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SKILLS FOR A DIGITAL
WORLD
Vincenzo Spiezia
Senior Economist
Measurement and Analysis of the Digital Economy
vincenzo.spie...
http://www.oecd.org/internet/ministerial/themes/jobs-skills/
Policy objectives
1. Ensure that ICT diffusion is accompanied by the
development of the skills needed for effective use
2....
Identifying the Demand of
New Skills
1. ICT specialist skills
Job requirement to program software, develop applications,
manage networks, etc.
2. ICT generic s...
Enterprises that reported hard-to-fill vacancies for ICT
specialists, 2012 and 2014
As a percentage of all enterprises
Sho...
ICT specialists shortage should result in:
• Upward trend in job vacancy rates
and/or
• Longer job vacancy duration
and/or...
… but more could be done for women
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
% Male Female
ICT specialists by gender, 2014
As a percentage of...
Demand for ICT generic skills by country
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
2014 2011%
Share of employed individuals using ICTs d...
Top-20 ICT-intensive occupations across countries
18 out of the top-20 ICT-intensive occupations are not ICT specialist oc...
Workers using office software at work every day
As a percentage of all workers
Few workers use ICTs daily, even fewer have...
• ICTs are changing the way work is carried out
• Demand for ICT-complementary skills
• Ability to carry out work in a wor...
-0,50 -0,40 -0,30 -0,20 -0,10 0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50
Numeracy
Writing
Reading
Using skill or accuracy with hands or...
The responsibility for skills development
may be shifting to workers
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 201...
The OECD Skills Strategy:
a Focus on the Digital
Economy
The OECD Skills Strategy: 3 pillars
Source: OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic reports
• Adapt to rapid changes in occupations and skills demand
• Foundation skills, digital literacies, higher order
thinking, ...
• North Union Local Schools, Ohio, USA: individualized
learning
• Swiss “Call Them Emotions”: promotion of life skills and...
• Sweden: ICT education in curricula as learning outcome. “Every
pupil …must be able to use modern technology as tool for ...
• Rapid population ageing, high rates of youth unemployment and
increasing dependency ratios…
• … call for skills-based la...
Skills Assessment and Anticipation – digital skills
• OECD survey: 29 out of 34 countries do some
• Denmark: CGE model for...
• Changes in technology require lifelong learning to keep skills
up-to-date
• Young people and older workers use digital s...
Policy examples
• Innovative Workplaces (OECD, 2010)
• Netherlands: Technology Pact 2020 deals with obsolescence of
ICT sk...
Leveraging Digital
Technologies for Better
Skills
Digital technologies create new opportunities for
education:
 Can foster new forms of learning
 Change expectations on t...
Technology can facilitate teaching practices, e.g. “flipped
classroom”
Video lectures from The Khan Academy:
• free up tim...
In technology-enabled learning environments, students
work in groups and/or interact with each other
Canada: Elementary Co...
• Over 50% of teachers report the need for professional
development on the use digital technologies (TALIS
2012)
• France ...
Open Educational Resources (OERs) can be used to:
• efficiently target workplace training needs
• provide access to traini...
OERs and digital administrative records enable the
collection of data on skills development processes
Data analytics provi...
Digital technology help to identify emerging skills needs,
evolving demands and potential skills gaps in real time
Analysi...
• Digital skills are not only (mainly?) about ICTs
• Many lack ICT generic and complementary skills
• Increased importance...
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ETUI-ETUC conference 2016 Panel 15 Vincenzo Spiezia

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ETUI-ETUC conference 2016 Panel 15 Vincenzo Spiezia

  1. 1. SKILLS FOR A DIGITAL WORLD Vincenzo Spiezia Senior Economist Measurement and Analysis of the Digital Economy vincenzo.spiezia@oecd.org ETUI-ETUC Conference Shaping the new world of work 27-29 June 2016 Panel 15 Skills and training in the fourth industrial revolution
  2. 2. http://www.oecd.org/internet/ministerial/themes/jobs-skills/
  3. 3. Policy objectives 1. Ensure that ICT diffusion is accompanied by the development of the skills needed for effective use 2. Increase the responsiveness of national skills systems to these changes (OECD Skills Strategy) 3. Seize the learning opportunities created by digital technologies Skills for a Digital World
  4. 4. Identifying the Demand of New Skills
  5. 5. 1. ICT specialist skills Job requirement to program software, develop applications, manage networks, etc. 2. ICT generic skills Job requirement of ICT use in daily work (i.e. send e-mail, find work-related information on the Internet, use software) 3. ICT complementary skills Job requirement to carry out work in a technology-rich environment, e.g.: soft skills, e-leadership, etc. Identifying the demand of new skills
  6. 6. Enterprises that reported hard-to-fill vacancies for ICT specialists, 2012 and 2014 As a percentage of all enterprises Shortage of ICT specialists is probably overrated… 58 62 41 39 51 49 46 33 51 39 38 41 51 49 31 37 47 41 26 37 29 30 11 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 % 2014 2012 As a percentageof all enterprises looking for an ICT specialist Source: OECD (2016) New Skills for the Digital Economy, OECD Digital Economy Papers, N. 258.
