Controlling Invasive Plants
Objectives <ul><li>Explain why invasive plants are a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identify six important weeds that are invas...
Outline <ul><li>Characteristics of invasive plants    </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and biology of six weeds that are i...
Can you name these six invaders?
Photo - Himalayan blackberry
Photo - Himalayan blackberry Himalayan blackberry ( Rubus armeniacus )
Photo - English ivy
Photo - English ivy English ivy ( Hedera helix )
Photo - knotweed
Photo - knotweed  Knotweed ( Polygonum x bohemicum )
Photo - knotweed
Photo - knotweed  Knotweed ( Polygonum  polystachyum )
Photo - butterfly bush
Photo - butterfly bush Butterfly Bush ( Buddleia davidii )
Photo - yellow flag iris
Photo - yellow flag iris Yellow flag iris ( Iris pseudacorus )
Photo - reed canarygrass
Photo - reed canarygrass Reed canarygrass  ( Phalaris arundinacea )
What do these plants have in common?
Characteristics of Invasive Plants <ul><li>Lack natural enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Non-native </li></ul><ul><li>Fast growin...
Common Streamside Invasives <ul><li>Himalayan blackberry </li></ul><ul><li>English ivy </li></ul><ul><li>Knotweed </li></u...
Problems in Creeks and Wetlands <ul><li>Displace native plants completely </li></ul><ul><li>Provide less food and habitat ...
Photo – knotweed infestation in Lincoln Co. Oregon Department of Agriculture Knotweed infestation in Lincoln County, OR
Photo – knotweed infestation in Clackamas Co. Japanese Knotweed ( Polygonum  cuspidatum ) Knotweed infestation in Clackama...
Photo – knotweed infestation in Clackamas Co.  Knotweed infestation in Clackamas County, OR The Nature Conservancy
Photo - butterfly bush infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County, OR
Photo – butterfly bush infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County , OR
Photo – butterfly busy infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County, OR
Photo – yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz Co., WA Yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz County, WA
Photo – yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz Co., WA Yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz County, WA
Integrated Weed Management <ul><li>The best control will be achieved where: </li></ul><ul><li>Various methods are combined...
Integrated Weed Management <ul><li>For these difficult to control species: </li></ul><ul><li>Control by mechanical methods...
Integrated Weed Management <ul><li>A lot of information is available on invasive plants, but many references sidestep disc...
Two Useful Herbicide Tools <ul><li>Triclopyr   (amine and ester formulations) </li></ul><ul><li>Selective – does not kill ...
Amines and Esters   <ul><li>Amines  are water-based formulations Esters   are oil-based </li></ul><ul><li>Esters volatiliz...
Herbicide Products With Triclopyr <ul><li>Garlon 3A  (amine) – 3 lb/gal triclopyr  Labeled for non-crop and forest sites, ...
Herbicide Products With Triclopyr <ul><li>Crossbow  – 2 lb 2,4-D + 1 lb/gal triclopyr is an ester.  Not for use over water...
Herbicide Products w/Glyphosate <ul><li>Rodeo  (amine) – 5 lb/gal glyphosate   Labeled for non-crop and forest sites, incl...
Controlling Himalayan Blackberry
Photo - blackberries invading a creek in Yamhill Co. Blackberries invading a creek in Yamhill County, OR
Mechanical Control of Blackberry <ul><li>Cut or mow the canes back to ground level repeatedly </li></ul><ul><li>Dig up roo...
Chemical Control of Blackberry <ul><li>Foliar Application </li></ul><ul><li>Triclopyr (2-3% solution) apply anytime during...
Chemical Control of Blackberry <ul><li>Cut Stem Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Apply undiluted triclopyr to freshly-cut stems...
Blackberry IWM for Large Areas <ul><li>Option 1 – Cut or mow early to mid-season, allow to regrow grow to about 18 inches ...
Controlling English Ivy
Photo – English ivy infestation in Yamhill Co. English ivy infestation in Yamhill County, OR Yamhill Soil and Water Conser...
Photo – English ivy infestation in Yamhill Co. English ivy infestation in Yamhill County, OR Yamhill Soil and Water Conser...
