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© Copyright 2018 by ERM Worldwide Group
Limited and/or its affiliates (‘ERM’). All Rights
Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced
or transmitted in any form or by any means, without
prior written permission of ERM.
Low cost gas and sensor particulate monitors
Real world experience and lessons learned
The business of sustainability
© Copyright 2019 by ERM Worldwide
Group Limited and/or its affiliates
(‘ERM’). All Rights Reserved. No part
of this work may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any
means, without prior written
permission of ERM.
Dr. Chris Hazell-Marshall, ERM Air Quality Lead, EMEA
The business of sustainability
Brief introduction to ERM
ERM: 5000+ staff in more than 40 countries, with a global air quality practice
ERM interest in low cost monitors:
• Remote locations
• No specialist support for Reference stations
• Logistical and cost issues with running complex Reference sites
• Improved temporal resolution compared to diffusion tubes
• ‘Plug and play’ minimising repeat site visits
2
The business of sustainability
A quick recap… for the gases
Low cost monitors based on electrochemical cell technology
European Commission: Too good to be true? At the current stage of development, unfortunately we have to conclude yes
Defra: at least for now, low-cost sensors cannot be used as direct replacements for the reference monitors used by Defra in the
AURN
USEPA: No lower cost sensors currently meet these strict [regulatory grade] requirements or have been formally submitted to
EPA for such a determination
3
Cross-interference a critical issue,
sensitive to other gases, temperature,
humidity
Verification and calibration difficult
Generally acknowledged that the
technology is not yet developed
sufficiently to be used as ‘Reference’
or ‘Indicative’ monitors, but that they
do have their place…
The business of sustainability
A quick recap… for the particulates
Several light scattering monitors have achieved MCERTS or TUV ‘Indicative’ status
Under development for longer than the gases, so technology better understood
Less susceptible to cross interference, as only monitoring one thing, but:
• Humidity and moisture are potential issues
• Colour and shape of particulates influence readings
• TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 split
• Calibration for TSP possible with gravimetric analysis of filters
4
The business of sustainability
Gases – Case 1
Monitoring undertaken in urban area
• Low cost monitor co-located with
reference station in urban
background location
• Monitored values multiple times
higher than reference site
• Low concentrations late morning,
highest in evening
• Generally poor correlation
• Unsure what the monitor is
responding to, but doesn’t look like
it’s NO2
5
The business of sustainability
Gases – Case 2
Monitoring undertaken in rural area
• Low cost monitor co-located with
diffusion tubes
• Monitored values multiple times
higher than diffusion tubes
• Measured NO2 and ozone heavily
correlated
6
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
Aug-18 Sep-18 Oct-18 Nov-18
NO2(ppb)
Diffusion tubes Low cost monitor
The business of sustainability
Gases – Case 3
Monitoring undertaken in rural area,
with some larger villages
• Low cost monitor co-located with
diffusion tubes
• Monitored values multiple times
higher than diffusion tubes, but
values in right ‘ballpark’
• Generally poor correlation
between diffusion tubes and low
cost monitor
7
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
07-Jan 14-Jan 21-Jan 28-Jan 04-Feb 11-Feb 18-Feb 25-Feb
NO2ppb
NO2 ppb
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
Week
1
Week
2
Week
3
Week
4
Week
5
Week
6
Week
7
Week
8
Week
9
Week
10
Week
11
Week
12
NO2ppb
Low Cost Diffusion tube
The business of sustainability
Gases - Summary
In summary
• Three campaigns undertaken, one with full Reference method site, two with Diffusion tubes
• Low cost monitors over-estimate in all cases
• In case of Reference station co-location, overestimation is considerable
• Generally poor correlation with co-location sites
• Evidence of interference? Temperature in Case 1? Ozone in Case 2?
