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Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens  For Web (Pp Tminimizer)
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Controlling Invasive Plants In Streamside Gardens For Web (Pp Tminimizer)

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Methods of controlling invasive plants in streamside areas

Methods of controlling invasive plants in streamside areas

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  • This slide show was created by Susan Aldrich-Markham, OSU Extension Service, Yamhill County and finalized on 6-26-2008. It is intended for use statewide, however, can be modified to suit local purposes.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Controlling Invasive Plants
    • 2. Objectives
      • Explain why invasive plants are a problem
      • Identify six important weeds that are invasive along streams
      • Describe the biology of these weeds
      • Develop a removal plan of your own
      At the end, you will be able to:
    • 3. Outline
      • Characteristics of invasive plants
      • Identification and biology of six weeds that are invasive on streams
      • Integrated Weed Management – combining mechanical and chemical control methods into a long-term plan
      • Specific control methods for each weed
    • 4. Can you name these six invaders?
    • 5. Photo - Himalayan blackberry
    • 6. Photo - Himalayan blackberry Himalayan blackberry ( Rubus armeniacus )
    • 7. Photo - English ivy
    • 8. Photo - English ivy English ivy ( Hedera helix )
    • 9. Photo - knotweed
    • 10. Photo - knotweed Knotweed ( Polygonum x bohemicum )
    • 11. Photo - knotweed
    • 12. Photo - knotweed Knotweed ( Polygonum polystachyum )
    • 13. Photo - butterfly bush
    • 14. Photo - butterfly bush Butterfly Bush ( Buddleia davidii )
    • 15. Photo - yellow flag iris
    • 16. Photo - yellow flag iris Yellow flag iris ( Iris pseudacorus )
    • 17. Photo - reed canarygrass
    • 18. Photo - reed canarygrass Reed canarygrass ( Phalaris arundinacea )
    • 19. What do these plants have in common?
    • 20. Characteristics of Invasive Plants
      • Lack natural enemies
      • Non-native
      • Fast growing
      • Fast reproduction and effective dispersal
      • Long-lived seeds
      • Few habitat restrictions
      • Able to form single-species stands
    • 21. Common Streamside Invasives
      • Himalayan blackberry
      • English ivy
      • Knotweed
      • Butterfly bush
      • Yellow flag iris
      • Reed canarygrass
    • 22. Problems in Creeks and Wetlands
      • Displace native plants completely
      • Provide less food and habitat for wildlife
      • Increase streambank erosion
      • Alter natural succession
      • Without control, the problems get worse
    • 23. Photo – knotweed infestation in Lincoln Co. Oregon Department of Agriculture Knotweed infestation in Lincoln County, OR
    • 24. Photo – knotweed infestation in Clackamas Co. Japanese Knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum ) Knotweed infestation in Clackamas County, OR The Nature Conservancy
    • 25. Photo – knotweed infestation in Clackamas Co. Knotweed infestation in Clackamas County, OR The Nature Conservancy
    • 26. Photo - butterfly bush infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County, OR
    • 27. Photo – butterfly bush infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County , OR
    • 28. Photo – butterfly busy infestation in Lane Co. Butterfly bush infestation in Lane County, OR
    • 29. Photo – yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz Co., WA Yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz County, WA
    • 30. Photo – yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz Co., WA Yellow flag iris infestation in Cowlitz County, WA
    • 31. Integrated Weed Management
      • The best control will be achieved where:
      • Various methods are combined (such as mechanical control and herbicide)
      • The site is monitored and any regrowth or new populations are treated (these weeds will require several years to control)
      • Control projects are followed by active restoration planting
    • 32. Integrated Weed Management
      • For these difficult to control species:
