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Presentation skills THE WORKBOOK

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Presentation skills THE WORKBOOK

  1. 1. Presentation Skills Presented by Gerald Pauschmann Director PauschManagement 0415 776 669 www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac There are no boring topics. Boring is an attitude. There are boring speakers.
  2. 2. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 2
  3. 3. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 3 Course Outline • Structures that you can re-use time and again to deliver engaging presentations • Openings that will hook your audience from the first word • Stand up the front with confidence and engage your audience • What to do with your hands – look natural and effortless onstage • No more “Ums, errs and ahs” • Preparing perfect presentations in just 20 minutes – follow the formula and you can’t go wrong! • Deliveries that will leave a lasting impression • Develop and deliver a powerful 3 minute presentation • Handle the Q&A session like an expert • How to handle hostility from the audience members.
  4. 4. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 4 Time Topic 8.45am Arrival to training room Welcome and Program Overview 8.50am Skills needed for a dynamic presentation 9.10am Planning and preparation 9.00am Presentation design Objective Content Structure 10.15am – 10.30am Morning Tea Steps In Structuring Your Presentation Writing your presentation template. Developing your introduction The crucial elements your listeners want to hear Developing your body Motivated sequence Reflective Proposition to Proof 12.30pm – Lunch 1.15pm Dealing with a hostile audience Five (5) ways to handle a hostile audience Focus energy on positive people Confront the negative ideas Never defend your position Redefine - direct the focus back to your advantage Open the floor to Q and A When worst comes to worst… Developing your assertive responses The multiple question asker The conversationalist The story teller
  5. 5. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 5 2.45pm – Afternoon tea 3.00pm Putting it all together - Start your presentation with PUNCH Each participant will deliver a 3 minute INTRODUCTION from the design template used earlier this morning. This will be recorded and watched for instant feedback. 4.30pm close
  6. 6. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 6 Welcome Presentation Skills Training Course: This 1 day Course will give you the skills to deliver high-impact presentations with minimal preparation time. Focusing on how to arrange your ideas, capture your audiences’ attention, tell memorable stories to leave a lasting impression to get the results you want, this program is ideal for senior managers, leadership teams and other groups who want to make immediate improvement in their presentation skills.
  7. 7. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 7 Skills needed for a dynamic presentation A presentation may be defined as a carefully planned visual and aural event, designed for the purpose of gaining understanding, agreement or action. A survey conducted by Crosling and Ward (2002) identified presentations as one of the most common forms of oral communication expected of business leaders. For a presentation to reach its objective, three things must happen: 1. the speaker must have a clear aim; 2. the material must be organised in such a way that the aim is supported; 3. and the presentation should be engaging for both speaker and audience. What do you want to add to ensure you have a dynamic presentation?
  8. 8. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 8 Planning and preparation Try to empathise with the people in the audience and consider the following: • What are the needs and expectations of the listeners? • What are your needs and expectations? • What do they know already? (for instance, are you merely repeating what has already been said during previous presentations?) • What do they need to know in order to understand your presentation? • What are their likes/dislikes in presentation style, use of technology and format, if any?
  9. 9. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 9 Presentation design Objective Just as it is important to make explicit the aim of a written report, the speaker must define the purpose of his or her presentation clearly and succinctly and then use a suitable communication framework that supports this aim. For example, in some presentations the aim may be to persuade the audience to purchase a product or service. In others, the aim may be to inform, i.e. to present the findings of a particular company’s strategy or to present a case study analysis and to link this analysis to your overall vision. What is the objective / purpose of your presentation? Content An important consideration before preparing the content of a presentation is the amount of time in which you have to present. For example, group presentations may be 30 minutes duration, however, each group member might only speak for five or six minutes. Therefore, it is important that the content fits within the time available. It is also important that you rehearse several times before delivering the final presentation. This will check your timing, further familiarise you with the material, and give you greater confidence in your delivery. In terms of content, the first step is to decide on the ideas that are most suitable for the presentation.
