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Lectures Vaccari - Nutrient Reuse and Recycling

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Sustainable Water - Energy - Centric Communities school
May 9 - 13, 2016 – Lake Como School of Advanced Studies

Published in: Science
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Lectures Vaccari - Nutrient Reuse and Recycling

  1. 1. Nutrient Reuse and Recycling David A. Vaccari dvaccari@stevens.edu Cities of the Future Lago di Como May 13, 2016
  2. 2. Reduce Reuse Recycle Recover Destroy Dilute Dump The 4 R’s The 3 D’s
  3. 3. Reduce Options • Dietary changes – Reduction of meat and dairy • Reduce food waste • Reduce population
  4. 4. Cost of meat in grain
  5. 5. 5 Phosphorus Footprints by Country (Metson, Bennett, Elser, 2021)
  6. 6. 6 Phosphorus Footprints by Country (Metson, Bennett, Elser, 2021)
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 Global Food Losses and Food Waste (2011) Gustavsson, Cederberg, Sonesson, Otterdijk, and Meybeck
  10. 10. Actions for reducing food waste 10 Reducing Farm Losses: • Farmers markets • Food bank donations Reducing Distribution Losses: • Online exchanges • Improved handling and storage Reducing losses at retail: • Bargain shelf • Ethylene removal • Removing “display dates” or modifying “sell-by” or “use-by” dates Reducing food service losses: • Trayless cafeterias • “Fee” donation for unused food • Portion control Reducing losses by consumers: • Improve awareness • Educate on expiration dates • Educate on storage • Visibility in storage • Improved planning
  11. 11. Population Structures by Age and Sex, 2005 Millions Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, 2005. Age Distribution of the World’s Population (courtesy of James Barnard) 300 100 100 300300 200 100 0 100 200 300 Less Developed Regions More Developed Regions 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age
  12. 12. 12 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 World Population Scenarios in Billions - 2010 (www.UN.org) Medium High Low
  13. 13. Using a range of population estimates 13 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 Year GlobalProduction(Mt/yr) Historical Production Medium population High population Low population Half USGS Reserves All USGS Reserves Half IFDC Reserves All IFDC Reserves 2100 2200 High 14,000 21,200 Medium 9,100 8,500 Low 5,500 3,165
  14. 14. Waste Reuse and Recycling 14 • Food waste • Wastewater • Biosolids • Urine and fecal matter • Stabilization and pathogen reduction: • Anaerobic digestion • Composting • Lime stabilization
  15. 15. Land Application of Sludge 15 • Toxic limitations • Heavy metals • Pathogens • Antibiotics • Nutrient limitations - NPK
  16. 16. Toxic Heavy Metals 16 Aand Application of Biosolids in the USA: A Review Qin Lu, Zhenli L. He, and Peter J. Stoffella Applied and Environmental Soil Science
  17. 17. Nutrient Limitations 17 Aand Application of Biosolids in the USA: A Review Qin Lu, Zhenli L. He, and Peter J. Stoffella Applied and Environmental Soil Science (2012) Application rates are currently based on agronomic N requirement; P limitations are applied by Maryland
  18. 18. 18 https://www.columbus.gov/Templates/Detail.aspx?id=38149 Land application of Biosolids
  19. 19. Land application of Wastewater 19 http://www.ulwr- inc.com/liquid_land_application.htm http://www.scdhec.gov/Environme nt/WaterQuality/LandApplicationEff luentSewage/LandApplicationPermi tProgram/
  20. 20. Urine recovery (courtesy of James Barnard)  Urine contains 70% to 80% of the Nitrogen and 50% Phosphorus in domestic wastewater  When urine is separated and stored ammonia is hydrolyzed and the pH goes up  Within a few weeks the urine is totally free or pathogens  Research underway to recover struvite  Excess ammonia recovered with stripping and production of ammonia sulphate
  21. 21. Urine Capture and Reuse 21
  22. 22. Dual flush toilet (courtesy of James Barnard)
  23. 23. Big Problem: Getting the men to sit!
  24. 24. Thank you, and Save the P! David A. Vaccari dvaccari@stevens.edu Department of Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering

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