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Lower energy consumption and lower GWP refrigerants - D. Coulomb - IIF-IIR


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Convegno Europeo
Le Ultime Tecnologie nel Condizionamento e nella Refrigerazione; Sistemi, Attrezzatura, Componenti, Formazione e Certificazione; il Phase Down
15 marzo 2018 | 14.00 - 18.30
Mostra Convegno Expocomfort
Centro Congressi Stella Polare: Sala Sagittarius
Organizzato da ATF - Associazione Tecnici del Freddo

Published in: Environment
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Lower energy consumption and lower GWP refrigerants - D. Coulomb - IIF-IIR

  2. 2. Plan  Introduction  The refrigeration needs  The energy issue  The refrigerants issue  Conclusion for Europe 2
  3. 3. I - Introduction The International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR), an independent intergovernmental science and technology based organization, promotes refrigeration knowledge and associated technologies that improve quality of life in a cost effective and environmentally sustainable manner including: Food quality and safety from farm to consumer Comfort in homes and commercial buildings Health products and services Low temperature technology and liquefied gas technology Energy efficiency Use of non-ozone-depleting and low global warming refrigerants in a safe manner 3
  4. 4. 58 member countries worldwide +400 experts +500 corporate and private members
  5. 5. Publications: Fridoc, a refrigeration portal with over 100,000 references Journal: the International Journal of Refrigeration (IJR – the best scientific journal in its field!) Some papers presented in this conference could be adapted for articles in the IJR IIR Newsletter, books, Informatory Notes, and Statements Activities: Conferences Working Groups Preparation of Standards See our Website: 5
  6. 6. Research Projects A consortium partner in EU funded research projects since 2011:  REAL Alternatives for LIFE  CryoHub  SuperSmart  ELICiT (ended December 2016)  COOL-SAVE (ended April 2015)  REAL Alternatives (ended 2015)  FRISBEE (ended August 2014)
  7. 7. Refrigeration is everywhere Food industry and the cold chain Air conditioning (buildings, data centres…) Process cooling in other industries Cryogenics (petrochemical refining, steel industry, space industry, nuclear fusion…) Medicine and health products (cryosurgery, anaesthesia, scanners, vaccines…) Energy sector (including heat pumps, LNG, hydrogen…) Environment (including carbon capture and storage), public works, leisure activities… 7 II – The refrigeration needs
  8. 8. 1,600 US deaths per year registered in the US are due to pathogens, at least partly associated with temperature control with many more in developing countries A growth in global population, particularly in Africa and South Asia 66% (vs 54% now) will be in urban areas in 2050 (+40% in developing countries) 23% of food losses are caused by a lack of refrigeration (vs 9% in developed countries) The cold storage capacity is tenfold in developed countries importance of the food cold chain 8
  9. 9. Needs related to better health are global (reliable cold chain, air conditioning), due specifically to an ageing population A recent MIT study showed mortality during hot days (temperatures higher than 32°C) decreased by 80% between 1900-1959 and 1960-2004 in the US: « The adoption of residential air conditioning explains essentially the entire decline in the temperature-mortality relationship » The IPCC forecasts an increase in energy demand in air conditioning in the summer over 13 fold between 2000 and 2050 and 30 fold by 2100 under its reference scenarios Farmers in Kyrgyzstan. Credit: UNPEI 9
  10. 10. III – The energy issue 10 Refrigeration, including air conditioning, represents more than 17% of the overall electricity used worldwide
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  12. 12.  This 17% figure is constantly progressing  Electricity is mainly produced by fossil fuels and indirect CO2 emissions have a higher impact on a long term perspective than refrigerants emissions: 63% of 7,8% of global greenhouse gas emissions (IIR Informatory Note).  We can use renewable energy or waste energy  We can improve the energy efficiency of the system 1st solutions:  to insulate the refrigerated room and low temperature parts of the system  To minimize ambient air infiltration  To reduce the energy used in refrigerated applications (fans…) 2nd solutions:  Reducing the refrigerant leakage  Reducing the refrigerant charge 12