  10. 10. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 10
  11. 11. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 11 Structure Having decided upon the aim and the content, the next step is to structure the presentation. No matter how interesting the material is, the effectiveness will be lost if it is carelessly put together. The structure provides the framework for your presentation and should therefore be simple, clear and logical. Try to break the topic into its component parts with 3 to 5 main ideas. Any more may lead to information overload and you may lose the interest of the audience. These main themes or ideas should also be developed through supporting materials and evidence. Remember to cite your sources, particularly with regard to direct quotations, statistical data, charts, diagrams and so forth. STEPS IN STRUCTURING YOUR PRESENTATION Step 1 Know your project aim Decide on the message you are trying to impart (your major theme) Step 2 Develop a number of supporting sub-themes, ideas or examples Put these on the outside of the MIND MAP Select the best 4 of these Step 3 Re-work each sub theme into a well-developed paragraph Eliminate irrelevant materials Step 4 Decide on the most effective order for each topic paragraph Step 5 Write your introduction (today we will present this) Step 6 Write your conclusion (today we have presented this) Step 7 Use linking words to ‘stitch’ your presentation together Step 8 Convert your presentation to an oral form (signpost and repeat) and polish your presentation (use a dictionary and thesaurus)
  12. 12. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 12 Writing your presentation template Developing your Introduction: Welcome (Use words that inspire enthusiasm) Impact statement (Fact, humourous, controversial, a quote or a story) What do you know about your audience, client, participants? (begin with the phrase: “I know…” or “I realise…” or “I understand…” or similar) What is the purpose or objective of the presentation?
  13. 13. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 13 So, what are the topics you will be covering today? Why is this information so important to deliver today? What is your KEY MESSAGE? Attention-grabbing statement/visual
  14. 14. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 14 Writing your presentation template. Developing the body: There are many ways to organise your information in a presentation, to be more persuasive. Three techniques include: A. Motivated sequence Attention, need, satisfaction, visualisation, and appeal to action. 1. The attention step is designed to gain the audience’s attention, and create goodwill and respect between the presenter and audience. 2. The need element is developing a general problem and relating it to audience members’ desires. Remember, the needs are theirs and not yours. 3. Satisfaction is showing how your service or product solves the problem. It points out the features of your product/service and benefits to audience members. 4. Visualisation is to intensify the desire of audience members to move ahead with the solution you propose. You describe how things will be after the proposal is adopted, and further explain the benefits. 5. Lastly, the action step is when you urge audience members to take action – and the objective is to close your presentation with a sense of completeness, spurring people to act.
  15. 15. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 15 B. Reflective Present a problem; give several alternatives; evaluate them; select the best. If you already have the solution, you want to ensure that your information supports that solution. Here are 8 steps a presenter follows when using this speech organisation method: 1. Introduction 2. Problem (establishing criteria for evaluating the options) 3. Possible solution (evaluate using the criteria; start with the positives and end with the negatives – making sure that the negatives outweigh the positives) 4. Repeat step 3 again 5. Your choice 6. Possible solution (reverse your approach by mentioning the negatives first, and end with the positives – making sure that the benefits outweigh the negatives) 7. Review (problem, criteria, and optimum solution) 8. Call to action/memorable statement
  16. 16. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 16 C. Proposition to proof In your introduction, present your proposition; then prove it throughout the body of your speech. Conclude with an appeal to accept or act upon your proposition. Here are the 5 steps a speaker uses when using this method to organise a presentation: 1. Introduction 2. State your proposition (what you want them to believe or do) 3. Proof (give reasons – logical and emotional – that support the proposition) 4. Review 5. Call to action/memorable statement
  17. 17. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 17 Dealing with a hostile audience
  18. 18. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 18 Dealing with a hostility Sweaty palms… damp armpits… heart fluttering… You’re about to tell your audience something they don’t want to hear or you may be in the middle of your presentation and you can sense that things aren’t going to plan. So what’s the best way to handle these situations? 5 ways to handle a hostile audience The one thing I know when I am about to deliver a presentation: the audience is on my side. At least, to begin with… The audience wants me to succeed. That’s the good news. They’ve voted with their feet, sat in uncomfortable chairs, and are waiting for me to feed you information. They want success, because it means they won’t have wasted their time. To begin with, an audience is yours to please. Only if you let it down repeatedly will it start to get ornery. But what about those rare audiences that really do want you to fail? From the start? The opposing camps, the hostile factions, the competitive parts of your universe? How do you survive a hostile audience? Here is what I do… 1. As much as possible I focus my energy to the positive people in the room This is counter-intuitive, but important, because if you can establish a positive relationship with a few people in the room, that positive feeling will ripple across the crowd. We have these things called mirror neurons in our brains that give us essentially the same experience we see the people around us having. So if we see someone reacting positively, we will too.
