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Media Literacy and Fake News

Young people tend to be fooled by "fake" news and, for most, they get their news from social media platforms rather than traditional news sources. Recent studies reveal that students struggle to clearly identify what are "real" news stories, with a percentage of students indicating they had shared news stories online that they later found were wrong or inaccurate.

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Media Literacy and Fake News

  1. 1. Media Literacy and Fake News Karen Bonanno National Director, Eduwebinar © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ®
  2. 2. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Introductions Over 35 years’ in education Professional learning provider Youth coach & mentor @eduwebinar @kbonanno Karen Bonanno
  3. 3. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Housekeeping • Disclaimer – The views and opinions are those of the presenter and are provided as general information which will require further research to identify the application of the specific requirements to the participant. • Restrictions – Eduwebinar Pty Ltd does NOT give permission for any capture, recording or reproduction of this webinar in any format unless you have prior permission.
  4. 4. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Housekeeping Listen-only mode Attendee control panel Question facility Post-webinar: Webinar feedback Certificate of attendance
  5. 5. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/news-and-americas-kids-infographic
  6. 6. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Students don’t know … Stanford University study (2016) • 82% middle-schoolers couldn’t distinguish between an ad labelled “sponsored content” and a real news story • How to conduct “lateral” search https://www.wsj.com/articles/most-students-dont-know-when-news-is-fake- stanford-study-finds-1479752576
  7. 7. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Parents … not much better off Pew Research Centre (2016) • Only 39% of adults felt “very confident” that they could recognise “fake news” • 23% had shared a “fake news” story either knowingly or not • 64% say fabricated news stories causing confusion http://www.journalism.org/2016/12/15/many-americans-believe-fake-news- is-sowing-confusion/
  8. 8. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Kids’ relationship to the news Key findings • Kids value the news • Kids feel neglected and misrepresented • Kids see racial and gender bias in the news • What kids see scares them and makes then feel depressed • Kids often are fooled by fake news • Kids trust family for news (but still prefer to get it from social media) [News and America’s Kids: How Young People Perceive and Are Impacted by the News 2017, Common Sense Media] https://www.commonsensemedia.org/blog/our-new-research-shows-where-kids-get-their-news- and-how-they-feel-about-it
  9. 9. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/news-and-americas-kids-infographic
  10. 10. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Why Teach Media / News Literacy? … think critically about information consumed. … active consumer rather than passive consumer. … distinguish between credible and not credible sources. … awareness around biases in media consumption & creation. … understand media as a construction shaped by opinions, assumptions & perceptions. … responsible media creation by using effective communication & how message can affect & influence others. https://www.commonsense.org/education/sites/default/files/tlr-asset/topicbackgrounder-newsmedialit_2017_final.pdf
  11. 11. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ®
  12. 12. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® What is fake news? • Type of hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation > personal, political or financial gain • “Clickbait”, “ad-revenue” • “Post-truth reality”, “Alternate facts” • Types: Intentionally deceptive, Jokes taken at face value, Large-scale hoaxes, Slanted reporting of real facts, Stories where the ‘truth’ is contentious http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/0/fake-news-origins- grew-2016/ https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/dec/18/what-is- fake-news-pizzagate
  13. 13. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/viral-fake-election-news-outperformed- real-news-on-facebook?utm_term=.pyJ86R5bQ#.ivkQg0OaK
  14. 14. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Fake news ? http://www.dailykos.com/story/2017/4/1/1649388/-First-90- Reintroduced-Kangaroos-Released-in-Wyoming [2 April 2017, 7:26 am]
  15. 15. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® http://thebrineshrimp.com/2017/04/01/the-90-kangaroos-released-in- wyoming-are-already-causing-problems-in-utah/ [April 1 2017] Fake news on social media
  16. 16. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Fake news on social media
  17. 17. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/03/30/stay-flood-water-bull-shark-found-road-cyclone-hitsaustralia/ [30 March 2017, 10:06 am] http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-30/bull-shark-found-washed-up-near-ayr/8401872 [30 March 2017, 6:12pm] http://www.news.com.au/technology/science/animals/bull-shark-found-washed-up-after-devastation-of-cyclone-debbie/news- story/3d7acdb9ab07257b1f2cd632a110aa3d [31 March 2017, 5.08am] http://www.skynews.com.au/news/national/qld/2017/03/31/bull-shark-found-in-puddle-after-cyclone.html [31 March 2017, 6.26 am]
  18. 18. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Media Literary … is the ability to read and write in a variety of digital forms. … is the ability to identify different types of media & understand the messages they’re sending. … is the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and create media. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/news-and-media-literacy/what-is-media-literacy-and-why-is-it-important
  19. 19. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® CRAP Test Keyword Questions Currency How recent is the information? How recently has the site been updated? Is it current enough for your topic? Relevancy/reliability What kind of information is included in the resource? Is content of the resource primarily opinion? Is it balanced? Does the creator provide references or sources for data or quotations? Authenticity/authority Who is the creator or author? What are the credentials? Information on author’s background? Who is the publisher or sponsor? Are they reputable? What is the publisher’s interest? Are there advertisements on the site? Purpose/point of view Fact or opinion? Sources or references? Is it biased? Trying to push an agenda or particular side? Trying to sell you something?
