• VIDEO: Opsis open-path system in action in Swansea.
• The Swansea Nowcaster dynamic AQ forecasting system.
• Background, objectives, concepts etc.
• Inputs and outputs.
• Benefits of the system for the Council and the public?
A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing
and spectroscopy.
Remote sensing definition: “The science of obtaining
information about the properties or features of an object without
physically coming into contact with that object”
A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing
and spectroscopy.
Remote sensing monitoring examples:
Credit: National Physical Laboratory (2019)
A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing
and spectroscopy.
Open path remote sensing monitoring examples:
A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing
and spectroscopy.
Opsis open-path remote sensing monitoring example:
A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing
and spectroscopy.
A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing
and spectroscopy.
Opsis and DOAS.
• Opsis is the name of a Swedish company that pioneered and commercialised
DOAS for air quality and continuous emissions monitoring applications.
• DOAS stands for Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy.
So how does Opsis DOAS work (in
less than 30 seconds…)
System layouts.
System layouts.
System layouts.
A perfect application for open-path.
What can Opsis DOAS measure?
Doing things differently!
Opsis open-path AQM monitoring.
Doing things differently!
Opsis open-path AQM monitoring.
• Traditional monitoring stations use individual point sampling monitors.
• One for NOx, one for SO2, one for O3 etc.
• Traditional monitors are a complicated hybrid of electronic, pneumatic and
mechanical components.
• Lots of moving parts, valves, pumps, o-rings, sample lines etc.
• Expected to run continuously, 24/7 for many years.
• Lots of opportunities for analysers to fail!
• Even the best made analysers will go wrong from time-to-time.
• High cost of ownership, LSO visits, planned maintenance, calibration,
QA/QC.
Doing things differently!
Opsis open-path AQM monitoring.
• Most of THIS…
Doing things differently!
Opsis open-path AQM monitoring.
• Can be replaced by THIS..
So what is Opsis DOAS?
Opsis open-path AQM approvals.
Opsis open-path AQM approvals.
Better representation? Better for
modelling?
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
Nowcaster System - Swansea
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
 Traffic monitoring
 Air quality monitoring
 Weather monitoring
 Emission mapping
 Internet & GPRS
 Variable Message Signs
Nowcaster System - Swansea
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
• Located at the coast.
• Complex topography
• Air pollution in the city is primarily
caused by traffic
• NO2 levels exceeding limit values at
along roads
• 14 Air Quality monitoring stations
About Swansea
Swansea Council’s open path monitoring and dynamic AQ forecasting - Duncan Mounsor and Tom Price
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
Neath Road – Lower Swansea Valley
• Original highway link to the
City Centre.
• Narrow/Canyon Road
Length
• Residential Exposure onto
to Highway
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
• We are setting up a combined monitoring and
modelling system to diagnose the traffic
situation, the weather situation as well as the
air quality level in real time.
• Using this information and probably
extrapolating for the next few hours, we would
like to advise the motorists to use alternative
routes by informing them via radio, internet
and traffic signs.
Nowcaster Principles
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
• Develop a working traffic emissions forecast model that feeds a traffic
management system driven by air quality considerations.
What will this enable us to achieve ?
• The ability to forecast poor air quality conditions within any identified
street/ road link up to 6 hours in advance of those conditions occurring
and to attempt redirection of traffic from those areas.
Added benefits
• The ability to model emissions from any source i.e. point source at
authorised process, grid source, area source
• Detection of congestion in almost real-time and dissemination of traffic
flow information where real-time coverage exists
The Nowcaster Project - what are we trying to achieve ?
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
52 traffic counters. Features:
• Monitoring 3-5 lanes at each site
• Individual vehicle identification
• 6 vehicle classes
• Speed detection
• Data transfer every 5 minutes
• Data transfer via GPRS
• No external power required (solar panels + battery)
Traffic Monitoring
Swansea Council’s open path monitoring and dynamic AQ forecasting - Duncan Mounsor and Tom Price
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
ATC
Example of GPRS ATC Data
• ATC 6 is located on the Neath Road
• High Daily Flows and Congestion during
AM and PM periods
• Selection of Inbound Lane shows
congestion evident at 1min integration –
Not evident from the 1hr integration period
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
Predictions of future traffic flows
• Algorithms now available to analyse past historic data (12
years) from the GPRS ATC’s
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
Data Requirements
• A Brief Overview:
• Construction of an emissions database (EDB)
• Identify and classify every road
• Details required of road width, pavement width, distance and height of
buildings on each road section
• All industrial, point and area sources included within emissions database
• Digital maps
• Major Data Inputs:
• Vehicle by vehicle traffic data.