Photos –  English ivy mature form English Ivy Mature Form
Photos – black walnut tree covered by English ivy English Ivy 2002 2006
No Ivy League website home page http://www.portlandonline.com/parks/index.cfm?c=47820
Mechanical Control of English Ivy <ul><li>First priority – remove the vertical growing vines to stop flower and seed produ...
Mechanical Control of English Ivy <ul><li>“ Lifesaver” Method for Trees   (No Ivy League) </li></ul><ul><li>Cut vines all ...
Photos – “lifesaver” method of English ivy control “ Lifesaver” for a Tree With English Ivy
Photos – “lifesaver” method of English ivy control “ Lifesaver” for a Tree With English Ivy
Chemical Control of English Ivy <ul><li>Cut Stump Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Cut the stem and immediately apply an undilu...
Chemical Control of English Ivy <ul><li>Waxy surface of (especially older) leaves is hard for amine herbicides to penetrat...
Controlling Knotweed
Photo – knotweed infesting the upper Skykomish River, WA Knotweed infesting the Upper Skykomish River, WA King County Noxi...
Photo – knotweed stems, leaves and flowers  Knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum )
Photo – knotweed leaves, 3 species comparison Japanese Himalayan Giant
Photo – knotweed stems Knotweed ( Polygonum x bohemicum )
Photo – knotweed rhizome system exposed on a bank  Japanese Knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum ) The Nature Conservancy Knotw...
Photo – knotweed infestation in winter Seattle Public Utilities Knotweed stems in winter
Mechanical Control of Knotweed <ul><li>Cut knotweed stems at least  twice a month  between April and August, then once a m...
Geotextile Fabric Woven  Seattle Public Utilities Non-Woven
Photos – install fabric very loosely Seattle Public Utilities Geotextile Fabric Too tight – plants break through Seattle P...
Chemical Control of Knotweed <ul><li>Stem injection Method  (for small patches)   </li></ul><ul><li>Rodeo and Aquamaster h...
Photo – knotweed stem injection Knotweed stem injection
Chemical Control of Knotweed <ul><li>Foliar Application Method   ( The Nature Conservancy ) </li></ul><ul><li>Triclopyr or...
Controlling Butterfly Bush
Photo – butterfly bush dominating riparian habitat in Washington Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board Butterfly bus...
Control of Butterfly Bush <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Butterfly bush is still being sold by nurseries </li></ul><ul...
Control of Butterfly Bush <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Individual plants can be dug up </li></ul><ul><li>Digging c...
Control of Butterfly Bush <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Foliar application with glyphosate (2% solution) in the fall ...
Controlling Yellow Flag Iris Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board
Control of Yellow Flag Iris <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow flag iris is still being sold by nurseries </li></ul...
Control of Yellow Flag Iris <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Removing the entire rhizome mass can control small isolat...
Control of Yellow Flag Iris <ul><li>Chemical   (The Nature Conservancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Foliar application of glyphosate...
Controlling Reed Canarygrass
Photos – reed canarygrass Reed Canarygrass ( Phalaris arundinacea )
Photos – reed canarygrass Reed Canarygrass ( Phalaris arundinacea ) Inflorescence –  Emerging and Fully-opened Collar Regi...
Photo – reed canarygrass infesting a creek in Yamhill Co. Reed canarygrass infestation in Yamhill County , OR
Control of Reed Canarygrass <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>A new small infestation can be dug up, but in an establis...
Control of Reed Canarygrass <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Foliar application of glyphosate (2% solution) at the boot ...
Reed Canarygrass IWM <ul><li>Eliminate dead litter by mowing or burning, then spray regrowth with glyphosate </li></ul><ul...
What is being done about invasive plants in Oregon?
Oregon Department of Agriculture  Noxious Weed Control Program <ul><li>Eradication of new, small infestations </li></ul><u...
ODA noxious weed website giant knotweed profile http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/WEEDS/profile_giantknotweed.shtml
Local Weed Control Districts   <ul><li>Designate the county noxious weeds list and have regulatory authority </li></ul><ul...
For More Information <ul><li>Please see the following websites </li></ul><ul><li>http://extension.oregonstate.edu/yamhill/...
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Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens For Web (Pp Tminimizer)

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Methods of controlling invasive plants in streamside areas

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  • This slide show was created by Susan Aldrich-Markham, OSU Extension Service, Yamhill County and finalized on 6-26-2008. It is intended for use statewide, however, can be modified to suit local purposes.
  • Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens For Web (Pp Tminimizer)

    1. 1. Controlling Invasive Plants
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain why invasive plants are a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identify six important weeds that are invasive along streams </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the biology of these weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a removal plan of your own </li></ul>At the end, you will be able to:
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Characteristics of invasive plants </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and biology of six weeds that are invasive on streams </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Weed Management – combining mechanical and chemical control methods into a long-term plan </li></ul><ul><li>Specific control methods for each weed </li></ul>
    4. 4. Can you name these six invaders?
    5. 5. Photo - Himalayan blackberry
    6. 6. Photo - Himalayan blackberry Himalayan blackberry ( Rubus armeniacus )
    7. 7. Photo - English ivy
    8. 8. Photo - English ivy English ivy ( Hedera helix )
    9. 9. Photo - knotweed
    10. 10. Photo - knotweed Knotweed ( Polygonum x bohemicum )
    11. 11. Photo - knotweed
    12. 12. Photo - knotweed Knotweed ( Polygonum polystachyum )
    13. 13. Photo - butterfly bush
    14. 14. Photo - butterfly bush Butterfly Bush ( Buddleia davidii )
    15. 15. Photo - yellow flag iris
    16. 16. Photo - yellow flag iris Yellow flag iris ( Iris pseudacorus )
    17. 17. Photo - reed canarygrass
    18. 18. Photo - reed canarygrass Reed canarygrass ( Phalaris arundinacea )
    19. 19. What do these plants have in common?
    20. 20. Characteristics of Invasive Plants <ul><li>Lack natural enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Non-native </li></ul><ul><li>Fast growing </li></ul><ul><li>Fast reproduction and effective dispersal </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Few habitat restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Able to form single-species stands </li></ul>
    21. 21. Common Streamside Invasives <ul><li>Himalayan blackberry </li></ul><ul><li>English ivy </li></ul><ul><li>Knotweed </li></ul><ul><li>Butterfly bush </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow flag iris </li></ul><ul><li>Reed canarygrass </li></ul>
    22. 22. Problems in Creeks and Wetlands <ul><li>Displace native plants completely </li></ul><ul><li>Provide less food and habitat for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Increase streambank erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Alter natural succession </li></ul><ul><li>Without control, the problems get worse </li></ul>
    23. 23. Photo – knotweed infestation in Lincoln Co. Oregon Department of Agriculture Knotweed infestation in Lincoln County, OR
    24. 24. Photo – knotweed infestation in Clackamas Co. Japanese Knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum ) Knotweed infestation in Clackamas County, OR The Nature Conservancy
    25. 25. Photo – knotweed infestation in Clackamas Co. Knotweed infestation in Clackamas County, OR The Nature Conservancy
    26. 26. Photo - butterfly bush infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County, OR
    27. 27. Photo – butterfly bush infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County , OR
    28. 28. Photo – butterfly busy infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County, OR
    29. 29. Photo – yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz Co., WA Yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz County, WA
    30. 30. Photo – yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz Co., WA Yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz County, WA
    31. 31. Integrated Weed Management <ul><li>The best control will be achieved where: </li></ul><ul><li>Various methods are combined (such as mechanical control and herbicide) </li></ul><ul><li>The site is monitored and any regrowth or new populations are treated (these weeds will require several years to control) </li></ul><ul><li>Control projects are followed by active restoration planting </li></ul>
    32. 32. Integrated Weed Management <ul><li>For these difficult to control species: </li></ul><ul><li>Control by mechanical methods alone is possible for smaller areas, but only with regular and repeated follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Using a herbicide in combination with other methods will often improve control </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of larger natural areas will usually require the use of herbicides </li></ul>