  7. 7. ICT specialists shortage should result in: • Upward trend in job vacancy rates and/or • Longer job vacancy duration and/or • Increase in wage rates Weak evidence of the above Shortage of ICT specialists is probably overrated…
  8. 8. … but more could be done for women 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 % Male Female ICT specialists by gender, 2014 As a percentage of all male and female workers Source: OECD (2016) Skills for a Digital World, OECD Digital Economy Papers, N. 250.
  9. 9. Demand for ICT generic skills by country 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 2014 2011% Share of employed individuals using ICTs daily at work, 2011 and 2014 Source: OECD (2016) New Skills for the Digital Economy, OECD Digital Economy Papers, N. 258.
  10. 10. Top-20 ICT-intensive occupations across countries 18 out of the top-20 ICT-intensive occupations are not ICT specialist occupations Rank Occupation ISCO-08 Frequency 1 Finance professionals 241 100% 2 Administration professionals 242 94% 3 Legal professionals 261 94% 4 Business services and administration managers 121 89% 5 Sales, marketing and development managers 122 83% 6 University and higher education teachers 231 78% 7 Administrative and specialised secretaries 334 78% 8 Physical and earth science professionals 211 72% 9 Authors, journalists and linguists 264 72% 10 Information and communications technology service managers 133 67% 11 Mathematicians, actuaries and statisticians 212 67% 12 Engineering professionals (excluding electrotechnology) 214 61% 13 Database and network professionals 252 61% 14 Regulatory government associate professionals 335 56% 15 Secretaries (general) 412 56% 16 Numerical clerks 431 56% 17 Professional services managers 134 50% 18 Social and religious professionals 263 50% 19 Financial and mathematical associate professionals 331 50% 20 Business services agents 333 50% Source: OECD (2016) New Skills for the Digital Economy, OECD Digital Economy Papers, N. 258.
  11. 11. Workers using office software at work every day As a percentage of all workers Few workers use ICTs daily, even fewer have sufficient skills 0 10 20 30 40 % All users Users with insufficient ICT skills Source: OECD (2016) Skills for a Digital World, OECD Digital Economy Papers, N. 250.
  12. 12. • ICTs are changing the way work is carried out • Demand for ICT-complementary skills • Ability to carry out work in a workplace shaped by ICTs, e.g. o Higher frequency of information calls for better capability to plan in advance and to adjust quickly o More horizontal work organisations calls for more cooperation and stronger leadership o Wider diffusion of information among workers increases the importance of management and coordination o The sales skills in face-to-face commercial transaction are not the same as in an anonymous e-commerce sale The demand for ICT-complementary skills
  13. 13. -0,50 -0,40 -0,30 -0,20 -0,10 0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50 Numeracy Writing Reading Using skill or accuracy with hands or fingers Working physically Thinking about a solution for at least 30 minutes Problem solving in less than 5 minutes Negotiating with people Persuading people Planning activities of others Organising own time Planning of own activities Advising others Selling a product or service Giving presentations Training others Information sharing CollaborationCooperation Horizontal interaction Client interaction Self-direction Managerial skills Influence Problem solving Physical skills Manual skills Cognitive skills ICT complementary skills +- Source: OECD (2016) Skills for a Digital World, OECD Digital Economy Papers, N. 250.
  14. 14. The responsibility for skills development may be shifting to workers 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 MillionUsers Registered users on selected job-matching platforms (2005-2015) Source: OECD (2016) New Markets and New Jobs, OECD Digital Economy Papers, N. 255.