• Meteorological forecasts/measured data.
• Real-time air quality monitoring data
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
EDB – Road Links
• Every road link is in
process of being
classified and the
details inputted into
the EDB in order that
the model
understands the
local conditions
influencing
dispersion in that
road link
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
Air Quality Data
•Best achieved by validating the predicted model output against real-time air quality data measured
along a typical congested street and other measured data i.e. passive NO2 diffusion tubes (annual
mean).
•The Hafod OPSIS DOAS measures NO, NO2, O3 and benzene approx. 18 inches from the front façade
of a 250m section of terraced housing along Neath Road at a height of approximately 3-4 meters (first
floor level)
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
Meteorological data
30m Mast Cwm Level Park
• Greatest influence on air quality in Swansea are the
prevailing meteorological conditions. Influenced by the
topography of the lower valley i.e. wintertime inversion
layers forming in the lower valley area.
• Need to measure and understand (and supply the data to
the models) what is happening
• 30m mast at Cwm Level Park has been installed which
will measure temperature and wind profiles in the lowest
atmospheric layer in the valley.
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
The Nowcaster system
Air Quality (5 min) Traffic (5 min) Weather (5 min)
Read the expected traffic volumes on
all traffic links in the EDB and update
the figures based on the sample of
the most recent monitored traffic data
Real time
emissions
Weather
observations
Weather forecast
Data collection from monitoring stations and a weather forecast
provider
Time Series
Database
(TDB)
Emission
Database
(EDB)
Compute emission for all traffic
links using emission factors from
the EDB
The EnviMan Nested Grid and
Street Pollution Model
Weather forecast (6 hours)
Real time EDB
The adaptive modelling
filter
Air Quality
observations
Message
generator
City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
Thank you
• tom.price@swansea.gov.uk
• www.swansea.gov.uk
• www.swansea.airqualitydata.com

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Swansea Council’s open path monitoring and dynamic AQ forecasting - Duncan Mounsor and Tom Price

  • 1. www.et.co.uk Swansea Council’s open-path monitoring and dynamic AQ forecasting system. Duncan Mounsor (Enviro Technology) Tom Price (City and County of Swansea) IAQM Monitoring Air Quality – Making Sense of Measurements and New Techniques. 30th April 2019, London.
  • 2. Summary of presentation: • A whistle-stop tour of open-path (remote-sensing) and spectroscopy. • What is the Opsis DOAS open-path system, how does it work and what can it measure? • Open-path monitoring benefits, applications, approvals. • VIDEO: Opsis open-path system in action in Swansea. • The Swansea Nowcaster dynamic AQ forecasting system. • Background, objectives, concepts etc. • Inputs and outputs. • Benefits of the system for the Council and the public?
  • 3. A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing and spectroscopy. Remote sensing definition: “The science of obtaining information about the properties or features of an object without physically coming into contact with that object”
  • 4. A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing and spectroscopy. Remote sensing monitoring examples: Credit: National Physical Laboratory (2019)
  • 5. A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing and spectroscopy. Open path remote sensing monitoring examples:
  • 6. A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing and spectroscopy. Opsis open-path remote sensing monitoring example:
  • 7. A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing and spectroscopy.
  • 8. A whistle-stop tour of remote sensing and spectroscopy.
  • 9. Opsis and DOAS. • Opsis is the name of a Swedish company that pioneered and commercialised DOAS for air quality and continuous emissions monitoring applications. • DOAS stands for Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy.
  • 10. So how does Opsis DOAS work (in less than 30 seconds…)
  • 14. A perfect application for open-path.
  • 15. What can Opsis DOAS measure?
  • 16. Doing things differently! Opsis open-path AQM monitoring.
  • 17. Doing things differently! Opsis open-path AQM monitoring. • Traditional monitoring stations use individual point sampling monitors. • One for NOx, one for SO2, one for O3 etc. • Traditional monitors are a complicated hybrid of electronic, pneumatic and mechanical components. • Lots of moving parts, valves, pumps, o-rings, sample lines etc. • Expected to run continuously, 24/7 for many years. • Lots of opportunities for analysers to fail! • Even the best made analysers will go wrong from time-to-time. • High cost of ownership, LSO visits, planned maintenance, calibration, QA/QC.