      • Control by mechanical methods alone is possible for smaller areas, but only with regular and repeated follow-up
      • Using a herbicide in combination with other methods will often improve control
      • Restoration of larger natural areas will usually require the use of herbicides
    • 33. Integrated Weed Management
      • A lot of information is available on invasive plants, but many references sidestep discussing chemical control
      • This presentation will cover two general-use herbicides, with information for landowners to decide if or how the herbicides might be used as part of their integrated weed management program
    • 34. Two Useful Herbicide Tools
      • Triclopyr (amine and ester formulations)
      • Selective – does not kill grass
      • Acts through the leaves, stems and bark
      • Some soil residual activity
      • Glyphosate (amine formulations)
      • Non-selective – kills grass and broadleaf
      • Acts only through the leaves
      • No soil activity
    • 35. Amines and Esters
      • Amines are water-based formulations Esters are oil-based
      • Esters volatilize and move in air at lower temperatures than water (over 70 0 )
      • There is more potential for vapor drift and off-target damage with esters
      • Grapes, maples, etc. are very sensitive to triclopyr, especially the new spring growth
    • 36. Herbicide Products With Triclopyr
      • Garlon 3A (amine) – 3 lb/gal triclopyr Labeled for non-crop and forest sites, including in and around standing water such as wetlands, ponds and lakes (but not if water is used for irrigation)
      • Renovate 3 (amine) – 3 lb/gal triclopyr Labeled for aquatic sites including banks
      • Garlon 4 (ester) – 4 lb/gal triclopyr Non-crop and forest sites, not over water
    • 37. Herbicide Products With Triclopyr
      • Crossbow – 2 lb 2,4-D + 1 lb/gal triclopyr is an ester. Not for use over water. Vapor drift is a problem in warm weather!
      • Triclopyr amine products sold in small containers (0.5 lb/gal triclopyr) include: Brush-Be-Gon , Brush Killer Plus , Blackberry & Brush Killer and others
    • 38. Herbicide Products w/Glyphosate
      • Rodeo (amine) – 5 lb/gal glyphosate Labeled for non-crop and forest sites, including in and around aquatic sites
      • Aquamaster (amine) – 5 lb/gal Labeled for aquatic and non-crop sites
      • Roundup (amine) – various concentrations Non-crop sites, not over water
    • 39. Controlling Himalayan Blackberry
    • 40. Photo - blackberries invading a creek in Yamhill Co. Blackberries invading a creek in Yamhill County, OR
    • 41. Mechanical Control of Blackberry
      • Cut or mow the canes back to ground level repeatedly
      • Dig up roots and crowns
      • Graze with goats (only if desirable plants are not present)
      • Establish other plants on the site for competition
    • 42. Chemical Control of Blackberry
      • Foliar Application
      • Triclopyr (2-3% solution) apply anytime during active growth period – spring to fall
      • Or triclopyr ester (4% solution) is effective in the winter, when many native plants are dormant
      • Or glyphosate (2-3%) fall application only
    • 43. Chemical Control of Blackberry
      • Cut Stem Treatment
      • Apply undiluted triclopyr to freshly-cut stems (be sure to get both ends if rooted)
      • Not as effective as a foliar application, but does not injure plants growing nearby
      • Good as a follow-up treatment after most of the blackberry infestation is removed and other plants are established
    • 44. Blackberry IWM for Large Areas
      • Option 1 – Cut or mow early to mid-season, allow to regrow grow to about 18 inches tall, then apply herbicide
      • Option 2 – Broadcast herbicide late summer or fall before cutting or burning
      • Plant native vegetation to occupy the site
      • Control competing vegetation around the desirable plants with regular maintenance
    • 45. Controlling English Ivy
    • 46. Photo – English ivy infestation in Yamhill Co. English ivy infestation in Yamhill County, OR Yamhill Soil and Water Conservation District
    • 47. Photo – English ivy infestation in Yamhill Co. English ivy infestation in Yamhill County, OR Yamhill Soil and Water Conservation District
    • 48. Photos – English ivy mature form English Ivy Mature Form