• Some uncertainties and data reliability challenges due to types of locations and co-location with diffusion tubes
• Technology doesn’t look ready to deploy without co-location
8
The business of sustainability
Particulates examples
Senegal – semi-urban area on edge of Sahara, optical co-located with eBAM:
• Traces tracked along well, but optical under-read by factor of three compared to eBAM
• Weighing of filter in optical sampler to provide gravimetric calibration worked well and brought values close to eBAM
Serbia – rural sites with intensive agriculture
• Results as expected for type of area, more typical type of soil-based dusts
• Good trend correlation with dust deposition results
Sweden – semi-urban site in vicinity of operational mine
• Results as expected, comparable results between two different makes of optical monitor
• Good performance in cold conditions
Mozambique – rural sand beach shoreline
• Unfeasibly low concentrations monitored
• Unfeasible TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 split
• Traced to type of dust, very light coloured dusts from white sand and sea salt
9
The business of sustainability
Particulates examples continued
Cameroon – remote jungle location with little existing infrastructure
• Results as expected concentrations tracking wet and dry periods
• Concentrations low as expected, but not unfeasibly so
Guinea – rural areas with some existing industry and unpaved trafficked roads, monitor at multiple locations
• Responded as expected in the various airsheds investigated
• Tracked dry and wet periods as expected, and diurnal periods
• Use of heated inlets effective during wet and humid periods
Ethiopia – three sites in Afar region in arid, hot desert climate
• Two different monitors, results compared well
• Monitors correctly identified large fluctuations associated with dust storms and occasional wet weather periods
10
The business of sustainability
Particulates summary
Multiple campaigns undertaken in wide variety of environments: hot, cold, dry, wet, humid, desert, arctic, temperate etc.
Monitors perform well:
• Tracking changes in concentrations in line with observed environmental variations
• Coping with different environments, and moisture/humidity when using heated inlets
Monitors perform less well:
• Absolute concentrations in some circumstances, improved with use of gravimetric calibration
• Monitoring atypical dusts, in particular colour
11
The business of sustainability
Summary
Gaseous monitors
• Susceptible to interference from other gases, temperature and relative humidity and controlling for these is difficult
• Potential issues with overestimation compared to other methods
• In our experience, not usable as ‘stand-alone’ monitors, co-location is essential
Particulates
• Good performance across range of environments
• Good performance where dusts are typical, but potential for substantial error where atypical dusts are encountered
• TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 split can be problematic
• Calibration possible by collecting filters (some makes) and gravimetric analysis to provide verification factor
• In our experience, usable as ‘stand-alone’ monitors, but use of gravimetric calibration recommended to control for atypical
dusts
12
The business of sustainability
Thank you!
Dr. Chris Hazell-Marshall
Environmental Resources Management
E: Chris.hazellmarshall@erm.com
T: +44 (0)1792 306 951
13

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Low cost gas and sensor particulate monitors: Real world experience and lessons learned - Dr Chris Hazell-Marshall

  • 1. “Insert” then choose “Picture” – select your picture. Right click your picture and “Send to back”. The world’s leading sustainability consultancy © Copyright 2018 by ERM Worldwide Group Limited and/or its affiliates (‘ERM’). All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without prior written permission of ERM. Low cost gas and sensor particulate monitors Real world experience and lessons learned The business of sustainability © Copyright 2019 by ERM Worldwide Group Limited and/or its affiliates (‘ERM’). All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without prior written permission of ERM. Dr. Chris Hazell-Marshall, ERM Air Quality Lead, EMEA
  • 2. The business of sustainability Brief introduction to ERM ERM: 5000+ staff in more than 40 countries, with a global air quality practice ERM interest in low cost monitors: • Remote locations • No specialist support for Reference stations • Logistical and cost issues with running complex Reference sites • Improved temporal resolution compared to diffusion tubes • ‘Plug and play’ minimising repeat site visits 2
  • 3. The business of sustainability A quick recap… for the gases Low cost monitors based on electrochemical cell technology European Commission: Too good to be true? At the current stage of development, unfortunately we have to conclude yes Defra: at least for now, low-cost sensors cannot be used as direct replacements for the reference monitors used by Defra in the AURN USEPA: No lower cost sensors currently meet these strict [regulatory grade] requirements or have been formally submitted to EPA for such a determination 3 Cross-interference a critical issue, sensitive to other gases, temperature, humidity Verification and calibration difficult Generally acknowledged that the technology is not yet developed sufficiently to be used as ‘Reference’ or ‘Indicative’ monitors, but that they do have their place…