    33. 33. Integrated Weed Management <ul><li>A lot of information is available on invasive plants, but many references sidestep discussing chemical control </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation will cover two general-use herbicides, with information for landowners to decide if or how the herbicides might be used as part of their integrated weed management program </li></ul>
    34. 34. Two Useful Herbicide Tools <ul><li>Triclopyr (amine and ester formulations) </li></ul><ul><li>Selective – does not kill grass </li></ul><ul><li>Acts through the leaves, stems and bark </li></ul><ul><li>Some soil residual activity </li></ul><ul><li>Glyphosate (amine formulations) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-selective – kills grass and broadleaf </li></ul><ul><li>Acts only through the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>No soil activity </li></ul>
    35. 35. Amines and Esters <ul><li>Amines are water-based formulations Esters are oil-based </li></ul><ul><li>Esters volatilize and move in air at lower temperatures than water (over 70 0 ) </li></ul><ul><li>There is more potential for vapor drift and off-target damage with esters </li></ul><ul><li>Grapes, maples, etc. are very sensitive to triclopyr, especially the new spring growth </li></ul>
    36. 36. Herbicide Products With Triclopyr <ul><li>Garlon 3A (amine) – 3 lb/gal triclopyr Labeled for non-crop and forest sites, including in and around standing water such as wetlands, ponds and lakes (but not if water is used for irrigation) </li></ul><ul><li>Renovate 3 (amine) – 3 lb/gal triclopyr Labeled for aquatic sites including banks </li></ul><ul><li>Garlon 4 (ester) – 4 lb/gal triclopyr Non-crop and forest sites, not over water </li></ul>
    37. 37. Herbicide Products With Triclopyr <ul><li>Crossbow – 2 lb 2,4-D + 1 lb/gal triclopyr is an ester. Not for use over water. Vapor drift is a problem in warm weather! </li></ul><ul><li>Triclopyr amine products sold in small containers (0.5 lb/gal triclopyr) include: Brush-Be-Gon , Brush Killer Plus , Blackberry & Brush Killer and others </li></ul>
    38. 38. Herbicide Products w/Glyphosate <ul><li>Rodeo (amine) – 5 lb/gal glyphosate Labeled for non-crop and forest sites, including in and around aquatic sites </li></ul><ul><li>Aquamaster (amine) – 5 lb/gal Labeled for aquatic and non-crop sites </li></ul><ul><li>Roundup (amine) – various concentrations Non-crop sites, not over water </li></ul>
    39. 39. Controlling Himalayan Blackberry
    40. 40. Photo - blackberries invading a creek in Yamhill Co. Blackberries invading a creek in Yamhill County, OR
    41. 41. Mechanical Control of Blackberry <ul><li>Cut or mow the canes back to ground level repeatedly </li></ul><ul><li>Dig up roots and crowns </li></ul><ul><li>Graze with goats (only if desirable plants are not present) </li></ul><ul><li>Establish other plants on the site for competition </li></ul>
    42. 42. Chemical Control of Blackberry <ul><li>Foliar Application </li></ul><ul><li>Triclopyr (2-3% solution) apply anytime during active growth period – spring to fall </li></ul><ul><li>Or triclopyr ester (4% solution) is effective in the winter, when many native plants are dormant </li></ul><ul><li>Or glyphosate (2-3%) fall application only </li></ul>
    43. 43. Chemical Control of Blackberry <ul><li>Cut Stem Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Apply undiluted triclopyr to freshly-cut stems (be sure to get both ends if rooted) </li></ul><ul><li>Not as effective as a foliar application, but does not injure plants growing nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Good as a follow-up treatment after most of the blackberry infestation is removed and other plants are established </li></ul>
    44. 44. Blackberry IWM for Large Areas <ul><li>Option 1 – Cut or mow early to mid-season, allow to regrow grow to about 18 inches tall, then apply herbicide </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 – Broadcast herbicide late summer or fall before cutting or burning </li></ul><ul><li>Plant native vegetation to occupy the site </li></ul><ul><li>Control competing vegetation around the desirable plants with regular maintenance </li></ul>
    45. 45. Controlling English Ivy
    46. 46. Photo – English ivy infestation in Yamhill Co. English ivy infestation in Yamhill County, OR Yamhill Soil and Water Conservation District
    47. 47. Photo – English ivy infestation in Yamhill Co. English ivy infestation in Yamhill County, OR Yamhill Soil and Water Conservation District
    48. 48. Photos – English ivy mature form English Ivy Mature Form
    49. 49. Photos – black walnut tree covered by English ivy English Ivy 2002 2006
    50. 50. No Ivy League website home page http://www.portlandonline.com/parks/index.cfm?c=47820
