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Epidemiology

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These slides review the epidemiology of young people's health.

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Epidemiology

  1. 1. EpidemiologyOF YOUNG PEOPLE’S HEALTH THE
  2. 2. 1. Identify the leading causes of mortality among young people. 2. Identify key causes and prevention strategies to improve young people’s morbidity and mortality. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  3. 3. LEADING CAUSES, BY AGE, 2016, WORLD In groups of two or three answer the following: • What are the top 10 leading causes of death for young people? • Why did you select each of these? • How would your answers change if you made separate lists for each of the following age groups: 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-30?
  4. 4. LEADING CAUSES, AGES 10-24, 2016 , BY REGION South East & East Asia and Oceania Central & East Europe and Central Asia High Income Countries Latin America & Caribbean Middle East and North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Self/Violence Self/Violence Self/Violence War & Disaster Diarrheal/LRI HIV/AIDS Unintentional Transport Transport Transport Transport Self/Violence Diarrhea/LRI Neoplasms Unintentional Neoplasms Unintentional Unintentional Transport NTDs/Malaria Self/Violence Neoplasms Unintentional Neoplasms Self/Violence Unintentional Transport Diarrheal/LRI Cardiovascular Substance Use Cardiovascular Neoplasms Cardiovascular Unintentional Cardiovascular Diarrheal/LRI Cardiovascular Diarrheal/LRI Cardiovascular HIV/AIDS Maternal HIV/AIDS & TB Substance Use Diabetes/Endo. Diabetes/Endo. Diarrheal/LRI Neoplasms Self/Violence Diabetes/Endo. Diabetes/Endo. Non-Comm. HIV/AIDS & TB Diabetes/Endo. Maternal Diabetes/Endo. Non-Comm. Neurological Neurological Non-Comm. Non-Comm. Diabetes/Endo. Neoplasms NTDs/Malaria Cirosis Diarrheal/LRI Maternal Maternal NTDs/Malaria Cardiovascular
  5. 5. LEADING CAUSES, BY AGE, 2016, WORLD 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 Diarrheal/Lower Respiratory Transport Injuries Transport Injuries HIV/AIDS & TB Unintentional Injury Self-harm & Violence Self-harm & Violence Transport Injuries HIV/AIDS & TB Diarrheal/Lower Respiratory HIV/AIDS & TB Self-harm & Violence Transport Injuries HIV/AIDS & TB Unintentional injuries Cardiovascular Disease Non-Tropical & Malaria Unintentional injuries Diarrheal/Lower Respiratory Unintentional injuries Neoplasms Neoplasms Cardiovascular Disease Diarrheal/Lower Respiratory Self-Harm & Violence Cardiovascular Disease Neoplasms Neoplasms Diabetes/Endocrine Diabetes/Endocrine Maternal Disorders Maternal Disorders Other Non-Communicable Maternal Disorders Diabetes/Endocrine Diabetes/Endocrine Cardiovascular War & Disaster War & Disaster Cirrhosis
  6. 6. LEADING CAUSES, BY AGES 10-24, 2016, CANADA
  7. 7. Describe the harms and benefits of focusing on behavior to prevent morbidity and mortality in young people.Unexplained (81%) Behaviour (11%) Metabolic (2%) Environment (6%) Behavior-Environment (<1%)
  8. 8. T RANSPORT INJURIES PEDESTRIANS, CYCLISTS, AND MOTORISTS
  9. 9. Why are teens more likely to die in a traffic incident?
  10. 10. Why are males more likely to die in a traffic incident?
  11. 11. How can governments reduce traffic related deaths in young people?
  12. 12. How can vehicle manufacturers reduce traffic related deaths in young people?
  13. 13. The government should _________ driverless cars. A. Ban B. Allow C. Mandate PROS & CONS
  14. 14. U NINTENTIONAL INJURY FALLS, DROWNING, FIRE, & POISONING
  15. 15. FALLS DROWNING FIRE POISONING Why are unintentional injuries the leading cause of death in young people?
  16. 16. What factors explain the differences between countries?
  17. 17. What factors explain the differences between countries?
  18. 18. In what ways do macroeconomic conditions influence the ecological and environmental exposures of young people?
  19. 19. MENTAL HEALTH & DRUG USE OVERDOSE, CIRROSIS & SUICIDE
  20. 20. Behaviour (13%) Unexplained (87%) Self-Harm Ages 10-24 Why do we know so little about suicide?
  21. 21. Behaviour (100%) Drug-Related Mortality Ages 10-24 Is it appropriate to use “behavior” as a description of the “cause” of drug-related mortality? Why or Why not?
  22. 22. I NTENTIONAL INJURIES DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, WAR, & HOMICIDE
  23. 23. How does this video highlight the intersection of violence with biology, culture, family, and mental health?
  24. 24. C OMMUNICABLE DISEASE HIV/AIDS & TUBERCULOSIS
  25. 25. Why have we had such such a success with HIV?
  26. 26. N UTRITIONAL CONCERNS HUNGER, NUTRITION, AND OVERNUTRITION
  27. 27. Nutritional Deficiency
  28. 28. Nutritional Deficiency
  29. 29. Overnutrition
  30. 30. Transcript available at NPR
  31. 31. V ECTOR-BORNE ILLNESS MALARIA, DENGUE, & OTHERS
  32. 32. Why are mosquitos such effective disease vectors?
  33. 33. What factors might reverse trends in declining malarial mortality?
  34. 34. D IARRHEAL DISEASES TYPHOID FEVER & INTESTINAL INFECTIONS
  35. 35. How do the combined effects of political, economic, and environmental conditions impact young people’s health?
  36. 36. Blum et al. (2004). “The Health of Young People in a Global Context.” Journal of Adolescent Health. Leather et al. (2009). “Risk-taking behaviour in adolescence: a literature review.” Journal of Child Health Viner et al. (2011). “50-year mortality trends in children and young people: a study of 50 low- income, middle-income, and high-income countries.” The Lancet. Currie et al.. (2010). “Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.” WHO Regional Office for Europe. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents. Global Burden of Disease Comparison Tool. (2016) The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington. https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/ BIBLIOGRAPHY

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