    • 49. Photos – black walnut tree covered by English ivy English Ivy 2002 2006
    • 50. No Ivy League website home page http://www.portlandonline.com/parks/index.cfm?c=47820
    • 51. Mechanical Control of English Ivy
      • First priority – remove the vertical growing vines to stop flower and seed production
      • Pull up vines, removing as many of the roots and stems as possible
      • Work from the outside edges of the infestation towards the center
      • Most sites will require a second clearing, then maintenance 1-2 times per year
    • 52. Mechanical Control of English Ivy
      • “ Lifesaver” Method for Trees (No Ivy League)
      • Cut vines all around the trunk (vines above the cuts will die and eventually fall off)
      • Pull up vines and roots from a 6-foot radius around the base of the tree and maintain this zone ivy-free
    • 53. Photos – “lifesaver” method of English ivy control “ Lifesaver” for a Tree With English Ivy
    • 54. Photos – “lifesaver” method of English ivy control “ Lifesaver” for a Tree With English Ivy
    • 55. Chemical Control of English Ivy
      • Cut Stump Treatment
      • Cut the stem and immediately apply an undiluted solution of either triclopyr or glyphosate
      • Prevents vines cut from the trunk of a tree from immediately regrowing up the tree
    • 56. Chemical Control of English Ivy
      • Waxy surface of (especially older) leaves is hard for amine herbicides to penetrate – add a non-ionic surfactant
      • Foliar application of glyphosate, triclopyr or a mixture of both (2-5% solution) in winter; second herbicide treatment or manual spot removal 6-12 months later
      • Or cut leaves and stems first with a cord trimmer, then spray freshly cut surfaces
    • 57. Controlling Knotweed
    • 58. Photo – knotweed infesting the upper Skykomish River, WA Knotweed infesting the Upper Skykomish River, WA King County Noxious Weed Program
    • 59. Photo – knotweed stems, leaves and flowers Knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum )
    • 60. Photo – knotweed leaves, 3 species comparison Japanese Himalayan Giant
    • 61. Photo – knotweed stems Knotweed ( Polygonum x bohemicum )
    • 62. Photo – knotweed rhizome system exposed on a bank Japanese Knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum ) The Nature Conservancy Knotweed rhizomes exposed on a river bank
    • 63. Photo – knotweed infestation in winter Seattle Public Utilities Knotweed stems in winter
    • 64. Mechanical Control of Knotweed
      • Cut knotweed stems at least twice a month between April and August, then once a month until the first frost
      • Keep this up for 2 to 3 years
      • Dispose of all cut stems and root fragments because they can resprout
      • Or cover patch loosely with geo-textile, break off stems growing underneath
    • 65. Geotextile Fabric Woven Seattle Public Utilities Non-Woven
    • 66. Photos – install fabric very loosely Seattle Public Utilities Geotextile Fabric Too tight – plants break through Seattle Public Utilities Loose fabric – allows growth Under It
    • 67. Chemical Control of Knotweed
      • Stem injection Method (for small patches)
      • Rodeo and Aquamaster have labels
      • Inject up to 5 ml into the hollow stem about 6 inches above the ground, just below a node (3 ml is adequate)
      • Or cut off stem and fill hollow with 3-5 ml
      • Maximum rate is 8 quarts/acre
    • 68. Photo – knotweed stem injection Knotweed stem injection
    • 69. Chemical Control of Knotweed
      • Foliar Application Method ( The Nature Conservancy )
      • Triclopyr or glyphosate (3 to 5% solution), plus a non-ionic surfactant
      • Spraying plants at 3 to 6 ft tall is practical, but flowering stage is most effective
      • Best to cut or spray in the spring, then spray regrowth again in the fall
    • 70. Controlling Butterfly Bush
    • 71. Photo – butterfly bush dominating riparian habitat in Washington Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board Butterfly bush dominating riparian habitat in Washington
    • 72. Control of Butterfly Bush
      • Cultural
      • Butterfly bush is still being sold by nurseries
      • The best control is not to plant it and to encourage others not to plant it