  19. 19. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 19 2. Confront the negative ideas in the room and agree with the (in principle) If there are some obvious and big objections to what you’re saying, talk them through respectfully and thoughtfully, first presenting the opposing idea fairly and then why you disagree. Most often, people with opposing points of view are disarmed simply by being recognised – fairly. 3. I will never defend The most important rule to remember in dealing with any confrontation is to never, under any circumstances, react by defending. A defensive reaction is the most common, but it almost never works. Watch someone under fire get defensive, and you see someone who actually appears to be guilty. Little by little, that person will lose ground and get backed up against the wall. Again, the solution to the problem is to turn the tables on your adversary. Suppose someone says your solution to a problem is totally wrong. If you respond with "No, it's not, because..." you've already lost. Now you're defensive, and your opponent has the opportunity to attack your reasoning. Next time you are in such a situation, try a response such as "What do you see as being right?" or "What do you think needs to be done?” With questions like these, you turn the tables. The spotlight will be on the hostile attendee, who must explain himself and justify his beliefs - rather than the other way around. 4. Redirect the focus This point has several levels. Of foremost importance is remembering that you need to control the situation. Suppose you're asked a "loaded" question (one filled with emotion or underlying accusations) like, "What is your company going to do about its reprehensible, blood-sucking personnel policies?" Obviously, this question is intended to put you on the spot and is not favourable to you or your company. However, you'd be surprised at how many speakers fall into the trap of responding to the question as it is presented, making the mistake of emulating the speaker. Instead, try these ways to turn the situation to your advantage:
  20. 20. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 20 a. Rephrase the question. You might say something like, "You seem to be asking how our company is working to better our employees' quality of life. Let me lay out the steps that have recently been taken in the areas of...." b. Ask questions too. Many presenters feel they must answer immediately when asked a question. Not so. You may need to ask a question instead to clarify an obscure question from the audience member - or to expose a hidden agenda. For example, if you're asked, "How can any ethical person come up with policies such as you just described?" you are being set up for attack. Above all, don't respond to the underlying presupposition, which is that you are unethical. Instead ask your adversary questions, such as: "What are you wanting me to say?" or "Can you explain what you mean?" Your questions will give you several advantages: They will (1) get the agenda out in the open, (2) get your opponent to offer specifics that are easier to deal with, and (3) give you time to think. c. Use the question to make a transition. Although you never want to give the impression that you are trying to evade a difficult question, there are times when you need to take a step off the path you were on. Develop your own repertoire of transition sentences that will help you move to more secure territory. Try variations of these: "The real issue you're discussing seems to be...." "What you're really saying is…”; or "What we should ask is.... " These phrases will take you over the problem area to a topic you can address. At the same time, saying them gives you time to gather your thoughts. Remember, credibility is one of your most important assets as a presenter. Don't lose it by appearing to dodge a question.
  21. 21. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 21 5. Open the floor to Q and A – but save the last 5 minutes for your closing A common mistake most presenters make is to take Q and A at the end, closing on the last audience question. But doing so means that you’re at the mercy of the last question and questioner. Instead, save 5 minutes and hold your best rhetoric for the end. People tend to remember the last words they hear, so make them your own. When the worst comes to the worst… What happens when you’ve prepared thoroughly, but some of your listeners are still not satisfied? How do you deal with those who openly disagree with you or challenge you? Stay calm at all costs. If you return the fire, you’ll only encourage more negative behaviour. Don’t judge your entire audience by the reactions of a few. They may not represent the views of everyone. People who interrupt, loudly disagree, or become combative are likely to offend others in the audience as well. Be sure to address the issue, not the person. Don’t put the individual on the defensive and certainly don’t criticise anyone personally. Look for areas of agreement upon which you can build. That doesn’t mean you should back down when all your research tells you you’re right. Looking for common ground is not a form of compromise. You can acknowledge the other person’s point of view without agreeing with it. Stay within the immediate discussion. Avoid offering more facts or opinions that could trigger more disagreement. Also, avoid becoming bogged down in an adversarial exchange. Once you’ve covered a topic as thoroughly as you choose to, end the discussion by saying simply that you’ve explained your position, but now it’s time to move on. You can always offer to discuss the issue further after your presentation. Do interrupt when someone with a dissenting view wanders onto another subject or appears ready to give a presentation of their own. Make it clear that time is short and that you want to stay focused on the day’s agenda.