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  15. 15. 3rd solutions: improving the efficiency of the system components  Importance of controls  Improvements up to 20-50% possible (IIR Informatory Note 2003, IIR Guide 2008)  Link with the refrigerant used (TEWI, LCCP)  Link with a general policy on energy consumption, renewable energies… 15
  16. 16. IV - The refrigerants issue  2 secretariats within UNEP, 2 different issues:  Climate change + Ozone layer  Rio Convention/Kyoto Protocol + Montreal Protocol ‒ CFCs, HCFCs  Montreal Protocol ‒ HFCs (+CO2, CH4…) Rio  The ozone layer is recovering, thanks essentially to the phase out of CFCs  The GWP of HFCs is (on average) similar to HCFCs 16
  17. 17.  HFCs are essentially used for refrigeration and air conditioning (+ foams) as well as HCFCs: they progressively replace them  HFCs are short-lived climate pollutants  The Montreal Protocol is a success. Montreal Protocol tools are efficient (ozone officers, MLF…)  Climate Change tools are still to be established They will normally be at national, local or regional levels (Europe)  the proposal: continuing to count HFC emissions within other greenhouse gas emissions (UNFCC) but using the Montreal Protocol tools to reduce these emissions  amendments to the Montreal Protocol since 2009  The F-gas regulation in Europe 17
  18. 18. A2 countries A5 countries (Group 1)** A5 countries (Group 2)*** Baseline 2011-2013 2020-2022 2024-2026 Formula Average HFC consumption Average HFC consumption Average HFC consumption HCFC 15% or 25% baseline* 65% baseline 65% baseline Freeze - 2024 2028 1st step 2019 – 10% 2029 – 10% 2032 – 10% 2nd step 2024 – 40% 2035 – 30% 2037 – 20% 3rd step 2029 – 70% 2040 – 50% 2042 – 30% 4th step 2034 – 80% Plateau 2036 – 85% 2045 – 80% 2047 – 85% * Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan ** Group 1: Article 5 parties not part of Group 2 *** Group 2: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, India, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan
  19. 19. Oral approval  amendment to be signed and ratified by all parties Proposals discussed in Kigali to be formally adopted and to be implemented  additional funds to the MLF  new rules for the MLF: energy efficiency, priorities / sectors, country / country…  stationary air conditioning and hot climates  links between Montreal Protocol secretariat and ISO  new TEAP reports on alternatives  how to follow and eventually modify national phase down plans 19
  20. 20. 3 main Challenges  Financial and regulatory initiatives in the field of energy must accompany those regarding HFCs  Combining HCFC phase out and HFC phase down, reducing leakage or the charge of refrigerants + replacing high GWP refrigerants by low GWP refrigerants  old equipment vs new equipment  solutions application by application  Safety requirements: adopting safety regulations and standards, since low GWP refrigerants bring higher risks in matters of safety  Works at international, European and national levels (*) IIR Informatory Note 20
  21. 21. Conclusion for Europe (1/2)  Europe is a pioneer thanks to the F-gas regulation European companies shall promote their solutions in other regions  The situation in Europe is still challenging:  Coordination between energy policies (Ecodesign, national plans…) and the phase down of HFCs  More attention should be given to the energy consumption of the refrigeration sector and to the development of air conditioning, encouraging the search of more integrated and environmental friendly solutions 21
  22. 22. Conclusion for Europe (2/2)  We must rapidly phase out high GWP HFCs, because of the F-gas regulation and the increasing cost of these refrigerants  As much as possible, these high GWP refrigerants (R404, R410…) must be replaced by « low » or « very low » GWP refrigerants  If not possible (safety issues, need of new designs…), we shall reduce the leakage and replace them by « lower » GWP refrigerants (transition period)  Building codes must be adapted to the new situation 22
  23. 23. Scientific, objective, hands-on and updated information on the available or coming technologies, on their potential usages, their pros and cons, is crucial. The IIR is in position to provide it to you. Become an IIR member! Thank you! 23