  • 18. Doing things differently! Opsis open-path AQM monitoring. • Most of THIS…
  • 19. Doing things differently! Opsis open-path AQM monitoring. • Can be replaced by THIS..
  • 20. So what is Opsis DOAS?
  • 21. Opsis open-path AQM approvals.
  • 22. Opsis open-path AQM approvals.
  • 24. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe Nowcaster System - Swansea
  • 25. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe  Traffic monitoring  Air quality monitoring  Weather monitoring  Emission mapping  Internet & GPRS  Variable Message Signs Nowcaster System - Swansea
  • 26. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe • Located at the coast. • Complex topography • Air pollution in the city is primarily caused by traffic • NO2 levels exceeding limit values at along roads • 14 Air Quality monitoring stations About Swansea
  • 28. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe Neath Road – Lower Swansea Valley • Original highway link to the City Centre. • Narrow/Canyon Road Length • Residential Exposure onto to Highway
  • 29. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe • We are setting up a combined monitoring and modelling system to diagnose the traffic situation, the weather situation as well as the air quality level in real time. • Using this information and probably extrapolating for the next few hours, we would like to advise the motorists to use alternative routes by informing them via radio, internet and traffic signs. Nowcaster Principles
  • 30. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe • Develop a working traffic emissions forecast model that feeds a traffic management system driven by air quality considerations. What will this enable us to achieve ? • The ability to forecast poor air quality conditions within any identified street/ road link up to 6 hours in advance of those conditions occurring and to attempt redirection of traffic from those areas. Added benefits • The ability to model emissions from any source i.e. point source at authorised process, grid source, area source • Detection of congestion in almost real-time and dissemination of traffic flow information where real-time coverage exists The Nowcaster Project - what are we trying to achieve ?
  • 31. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe 52 traffic counters. Features: • Monitoring 3-5 lanes at each site • Individual vehicle identification • 6 vehicle classes • Speed detection • Data transfer every 5 minutes • Data transfer via GPRS • No external power required (solar panels + battery) Traffic Monitoring
  • 33. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe
  • 34. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe ATC Example of GPRS ATC Data • ATC 6 is located on the Neath Road • High Daily Flows and Congestion during AM and PM periods • Selection of Inbound Lane shows congestion evident at 1min integration – Not evident from the 1hr integration period
  • 35. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe Predictions of future traffic flows • Algorithms now available to analyse past historic data (12 years) from the GPRS ATC’s
  • 36. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe Data Requirements • A Brief Overview: • Construction of an emissions database (EDB) • Identify and classify every road • Details required of road width, pavement width, distance and height of buildings on each road section • All industrial, point and area sources included within emissions database • Digital maps • Major Data Inputs: • Vehicle by vehicle traffic data. • Meteorological forecasts/measured data. • Real-time air quality monitoring data
  • 37. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe EDB – Road Links • Every road link is in process of being classified and the details inputted into the EDB in order that the model understands the local conditions influencing dispersion in that road link
  • 38. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe Air Quality Data •Best achieved by validating the predicted model output against real-time air quality data measured along a typical congested street and other measured data i.e. passive NO2 diffusion tubes (annual mean). •The Hafod OPSIS DOAS measures NO, NO2, O3 and benzene approx. 18 inches from the front façade of a 250m section of terraced housing along Neath Road at a height of approximately 3-4 meters (first floor level)
  • 39. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe Meteorological data 30m Mast Cwm Level Park • Greatest influence on air quality in Swansea are the prevailing meteorological conditions. Influenced by the topography of the lower valley i.e. wintertime inversion layers forming in the lower valley area. • Need to measure and understand (and supply the data to the models) what is happening • 30m mast at Cwm Level Park has been installed which will measure temperature and wind profiles in the lowest atmospheric layer in the valley.
  • 40. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe The Nowcaster system Air Quality (5 min) Traffic (5 min) Weather (5 min) Read the expected traffic volumes on all traffic links in the EDB and update the figures based on the sample of the most recent monitored traffic data Real time emissions Weather observations Weather forecast Data collection from monitoring stations and a weather forecast provider Time Series Database (TDB) Emission Database (EDB) Compute emission for all traffic links using emission factors from the EDB The EnviMan Nested Grid and Street Pollution Model Weather forecast (6 hours) Real time EDB The adaptive modelling filter Air Quality observations Message generator
  • 41. City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe Thank you • tom.price@swansea.gov.uk • www.swansea.gov.uk • www.swansea.airqualitydata.com