    51. 51. Mechanical Control of English Ivy <ul><li>First priority – remove the vertical growing vines to stop flower and seed production </li></ul><ul><li>Pull up vines, removing as many of the roots and stems as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Work from the outside edges of the infestation towards the center </li></ul><ul><li>Most sites will require a second clearing, then maintenance 1-2 times per year </li></ul>
    52. 52. Mechanical Control of English Ivy <ul><li>“ Lifesaver” Method for Trees (No Ivy League) </li></ul><ul><li>Cut vines all around the trunk (vines above the cuts will die and eventually fall off) </li></ul><ul><li>Pull up vines and roots from a 6-foot radius around the base of the tree and maintain this zone ivy-free </li></ul>
    53. 53. Photos – “lifesaver” method of English ivy control “ Lifesaver” for a Tree With English Ivy
    54. 54. Photos – “lifesaver” method of English ivy control “ Lifesaver” for a Tree With English Ivy
    55. 55. Chemical Control of English Ivy <ul><li>Cut Stump Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Cut the stem and immediately apply an undiluted solution of either triclopyr or glyphosate </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents vines cut from the trunk of a tree from immediately regrowing up the tree </li></ul>
    56. 56. Chemical Control of English Ivy <ul><li>Waxy surface of (especially older) leaves is hard for amine herbicides to penetrate – add a non-ionic surfactant </li></ul><ul><li>Foliar application of glyphosate, triclopyr or a mixture of both (2-5% solution) in winter; second herbicide treatment or manual spot removal 6-12 months later </li></ul><ul><li>Or cut leaves and stems first with a cord trimmer, then spray freshly cut surfaces </li></ul>
    57. 57. Controlling Knotweed
    58. 58. Photo – knotweed infesting the upper Skykomish River, WA Knotweed infesting the Upper Skykomish River, WA King County Noxious Weed Program
    59. 59. Photo – knotweed stems, leaves and flowers Knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum )
    60. 60. Photo – knotweed leaves, 3 species comparison Japanese Himalayan Giant
    61. 61. Photo – knotweed stems Knotweed ( Polygonum x bohemicum )
    62. 62. Photo – knotweed rhizome system exposed on a bank Japanese Knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum ) The Nature Conservancy Knotweed rhizomes exposed on a river bank
    63. 63. Photo – knotweed infestation in winter Seattle Public Utilities Knotweed stems in winter
    64. 64. Mechanical Control of Knotweed <ul><li>Cut knotweed stems at least twice a month between April and August, then once a month until the first frost </li></ul><ul><li>Keep this up for 2 to 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose of all cut stems and root fragments because they can resprout </li></ul><ul><li>Or cover patch loosely with geo-textile, break off stems growing underneath </li></ul>
    65. 65. Geotextile Fabric Woven Seattle Public Utilities Non-Woven
    66. 66. Photos – install fabric very loosely Seattle Public Utilities Geotextile Fabric Too tight – plants break through Seattle Public Utilities Loose fabric – allows growth Under It
    67. 67. Chemical Control of Knotweed <ul><li>Stem injection Method (for small patches) </li></ul><ul><li>Rodeo and Aquamaster have labels </li></ul><ul><li>Inject up to 5 ml into the hollow stem about 6 inches above the ground, just below a node (3 ml is adequate) </li></ul><ul><li>Or cut off stem and fill hollow with 3-5 ml </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum rate is 8 quarts/acre </li></ul>
    68. 68. Photo – knotweed stem injection Knotweed stem injection
    69. 69. Chemical Control of Knotweed <ul><li>Foliar Application Method ( The Nature Conservancy ) </li></ul><ul><li>Triclopyr or glyphosate (3 to 5% solution), plus a non-ionic surfactant </li></ul><ul><li>Spraying plants at 3 to 6 ft tall is practical, but flowering stage is most effective </li></ul><ul><li>Best to cut or spray in the spring, then spray regrowth again in the fall </li></ul>
    70. 70. Controlling Butterfly Bush
    71. 71. Photo – butterfly bush dominating riparian habitat in Washington Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board Butterfly bush dominating riparian habitat in Washington
    72. 72. Control of Butterfly Bush <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Butterfly bush is still being sold by nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>The best control is not to plant it and to encourage others not to plant it </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant, light seeds are dispersed by wind and water; remove all flowers by October to prevent dispersal </li></ul>