  15. 15. The OECD Skills Strategy: a Focus on the Digital Economy
  16. 16. The OECD Skills Strategy: 3 pillars Source: OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic reports
  17. 17. • Adapt to rapid changes in occupations and skills demand • Foundation skills, digital literacies, higher order thinking, social and emotional skills are key: – Digital literacies are positively correlated with reading performance (PISA 2015) – More even distribution of foundation skills may mitigate the negative employment effects of digital technologies Developing relevant skills for the digital economy
  18. 18. • North Union Local Schools, Ohio, USA: individualized learning • Swiss “Call Them Emotions”: promotion of life skills and socio-emotional competencies • Learners Network Nanaimo Ladysmith, British Columbia, CA: learning as a socially constructed process • Mevo’ot a Negev school, Israel: project-based learning School examples
  19. 19. • Sweden: ICT education in curricula as learning outcome. “Every pupil …must be able to use modern technology as tool for knowledge seeking, communication, creation and learning”. • Germany: national computer science contest for school children “Informatik-Biber” • Japan: Curricular reform to strengthen critically and creatively thinking and problem solving. Cross curricular learning • Alberta, Canada: new framework for critical thinking, problem solving and decision making as key cross-curriculum competencies • EU: “European e-Competence Framework” and “e-Skills Strategy” State/national examples
  20. 20. • Rapid population ageing, high rates of youth unemployment and increasing dependency ratios… • … call for skills-based labour market activation policies Policy examples: • Spain: EU Youth Guarantee programme to address digital skills gaps • Ireland: “Fast Track Into Information Technology” for long term unemployed • Luxembourg: e-skills for Women • Belgium: Interface 3 Activating skills in the digital economy
  21. 21. Skills Assessment and Anticipation – digital skills • OECD survey: 29 out of 34 countries do some • Denmark: CGE model forecasts skills needs over a 50 years (DREAM) • Australia: Industry Skills Councils use interviews and focus groups • Canada: Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS) and Sectorial Initiative Programme • Ireland, Austria and Norway Activating skills in the digital economy
  22. 22. • Changes in technology require lifelong learning to keep skills up-to-date • Young people and older workers use digital skills less than prime age workers (PIAAC) • Training is key for firms competing in the global economy • Training opportunities uneven among workers Putting digital skills to effective use
  23. 23. Policy examples • Innovative Workplaces (OECD, 2010) • Netherlands: Technology Pact 2020 deals with obsolescence of ICT skills • Korea: support for ICT training in SMEs • Ireland: Skillnets promotes workplace training and upskilling by SMEs • EU: LEAD program for SMEs as part of the e-Leadership Initiative • EU DIGICOMP in Italy, Spain and the UK • Netherlands: PPP Working Group on e-CF • UK: Commission on Employment and Skills Putting digital skills to effective use
  24. 24. Leveraging Digital Technologies for Better Skills
  25. 25. Digital technologies create new opportunities for education:  Can foster new forms of learning  Change expectations on the teaching profession  Provide opportunities for lifelong learning  Can better inform skills development  Provide intelligence on labour markets Leveraging digital technologies for better skills
  26. 26. Technology can facilitate teaching practices, e.g. “flipped classroom” Video lectures from The Khan Academy: • free up time from lecturing • focus on interactive group learning • focus on learners’ specific needs Digital technologies foster new forms of learning
  27. 27. In technology-enabled learning environments, students work in groups and/or interact with each other Canada: Elementary Connected Classroom (BC) students participate in videoconferencing, online collaborative work, online literature circles, and exchange of student- created multimedia content Digital technologies foster new forms of learning
  28. 28. • Over 50% of teachers report the need for professional development on the use digital technologies (TALIS 2012) • France and Italy have developed programmes to foster teacher professional development in ICTs with online resources and competencies standards. Digital technologies change expectations on teaching profession
  29. 29. Open Educational Resources (OERs) can be used to: • efficiently target workplace training needs • provide access to training for the unemployed Examples: • Deloitte encourages consultants to sign up for Coursera • Yahoo reimburses selected ICT Coursera’s courses • Udacity’s Nanodegree programmes provide ICT courses But issues of recognition limit their use Online courses provide opportunities for lifelong learning
  30. 30. OERs and digital administrative records enable the collection of data on skills development processes Data analytics provide fine granularity that can help spotting weaknesses and address skills development needs The ability to track individuals from early childhood to the labour market improve understanding of the school-to- work transition Data driven innovation can better inform skills development
  31. 31. Digital technology help to identify emerging skills needs, evolving demands and potential skills gaps in real time Analysis of online vacancies can provide: • detailed description of the skills required • analysis of shifts in skills demands • shifts in job profiles • evidence of skills gaps at local level Digital technologies can provide intelligence on labour markets
  32. 32. • Digital skills are not only (mainly?) about ICTs • Many lack ICT generic and complementary skills • Increased importance of: o foundation skills o lifelong learning • Two things we are bad at. Why? • Seize the opportunities from digital technologies Key messages

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