  20. 20. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® http://secondarylibrary.cis.edu.hk/home/10-13
  21. 21. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® https://commons.wikimedia.org /wiki/File%3AHow_to_Spot_Fak e_News.jpg By IFLA (http://www.ifla.org/publication s/node/11174) [CC BY 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/lic enses/by/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  22. 22. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Five Key Questions Keyword Core Concepts Five Key Questions # 1 Authorship All media messages are “constructed”. Who created this message? #2 Format Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules. What creative techniques are used to attract my attention? #3 Audience Different people experience the same media message differently. How might different people understand this message differently from me? #4 Content Media have embedded values and points of view. What lifestyles, values and points of view are represented in; or omitted from, this message? #5 Purpose Most media are organized to gain profit and/or power. Why is this message being sent? http://medialit.org/reading-room/five-key-questions-form-foundation-media-inquiry
  23. 23. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® https://www.commonsense.org/education/toolkit/news-and-media-literacy
  24. 24. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® https://www.commonsensemedia.org/news-and-media-literacy
  25. 25. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Media Literacy … is the ability to read and write in a variety of digital forms. … is the ability to identify different types of media & understand the messages they’re sending. … is the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and create media. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/news-and-media- literacy/what-is-media-literacy-and-why-is-it-important News Literacy … is the ability to apply critical thinking skills to identify & consume news & journalistic information. … is the ability to analyse & evaluate the reliability of news information to discern fact from opinion, bias or agenda. https://www.commonsense.org/education/toolkit/news-and- media-literacy
  26. 26. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® News Sites for Kids Home page analysis exercise (?advert or news?) Time for Kids - http://www.timeforkids.com/ (age 8+) Dogo News - https://www.dogonews.com/ (age 9+) HuffPost Teen - http://www.huffingtonpost.com/section/teen (age 13+) For young Australians … Crinkling News - https://www.crinklingnews.com.au/ Behind the News - http://www.abc.net.au/btn/
  27. 27. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® News Sites Home page analysis exercise (?advert or news?) News.com.au http://www.news.com.au/ ABC News http://www.abc.net.au/news/ Sky News http://www.skynews.com.au/ The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/au Sydney Morning Herald http://www.smh.com.au/ The Australian http://www.theaustralian.com.au/
  28. 28. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED This is / is not an advertisement because …
  29. 29. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Simple Rubric Example Level of competency 1 Level of competency 2 Level of competency 3 Student correctly identifies the item as an advertisement or news, but provides no reason. Student correctly identifies the item as an advertisement or news, but provides limited or incoherent reasoning. Student correctly identifies the item as an advertisement or news and provides coherent reasoning. What evidence would you like to see to allocate a level of competency?
  30. 30. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Is this news?
  31. 31. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  32. 32. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  33. 33. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  34. 34. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED The intention of fake news is to get you to have a strong reaction!
  35. 35. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Tips to help students 1. Get news from multiple sources 2. Encourage “vertical and/or lateral reading” 3. Ask questions to validate news 4. Understand how search results work https://www.edurolearning.com/realfakenews/ http://libguides.dccc.edu/fakenews/test
  36. 36. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Garbage In, Garbage Out “As a man thinketh”, James Allen (1903) Priorities of the mind 1. Devoted mind – importance & power of mind 2. Dedicated mind – learning & knowing 3. Disciplined mind – process & proactive 4. Determined mind – focused & beneficial 5. Discerning mind – lateral/vertical thinking 6. Developing mind – renewing [You are not what you think you are, but what you think, you are!, Dr David Jeremiah, August 6 2017.]
  37. 37. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Why Teach Media / News Literacy? … think critically about information consumed. … active consumer rather than passive consumer. … distinguish between credible and not credible sources. … awareness around biases in media consumption & creation. … understand media as a construction shaped by opinions, assumptions & perceptions. … responsible media creation by using effective communication & how message can affect & influence others. https://www.commonsense.org/education/sites/default/files/tlr-asset/topicbackgrounder-newsmedialit_2017_final.pdf
  38. 38. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Eduwebinar Community https://www.facebook.com/groups/eduwebinarcommunity/ This is a community for educators to discuss content from the Eduwebinar webinars and to communicate, collaborate, create, exchange and share.
  39. 39. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED In Closing PowerPoint slides Weblink will be provided Eduwebinar on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/eduwebinar Future events http://eduwebinar.com.au/webinars Eduwebinar Community https://www.facebook.com/groups/eduwebinarcommunity/
  40. 40. © EDUWEBINAR PTY LTD | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ® Boosting your professional competence 40 ®

Young people tend to be fooled by "fake" news and, for most, they get their news from social media platforms rather than traditional news sources. Recent studies reveal that students struggle to clearly identify what are "real" news stories, with a percentage of students indicating they had shared news stories online that they later found were wrong or inaccurate.

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