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Health and Safety
Executive
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Air Quality Measurements
Making it Personal
Owen Butler
Health and Safety Executive’s
Science and Research Centre
Buxton
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2017
Who we are
Science DivisionScience and
Research Centre
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Personal sampling options
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Diffusive (passive) air sampling
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Case study: Exposure to Diacetyl
2,3-PENTANEDIONE
DIACETYL
(2,3-Butanedione)
O
O
O
O
• Used as an artificial (butter-like)
flavouring in the food industry
• Can be generated during
processing of natural products
such as coffee
• In August 2018 Europe adopted an
8-hr TWA of 20 ppb and a 15-min
STEL of 100 ppb for diacetyl
• In anticipation HSE validated a
diffusive sampling method using a
TD-GC-MS measurement approach
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Diacetyl - All Samples
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Diacetyl - Coffee Shops
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Size-selective particle sampling
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1 10 100
Particle aerodynamic diameter (um)
Fractionofambientparticlesinconvention
Inhalable
Thoracic
Respirable
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Directions: Higher flow rate samplers
Rascal 9 l/min PPI 8 l/min
• Cyclone designs share a common
heritage, many tested at HSE
• Higher flow rate samplers required
because of reductions in exposure
limits
• Now looking at 8-10 l/min rather
than 2 l/min
• More powerful pumps required –
wearability issues
• Size/weight issues somewhat off-set
by advances in battery technologies
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Directions: Miniaturization
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Directions: Disposable (single-use) samplers
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Directions: all in one samplers
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Laboratory automation
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Chemical Analysis
Analyte Technique LoQ / Sample Comment
Benzene TD-GC-MS Low ng No sample prep. required
Lead ICP-MS Low ng Sample extraction required
Lead XRF 10-50 ng Direct on filter assay
Elemental carbon Combustion 2000 ng Little sample prep. required
Nitrate (NO2) IC 250 ng Sample extraction required
Silica XRD 10,000 ng Direct on filter assay
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Wearable/portable sensors
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Next generation sensors
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Lower cost wearable/portable sensors
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Calm air chamber validation studies
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Calm air chamber validation studies
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Manikin validation studies
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Manikin validation studies
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Summary
• Passive (diffusive sampling) remains a valuable sampling
option
• Developments in personal filter based samplers: higher
flow rates, smaller, all-in-one, disposable
• Automation/robotics assisting laboratory analysis
• Laboratory Mass Spectrometry techniques are sensitive
• Tsunami in the development of sensors
• Sensor validation protocols need to be standardized
• Alas we however remain someway off
this…………………………………………………………………………………
© Crown Copyright, HSE 2019
Thanks and happy to take any questions?
owen.butler@hse.gov.uk

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Air quality measurement: Making it personal - Owen Butler

  • 1. Health and Safety Executive © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Air Quality Measurements Making it Personal Owen Butler Health and Safety Executive’s Science and Research Centre Buxton
  • 2. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2017 Who we are Science DivisionScience and Research Centre
  • 3. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Personal sampling options
  • 4. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Diffusive (passive) air sampling
  • 5. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Case study: Exposure to Diacetyl 2,3-PENTANEDIONE DIACETYL (2,3-Butanedione) O O O O • Used as an artificial (butter-like) flavouring in the food industry • Can be generated during processing of natural products such as coffee • In August 2018 Europe adopted an 8-hr TWA of 20 ppb and a 15-min STEL of 100 ppb for diacetyl • In anticipation HSE validated a diffusive sampling method using a TD-GC-MS measurement approach
  • 6. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Diacetyl - All Samples
  • 7. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Diacetyl - Coffee Shops
  • 8. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Size-selective particle sampling 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1 10 100 Particle aerodynamic diameter (um) Fractionofambientparticlesinconvention Inhalable Thoracic Respirable
  • 9. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Directions: Higher flow rate samplers Rascal 9 l/min PPI 8 l/min • Cyclone designs share a common heritage, many tested at HSE • Higher flow rate samplers required because of reductions in exposure limits • Now looking at 8-10 l/min rather than 2 l/min • More powerful pumps required – wearability issues • Size/weight issues somewhat off-set by advances in battery technologies
  • 10. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Directions: Miniaturization
  • 11. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Directions: Disposable (single-use) samplers
  • 12. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Directions: all in one samplers
  • 13. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Laboratory automation
  • 14. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Chemical Analysis Analyte Technique LoQ / Sample Comment Benzene TD-GC-MS Low ng No sample prep. required Lead ICP-MS Low ng Sample extraction required Lead XRF 10-50 ng Direct on filter assay Elemental carbon Combustion 2000 ng Little sample prep. required Nitrate (NO2) IC 250 ng Sample extraction required Silica XRD 10,000 ng Direct on filter assay
  • 15. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Wearable/portable sensors
  • 16. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Next generation sensors
  • 17. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Lower cost wearable/portable sensors
  • 18. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Calm air chamber validation studies
  • 19. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Calm air chamber validation studies
  • 20. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Manikin validation studies
  • 21. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Manikin validation studies
  • 22. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Summary • Passive (diffusive sampling) remains a valuable sampling option • Developments in personal filter based samplers: higher flow rates, smaller, all-in-one, disposable • Automation/robotics assisting laboratory analysis • Laboratory Mass Spectrometry techniques are sensitive • Tsunami in the development of sensors • Sensor validation protocols need to be standardized • Alas we however remain someway off this…………………………………………………………………………………
  • 23. © Crown Copyright, HSE 2019 Thanks and happy to take any questions? owen.butler@hse.gov.uk