  22. 22. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 22 Being more assertive
  23. 23. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 23 How many times have you sat in the audience during the Q&A portion of a presentation (either live or on the Web or phone), and felt frustrated by one audience member dominating the questions? Perhaps this person has several questions that go on and on, or perhaps she doesn't have a question at all and tells long stories. Either way, you as the presenter are not taking charge of the situation, leaving the rest of the audience, also with questions, tapping their feet, looking at the clock, and feeling ignored. Unlike a true heckler, the person dominating Q&A is not trying to put you down or make you look bad. Like a heckler, however, this person does want a lot of personal attention, which, as the presenter, you cannot give at the expense of other audience members. How do you handle this needy person? 1. The multiple question-asker When someone says, "I have a couple of questions," one way to deal with it is to take the first question and ask her if she can save the other until others have asked theirs. You will immediately nip in the bud the first kind of dominating questioner. If you run out of time for everyone's questions, let them know you'll stay after your presentation for a few minutes if people want to talk, or ask them to contact you by e-mail with additional questions. The person might not tell you she has more than one question, but you soon discover that there are multiple questions coming, and it's too late to stop it. In this case, try to give a general answer that covers some of her concerns, and again, suggest talking more afterward so you can more specifically address her particular issues. Then move on. 2. The conversationalist Sometimes a person asks a question, you answer it, and then he just continues to converse with you, adding details and sometimes sneaking in a "follow-up" question or two. This is a difficult situation, because you feel rude if you cut him off mid-sentence, but you know you have to stop the flow. When it appears that this person will continue talking or is going to sneak in another question, don't let it go on and on. Jump in when he takes a breath for air with a comment like, "That's a really common concern. Thanks for bringing that up. Does someone else have a question they'd like to ask?" Just do it. Be assertive. Don't be rude, but cut the cord. 3. The storyteller This is the person who stands up and starts talking about her own experience, but never
  24. 24. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 24 actually formulates a question. These stories can go on indefinitely. Again, you need to be polite but firm. When the person takes a breath or when you can sense any kind of break coming, jump right in with, "Wow, that must have been scary. I'm glad you survived. Do you have a question?" If the person cannot put together a question, you need to take control and say, "I'm going to move on to the next person with a question. If you'd like to talk after the presentation, I'll be around for a little while." Being assertive is a skill developed through practice. It's not just about knowing the answers; it's also about crowd control. Be assertive but caring. Let the audience member know that you hear him and that you value what he has to say. But never let someone dominate the room; you will see your audience's eyes glaze over and you will their interest and risk not regaining it.
  25. 25. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 25 Start your presentation with PUNCH The primacy effect, when applied to presentations, suggests that we remember more strongly what happens at the beginning of a presentation. In order to establish a connection with an audience, we must grab their attention right from the beginning. A punchy opening that obtains the audience's attention can engage them quickly. PERSONAL Make it personal. I once saw an amazing presentation by the co-founder of Brandplay, a brand strategy firm. Stacey Kramer also founded Word for Word, a naming and branding consultancy serving national and global markets. In 2009, Kramer found herself confronting a terrifying diagnosis: a CAT scan revealed she had a brain tumour -- the size of a golf ball. She told her remarkable, personal story at TED2010. "The next time you face something that's unexpected, unwanted, and uncertain, consider that it just may be a gift." Stacey Kramer There are many ways to make the opening personal, but personal in this case does not mean a long self-introduction about your background complete with org charts or why you are qualified to speak. However, a personal story can be very effective opening so long as it illustrates a key engaging point or sets the theme in a memorable way. Watch Stacey Kramer as she talks about “The best gift I ever survived” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKbet4RdSo4 What could you add to make it PERSONAL?
  26. 26. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 26 UNEXPECTED Reveal something unexpected. Doing something or saying something which is not expected grabs their attention. Even the very fact that you have chosen to eschew the normal and ordinary (and boring) formal opening of thanking everyone under the sun and saying how glad you are to be speaking is a happy small surprise. Instead of the usual formal and slow opening, consider opening with a shocking quote or a question with a surprising answer or a revealing statistic that goes against conventional wisdom. Do or say something that taps into the emotion of surprise. This emotion increases alertness and gets people to focus. Watch Tom Peters as he opens with “Too much talk, too little do” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0UyvJgOCS1w What could you add to reveal something UNEXPECTED?
  27. 27. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 27 NOVEL Show or tell of something novel. Get people’s attention by introducing something new. Start with a powerful image that’s never been seen, or reveal a relevant short story that’s never been heard, or show a statistic from a brand new study that gives new insights into a problem. Chances are that your audience is filled with natural born explorers who crave discovery and are attracted to the new and the unknown. Novelty is threatening for some people, but assuming the environment is safe and there is not an over abundance of novelty in the environment, your audience will be seeking the novel and the new. OSCON 2005 Keynote - Identity 2.0 Dick Hardt | Founder & CEO, Sxip Identity Watch Dick deliver a compelling and dynamic introduction on Identity 2.0 and how the concept of digital identity is evolving. http://www.identity20.com/media/OSCON2005/ What could you add to show or tell of something NOVEL?
