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Traditional Shellfish Harvesting at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun (Barnet Marine Park)


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as presented by Carleen Thomas and Ginevra Toniello (Tsleil-Waututh Nation) at #BISS2017 (Burrard Inlet Science Symposium)

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Traditional Shellfish Harvesting at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun (Barnet Marine Park)

  1. 1. Traditional Shellfish Harvesting at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun (Barnet Marine Park) Carleen Thomas1 Ginevra Toniello2 1Relationships & Protocol Agreements Coordinator, Tsleil-Waututh Nation 2Archaeology & Cultural Heritage Coordinator, Tsleil-Waututh Nation
  2. 2. Traditional Villages and Clam Harvesting Areas in Burrard Inlet Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun (Barnet Marine Park) Whey-Ah-Wichen Tum-Tumay-Whueton Say-um-it-ton Say-Mah-Mit Tsleil-Waututh Wha-Whe-Why Say-Mopit
  3. 3. Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun / Barnet Marine Park • Long history of use • Clam harvesting in Tsleil-Waututh legends & in recent memory • Berry harvesting and processing Beach at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun Coast Salish People canoe in Burrard Inlet
  4. 4. Simon Fraser University Archaeology Field School 2017 Partnership between SFU and Tsleil-Waututh Nation
  5. 5. Simon Fraser University Archaeology Field School 2017
  6. 6. Tsleil-Waututh Elders Visit the Archaeological Site
  7. 7. • Settlements increase 3,000 BP - onward • Continuous use 400 years BP 750 years BP 2,200 years BP 2,500 years BP Archaeological Deposits at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun • At least four occupation events:
  8. 8. Littleneck Clam Butter Clam Horse Clam Bay Mussel Basket Cockle Barnacle Limpet Urchin Fish (Perch) Deer Archaeological Fauna at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun
  9. 9. Littleneck Clam Roasting Feature Clam Processing Features Whole roasted clams Shucked clam shells
  10. 10. Clam Processing Features Horse Clam Processing Boiling/Roasting Stones
  11. 11. • All harvested clams are mature (size over 25.4 mm) • No resource depression • Harvesting restrictions and management Harvested Littleneck Clam Sizes Over Time750 BP400 BP Clam Size (mm) 30 40 50 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Stratigraphic Level
  12. 12. • Evidence of harvesting up to post-colonial era • No recent harvesting Metal clamming fork 2,500+ Years of Clam Harvesting • Harvest closures in Burrard Inlet since 1970s
  13. 13. Clam Survey at Barnet Marine Park, June 2017 • Few living clams • 1-2 years old • Silty, anoxic beach sediments • Lack of traditional management • Importance of baseline data
  14. 14. Elderberry Processing 2,500 years BP Elderberry at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun today Plant Harvesting and Processing at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun
  15. 15. Elderberry Trailing blackberry Red huckleberry Salmonberry Thimbleberry Indian Plum Black gooseberry Pacific crabapple Hardhack Cottonwood Red Alder Western hemlock Sitka Mountain-Ash Vine Maple Big Leaf Maple American vetch Sword Fern Spiny wood fern Nootka Rose Cow parsnip Kinnikinnick Horsetail Pink Purslane Indigenous Plants of Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun
  16. 16. Archaeology at Thluk-Thluk-Way-Tun / Barnet Marine Park • Baseline data collection • Teaching students about Tsleil-Waututh history and traditions • Affirming oral histories of traditional use • Reconnecting people to place and resources