  • 4. The business of sustainability A quick recap… for the particulates Several light scattering monitors have achieved MCERTS or TUV ‘Indicative’ status Under development for longer than the gases, so technology better understood Less susceptible to cross interference, as only monitoring one thing, but: • Humidity and moisture are potential issues • Colour and shape of particulates influence readings • TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 split • Calibration for TSP possible with gravimetric analysis of filters 4
  • 5. The business of sustainability Gases – Case 1 Monitoring undertaken in urban area • Low cost monitor co-located with reference station in urban background location • Monitored values multiple times higher than reference site • Low concentrations late morning, highest in evening • Generally poor correlation • Unsure what the monitor is responding to, but doesn’t look like it’s NO2 5
  • 6. The business of sustainability Gases – Case 2 Monitoring undertaken in rural area • Low cost monitor co-located with diffusion tubes • Monitored values multiple times higher than diffusion tubes • Measured NO2 and ozone heavily correlated 6 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 Aug-18 Sep-18 Oct-18 Nov-18 NO2(ppb) Diffusion tubes Low cost monitor
  • 7. The business of sustainability Gases – Case 3 Monitoring undertaken in rural area, with some larger villages • Low cost monitor co-located with diffusion tubes • Monitored values multiple times higher than diffusion tubes, but values in right ‘ballpark’ • Generally poor correlation between diffusion tubes and low cost monitor 7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 07-Jan 14-Jan 21-Jan 28-Jan 04-Feb 11-Feb 18-Feb 25-Feb NO2ppb NO2 ppb 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 NO2ppb Low Cost Diffusion tube
  • 8. The business of sustainability Gases - Summary In summary • Three campaigns undertaken, one with full Reference method site, two with Diffusion tubes • Low cost monitors over-estimate in all cases • In case of Reference station co-location, overestimation is considerable • Generally poor correlation with co-location sites • Evidence of interference? Temperature in Case 1? Ozone in Case 2? • Some uncertainties and data reliability challenges due to types of locations and co-location with diffusion tubes • Technology doesn’t look ready to deploy without co-location 8
  • 9. The business of sustainability Particulates examples Senegal – semi-urban area on edge of Sahara, optical co-located with eBAM: • Traces tracked along well, but optical under-read by factor of three compared to eBAM • Weighing of filter in optical sampler to provide gravimetric calibration worked well and brought values close to eBAM Serbia – rural sites with intensive agriculture • Results as expected for type of area, more typical type of soil-based dusts • Good trend correlation with dust deposition results Sweden – semi-urban site in vicinity of operational mine • Results as expected, comparable results between two different makes of optical monitor • Good performance in cold conditions Mozambique – rural sand beach shoreline • Unfeasibly low concentrations monitored • Unfeasible TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 split • Traced to type of dust, very light coloured dusts from white sand and sea salt 9
  • 10. The business of sustainability Particulates examples continued Cameroon – remote jungle location with little existing infrastructure • Results as expected concentrations tracking wet and dry periods • Concentrations low as expected, but not unfeasibly so Guinea – rural areas with some existing industry and unpaved trafficked roads, monitor at multiple locations • Responded as expected in the various airsheds investigated • Tracked dry and wet periods as expected, and diurnal periods • Use of heated inlets effective during wet and humid periods Ethiopia – three sites in Afar region in arid, hot desert climate • Two different monitors, results compared well • Monitors correctly identified large fluctuations associated with dust storms and occasional wet weather periods 10
  • 11. The business of sustainability Particulates summary Multiple campaigns undertaken in wide variety of environments: hot, cold, dry, wet, humid, desert, arctic, temperate etc. Monitors perform well: • Tracking changes in concentrations in line with observed environmental variations • Coping with different environments, and moisture/humidity when using heated inlets Monitors perform less well: • Absolute concentrations in some circumstances, improved with use of gravimetric calibration • Monitoring atypical dusts, in particular colour 11
  • 12. The business of sustainability Summary Gaseous monitors • Susceptible to interference from other gases, temperature and relative humidity and controlling for these is difficult • Potential issues with overestimation compared to other methods • In our experience, not usable as ‘stand-alone’ monitors, co-location is essential Particulates • Good performance across range of environments • Good performance where dusts are typical, but potential for substantial error where atypical dusts are encountered • TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 split can be problematic • Calibration possible by collecting filters (some makes) and gravimetric analysis to provide verification factor • In our experience, usable as ‘stand-alone’ monitors, but use of gravimetric calibration recommended to control for atypical dusts 12
  • 13. The business of sustainability Thank you! Dr. Chris Hazell-Marshall Environmental Resources Management E: Chris.hazellmarshall@erm.com T: +44 (0)1792 306 951 13