  28. 28. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 28 CHALLENGING Challenge conventional wisdom or challenge the audience’s assumptions. Consider challenging people's imaginations too: "How would you like to fly from New York to Tokyo in 2 hours? Impossible? Well, some experts think it’s possible!" Challenge people intellectually by asking provocative questions that make them think. Many presentations or lectures fail because they simply attempt to transfer information from speaker to listener as if the listeners were not active participants. But audiences pay attention best when you call on them to use their brains — and even their bodies — to do something that taps their natural curiosity and stretches them. What could you add to make it CHALLENGING?
  29. 29. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 29 HUMOUR Use humour to engage the audience emotionally with a shared laugh. There are many benefits to laughter. Laughter is contagious and an audience that shares a laugh becomes more connected with each other and with you; this creates a positive general vibe in the room. Laughter releases endorphins, relaxes the whole body, and can even change one’s perspective just a bit. The old adage is if they are laughing they are listening. This is true, though it does not necessarily mean they are learning, so it is critical that the humour be relevant directly to the topic at hand or otherwise fits harmoniously with the flow of your narrative without being distracting or derailing you from the objective of your talk. The idea of recommending humour in a presentation often gets a bad rap because of the common and tired practice of opening up a speech with a joke, almost always a lame one. Usually such jokes get only polite sympathy laughter at best, and at worst the joke falls completely flat or even offends, either way the presenter is off to a poor start. But, I’m not talking about telling jokes. Forget about jokes. However, an observation of irony, or an anecdote or short humourous story that makes a relevant point or introduces the topic and sets the theme is the kind of opening that can work. Watch my presentation where I found it difficult to say the word ANONYMITY. http://www.youtube.com/pauschmanagement What could you add to make it HUMOUROUS
  30. 30. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 30 Take a chance There are many ways to start a presentation, but how ever you choose to start your talk, do not waste those initial, valuable two-three minutes “warming up” the audience with filler material or formalities. Start strong. The five elements comprising PUNCH are not the only things to consider, but if your opening contains 2-3 of these approaches then you are on your way to opening with impact. Of course, it's safer just to do the same old thing, but part of presenting ‘naked’ means being different and taking a chance to make an impact. Making a difference and influencing a change always has some risk.
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  32. 32. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 32 Presentation Power: Four Ways to Persuade Aristotle said that all speaking is persuasive speaking. I agree. After all, who am I to argue with Aristotle? Regardless of the venue (10 people or 1,000 people, a conference, a sales call, or a feedback session), we, as speakers, are always trying to sell our credibility and value – not to mention our ideas. Hence, all speaking is persuasive. Unfortunately, all too often presenters think they are “just giving information.” “Information” is often better delivered in written form, giving the audience time to digest and think about the material. Just think for a minute how much time would be saved if people read the material in advance, and the group time was spent answering questions. That being said, presenting information in a way that shows passion and enthusiasm not only makes the material more interesting, but the speaker more memorable and inspirational – even persuasive. “All speaking is persuasive.” So, what makes a presentation and presenter persuasive? There are 4 critical factors. I’ll start with three that Aristotle himself mentioned, and then add one of my own.
  33. 33. Program customised for Watpac by Gerald Pauschmann www.thepresentationcoach.com.au/watpac Page 33 1. Logos Translated from Greek, it means logic. Information must make sense – it needs to be organised logically so people can follow along. Not only is organisation important, so are the facts and figures that make your case. Information that hits the “head” falls into the logos category. Logic alone, however, isn’t enough to spur people to action — it’s critical to justify the movement. That’s why Aristotle said that along with logos, you also need pathos. 2. Pathos Pathos = emotions. We are moved by our emotions – hitting the heart and the gut. However, we are not all moved by the same things. Some people are motivated by money, others by prestige or power. The better you know the people that you want to persuade (their demographics, job levels, reasons for being there, etc.), the better you can use examples that will move them. Overall, a speaker’s goal is to create a need – driven by the positives that the people will achieve by doing what the presenter suggests or the pain they will experience by not doing it. 3. Ethos Your ethos is your credibility. If people believe and trust you as a speaker, you will have a much easier time getting them to believe what you have to say. If they don’t like or trust you, it would be rare for them to buy into your ideas. There would always be an undercurrent of scepticism. This “unearned” credibility can come from the bio your audience members read before attending your presentation, or in the words of an introducer reading your prepared introduction. 4. Passion No matter the content of the message, a speaker must deliver it with passion. Use vocal variation that makes the message convincing. I have frequently been called a motivational speaker, but I see myself as a high content speaker who is passionate about my message. Not only is vocal passion critical, it must be congruent with your visual body language. I have had people say to me, “I can’t be passionate, my topic is boring …” or, “I am an accountant, scientist,” etc. My answer to them is …

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