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Developing a Model to Explain Chinese Pre-service English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teachers’ Intention to Use CALL 2.0

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Developing a Model to Explain Chinese Pre-service English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teachers’ Intention to Use CALL 2.0

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Developing a Model to Explain Chinese Pre-service English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teachers’ Intention to Use CALL 2.0

  1. 1. Developing a Model to Explain Chinese Pre-service English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teachers’ Intention to Use CALL 2.0 Identifying Constructs and Formulating Hypotheses 1
  2. 2. Introduction • Computer assisted language learning (CALL) is defined as the exploration, sometimes coherent, sometimes disparate, of all aspects of the human-computer axis, with the primary goal of enhancing the process of second- language teaching and learning, be it in curriculum design, delivery, testing, feedback, monitoring of evaluation, by means of the generation of the improved computer-based platforms, courseware, learning environments and pedagogies” (Leakey, 2010). • CALL 2.0 refers to the actual application of web 2.0 resources (wiki, social networking, podcast etc.) for language teaching and learning. 2
  3. 3. Introduction • CALL is an interdisciplinary field that involves both language learning and human-computer interaction ” (Leakey, 2010) . • Such a duality is reflected in the two current influential views on CALL research: Chapelle (2001) and Bax (2003) (Hubbard, 2009). 3
  4. 4. The importance of CALL Previous research (Lee, 2000) suggests that CALL contributes to language learning in the following eight aspects: • experiential Learning; • motivation; • enhanced student achievement; • authentic materials for study; • greater interaction; • individualization; • multi-source of information; • global understanding 4
  5. 5. The Current Situation 5
  6. 6. The Research Gap • Few studies have been done to investigate the factors influencing teachers’ intention to use CALL (Mahdi, 2013) . • Most of the extant CALL 2.0 research concentrate on the practical integration of Web 2.0 into the language learning, and little theoretical research has been conducted around CALL 2.0. (Wang and Vásquez 2012) 6
  7. 7. Research Importance • China's National Plan for Medium and Long-Term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)(The State Council, 2010) • In terms of the foreign language education, Chinese EFL teachers’ resistance to the adoption of CALL poses a big threat to this costly national-level plan. (Hu & Webb 2009) • According to the latest report released by China Internet Network Information Centre, social networking sites are prevalent among Chinese college students, so Chinese EFL teachers’ can leverage on this opportunity for using a common medium to engage students in language interaction. 7
  8. 8. Purpose of the study • An individual’s behavior is best predicted by his/her behavioral intention (BI) (see, Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Taylor & Todd, 1995). • For my study, Chinese pre-service EFL teachers’ intention to use CALL 2.0 is conceptualized as a behavioral intention (BI). • My study investigates the factors that explain Chinese pre-service EFL teachers’ intention to use CALL 2.0. And a model is developed to explain the relationship between the factors and EFL teachers’ intention to use CALL 2.0. 8
  9. 9. Research Questions • 1) What factors may influence Chinese pre-service EFL teachers’ intention to use CALL 2.0? • 2) What are the relationships among these factors and how are these factors related to Chinese pre-service EFL teachers’ intention to use CALL 2.0? 9
  10. 10. Theoretical frameworks for Research on Teachers’ BI • The research to be reviewed include those based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), the theory of planned behavior (TPB)(Ajzen, 1991), the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB)(Taylor & Todd, 1995), innovation and diffusion theory (IDT) (Rogers, 1995), technology acceptance model (TAM) (Davis, 1985, 1989, 1993; Davis et al., 1989; Davis & Venkatesh, 1996) ,TAM2 (Venkatesh, 2000; Venkatesh & Davis, 2000), and the latest TAM3 (Venkatesh & Bala, 2008) etc. 10
  11. 11. Summary of the Constructs from the Research on Teachers’ BI • personal innovativeness (PI) (e.g., Lin, 2006) • CALL 2.0 self-efficacy (CSE) (e.g., Lee & Lehto, 2013) • attitude toward use (ATU) (e.g., Davis, 1985) • perceived enjoyment (PE) (e.g., Hsu & Lin, 2008) • perceived usefulness (PU) (e.g., Jackson, Chow, & Leitch, 1997) • perceived ease of use (PEU) (e.g., Hasan & Ahmed, 2007) • subjective norm (SN) (e.g., Leong, Ooi, Chong, & Lin, 2013 ) • facilitating conditions (FC) (e.g., Chang & Cheung, 2001) 11
  12. 12. TPACK Model 12
  13. 13. Pedagogical Content Knowledge • Under the TPACK model developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) , Pamuk (2011) stated that developing pedagogical content knowledge is an important factor in overall technology integration in education. 13
  14. 14. Human-computer interaction Constructs Operational definition TRA TPB DTPB IDT TAM TAM2 TAM3 TPACK Perceived Usefulness The degree to which a Chinese pre-service EFL teacher believes that using CALL 2.0 would enhance his or her teaching (adapted from Davis, 1989). ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Perceived Ease of Use The degree to which a Chinese EFL teacher believes that using CALL 2.0 would be free of effort (adapted from Davis, 1989). ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Perceived Enjoyment The degree to which the use of CALL 2.0 is perceived to be enjoyable in its own right by a Chinese pre-service EFL teacher, apart from any performance consequences that may be anticipated (adapted from Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1992). ✓ 14
  15. 15. Teacher characteristics Constructs Operational definition TRA TPB DTPB IDT TAM TAM2 TAM3 TPACK personal innovativeness The extent to a Chinese pre-service EFL teacher is willing to try out any new information technology (adapted from Agarwal & Prasad, 1998). ✓ CALL 2.0 self-efficacy The extent to which a Chinese pre-service EFL teacher believe in his or her ability to use Web 2.0 resources effectively in the language teaching (adapted from Compeau & Higgins, 1995) . ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Attitude towards use of CALL 2.0 The extent to which a Chinese pre-service EFL teacher possesses positive feelings about using CALL 2.0 (adapted from Fishbein & Ajezn, 1975) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pedagogical content knowledge The degree to which a Chinese pre-service EFL teacher possess the knowledge that enable them to transform his or her subject matter understanding through pedagogical reasoning (adapted from Chai, Chin, Koh, & Tan, 2013) . ✓ 15
  16. 16. Social Influence Constructs Operational definition TRA TPB DTPB IDT TAM TAM2 TAM3 TPACK Subjective Norm The extent to which a Chinese pre-service EFL teacher believes that most people who are important to him think he should or should not use CALL 2.0 (adapted from Fishben and Ajzen, 1975) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 16
  17. 17. Environmental Influence Constructs Operational definition TRA TPB DTPB IDT TAM TAM2 TAM3 TPACK Facilitating Conditions The extent to which a Chinese pre-service EFL teacher believes that factors in the environment influence his or her decision to use CALL 2.0 (adapted from Thompson, Higgins, & Howell, 1991 ) ✓ ✓ 17
  18. 18. Human-computer Interaction Perceived Usefulness Perceived Ease of Use Perceived Enjoyment Teachers Characteristics Personal Innovativeness CALL 2.0 Self-efficacy Attitudes towards Use Pedagogical Content Knowledge Social Influence Subjective Norm Environmental Influence Facilitating Conditions Intention to Use CALL 2.0 18
  19. 19. Conclusion • All together nine constructs were identified from literature, and based on the empirically supported relationships, a research model was developed. From these relationships, a total of 15 hypotheses were formulated. The next-step study will be conducted to test these hypotheses statistically and validate the proposed model. 19

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