      • Abundant, light seeds are dispersed by wind and water; remove all flowers by October to prevent dispersal
    • 73. Control of Butterfly Bush
      • Mechanical
      • Individual plants can be dug up
      • Digging causes soil disturbance and makes a site more likely to be reinvaded
      • Plants will resprout from the rootstock if stems are cut
      • Cutting off stems, then applying herbicide to the cut surfaces is a good option
    • 74. Control of Butterfly Bush
      • Chemical
      • Foliar application with glyphosate (2% solution) in the fall
      • Or apply undiluted glyphosate to recently cut stumps
      • Triclopyr is slightly less effective with both methods
    • 75. Controlling Yellow Flag Iris Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board
    • 76. Control of Yellow Flag Iris
      • Cultural
      • Yellow flag iris is still being sold by nurseries
      • The best control is not to plant it and to encourage others not to plant it
      • Deadhead flowers to prevent seed production
    • 77. Control of Yellow Flag Iris
      • Mechanical
      • Removing the entire rhizome mass can control small isolated patches, but even small rhizome fragments can resprout
      • Digging disturbs the soil and may promote germination of seeds
      • Mowing or cutting must be repeated every year for several years to weaken plants
    • 78. Control of Yellow Flag Iris
      • Chemical (The Nature Conservancy)
      • Foliar application of glyphosate (5 to 8% solution) plus a non-ionic surfactant
      • Or apply a 25% solution with a dripless wick/wiper
      • Or apply glyphosate to freshly cut leaf and stem surfaces
    • 79. Controlling Reed Canarygrass
    • 80. Photos – reed canarygrass Reed Canarygrass ( Phalaris arundinacea )
    • 81. Photos – reed canarygrass Reed Canarygrass ( Phalaris arundinacea ) Inflorescence – Emerging and Fully-opened Collar Region With Ligule
    • 82. Photo – reed canarygrass infesting a creek in Yamhill Co. Reed canarygrass infestation in Yamhill County , OR
    • 83. Control of Reed Canarygrass
      • Mechanical
      • A new small infestation can be dug up, but in an established infestation, the thick mat of rhizomes may be >2 feet deep
      • It re-establishes easily from seeds and rhizome pieces left in the soil
      • Mowing or grazing helps to prevent seed production
    • 84. Control of Reed Canarygrass
      • Chemical
      • Foliar application of glyphosate (2% solution) at the boot to heading stage of growth
      • Triclopyr is not effective on grasses
      • Or wipe individual plants with undiluted product (don’t drip on plants below), using wiper applicator or spray bottle and glove
    • 85. Reed Canarygrass IWM
      • Eliminate dead litter by mowing or burning, then spray regrowth with glyphosate
      • Plant trees and shrubs to create year-round shade – conifers or dense plantings of deciduous species
      • Control grass around the desirable plants for the first few years
    • 86. What is being done about invasive plants in Oregon?
    • 87. Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program
      • Eradication of new, small infestations
      • Biological control of widespread weeds (110 control agents, 32 weed species)
      • Oregon State Weed Board designates state noxious weeds and provides grants to local agencies and organizations
    • 88. ODA noxious weed website giant knotweed profile http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/WEEDS/profile_giantknotweed.shtml
    • 89. Local Weed Control Districts
      • Designate the county noxious weeds list and have regulatory authority
      • Apply for grants for local weed control projects and public education
      • 20 of the 36 Oregon counties have districts
      • Most are run by county Public Works, and some by Soil & Water Conservation Districts
    • 90. For More Information
      • Please see the following websites
      • http://extension.oregonstate.edu/yamhill/eco-gardening/streamside-gardening
      • http://extension.oregonstate.edu/yamhill/controlling-invasive-plants
      Presentation created by Susan Aldrich-Markham Retired Field Crops Faculty Oregon State University Extension Service, Yamhill County

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