    73. 73. Control of Butterfly Bush <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Individual plants can be dug up </li></ul><ul><li>Digging causes soil disturbance and makes a site more likely to be reinvaded </li></ul><ul><li>Plants will resprout from the rootstock if stems are cut </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting off stems, then applying herbicide to the cut surfaces is a good option </li></ul>
    74. 74. Control of Butterfly Bush <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Foliar application with glyphosate (2% solution) in the fall </li></ul><ul><li>Or apply undiluted glyphosate to recently cut stumps </li></ul><ul><li>Triclopyr is slightly less effective with both methods </li></ul>
    75. 75. Controlling Yellow Flag Iris Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board
    76. 76. Control of Yellow Flag Iris <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow flag iris is still being sold by nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>The best control is not to plant it and to encourage others not to plant it </li></ul><ul><li>Deadhead flowers to prevent seed production </li></ul>
    77. 77. Control of Yellow Flag Iris <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Removing the entire rhizome mass can control small isolated patches, but even small rhizome fragments can resprout </li></ul><ul><li>Digging disturbs the soil and may promote germination of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Mowing or cutting must be repeated every year for several years to weaken plants </li></ul>
    78. 78. Control of Yellow Flag Iris <ul><li>Chemical (The Nature Conservancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Foliar application of glyphosate (5 to 8% solution) plus a non-ionic surfactant </li></ul><ul><li>Or apply a 25% solution with a dripless wick/wiper </li></ul><ul><li>Or apply glyphosate to freshly cut leaf and stem surfaces </li></ul>
    79. 79. Controlling Reed Canarygrass
    80. 80. Photos – reed canarygrass Reed Canarygrass ( Phalaris arundinacea )
    81. 81. Photos – reed canarygrass Reed Canarygrass ( Phalaris arundinacea ) Inflorescence – Emerging and Fully-opened Collar Region With Ligule
    82. 82. Photo – reed canarygrass infesting a creek in Yamhill Co. Reed canarygrass infestation in Yamhill County , OR
    83. 83. Control of Reed Canarygrass <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>A new small infestation can be dug up, but in an established infestation, the thick mat of rhizomes may be >2 feet deep </li></ul><ul><li>It re-establishes easily from seeds and rhizome pieces left in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Mowing or grazing helps to prevent seed production </li></ul>
    84. 84. Control of Reed Canarygrass <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Foliar application of glyphosate (2% solution) at the boot to heading stage of growth </li></ul><ul><li>Triclopyr is not effective on grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Or wipe individual plants with undiluted product (don’t drip on plants below), using wiper applicator or spray bottle and glove </li></ul>
    85. 85. Reed Canarygrass IWM <ul><li>Eliminate dead litter by mowing or burning, then spray regrowth with glyphosate </li></ul><ul><li>Plant trees and shrubs to create year-round shade – conifers or dense plantings of deciduous species </li></ul><ul><li>Control grass around the desirable plants for the first few years </li></ul>
    86. 86. What is being done about invasive plants in Oregon?
    87. 87. Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program <ul><li>Eradication of new, small infestations </li></ul><ul><li>Biological control of widespread weeds (110 control agents, 32 weed species) </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon State Weed Board designates state noxious weeds and provides grants to local agencies and organizations </li></ul>
    88. 88. ODA noxious weed website giant knotweed profile http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/WEEDS/profile_giantknotweed.shtml
    89. 89. Local Weed Control Districts <ul><li>Designate the county noxious weeds list and have regulatory authority </li></ul><ul><li>Apply for grants for local weed control projects and public education </li></ul><ul><li>20 of the 36 Oregon counties have districts </li></ul><ul><li>Most are run by county Public Works, and some by Soil & Water Conservation Districts </li></ul>
    90. 90. For More Information <ul><li>Please see the following websites </li></ul><ul><li>http://extension.oregonstate.edu/yamhill/eco-gardening/streamside-gardening </li></ul><ul><li>http://extension.oregonstate.edu/yamhill/controlling-invasive-plants </li></ul>Presentation created by Susan Aldrich-Markham Retired Field Crops Faculty Oregon State University Extension Service, Yamhill County

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