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Jingfeng Xia (East Stroudsberg University, Library)

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"An Open Digital Global South," UC Davis

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Jingfeng Xia (East Stroudsberg University, Library)

  1. 1. Predatory Journals Publishing in the Global South Jingfeng Xia East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania May 25, 2017
  2. 2. Predatory Journals Publishing • What is a predatory journal? • An online journal that hasa lax or non-existent peer review process, and • A unprofessional journal that provides false information, and • A greedy journal that charges fees for authors to publish articles • Background of predatory journals publishing • Internet and web design technologies • Market demand for quick and easy publications • Globalization and policy changes
  3. 3. Blacklist, Whitelist • Jeffery Beall – the blacklist • Lists of standalone journals and predatory publishers • Criticism, legal battles, etc. • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) – the whitelist • More rigorous assessment
  4. 4. Sting Operations • Bohannon’s submission • A nonsense paper was submitted to some open access journals • Majority of the journals accepted the fake paper, indicating no peer review • The author was asked for an article processing charge • Majority of the journals are in only a few of developing countries • Applying for editorship • A group of Poland scholars created a fake name with shoddy experience • Many of the applications were accepted, and a fee was asked
  5. 5. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Turkey Nigeria Indonesia United States of America India Number of journals by country Journals that chose an unprofessional website to index them Predatory (Alternative) Impact Factor Providers - Questionable websites that provide fake impact factor values to open access journals - Non-quantifiable criteria to calculate impact factor values - A processing fee is charged, in many cases it is about USD $100 per year - Examples include Global Impact Factor and Scientific Impact Factor - These same websites also provide indexing service for open access journals, in many cases free of charge - The majority of the service providers and subscribers are from only a few of developing countries
  6. 6. Geographic Distributions of Predatory Publishing 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Turkey Switzerland Clombia India Italy Germany Romania Iran Poland Spain USA Egypt Indonesia UK Brazil 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Czech Egypt Netherlands New Zealand Saudi Arabia Germany Iran Korea Canada Pakistan China Poland UK India USA DOAJ journals by country – the whitelist Journals by country – those rejected Bohannon’s paper
  7. 7. Geographic Distributions of Predatory Publishing Cont’d Journals by country – those accepted Bohannon’s paper 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 United Arab Emirates Italy Malaysia Bangladesh Canada United Kingdom China Turkey United States Pakistan Nigeria India Predatory journals by country in Asia
  8. 8. Geographic Distributions of Predatory Publishing Cont’d Corresponding authors in predatory journals by country (Shen & Björk, 2015, Figure 8) Shen, C. & Björk, B. (2015). ‘Predatory’ open access: A longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics. BMC Medicine, 13: 230.
  9. 9. A Demand-Supply Publishing Market • Researcher population increased over the period of 15 years, dramatically in developing countries • Recognized journals grew not in proportion 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% 300% 350% EU US UK China Korea TurkeyCountry Researchers on R & D (1) ISI Journals (2) UK 4,029,278 2,800 US 4,018,635 4,291 Malaysia 2,051,736 10 Turkey 1,156,513 34 China 1,035,879 155 Iran 738,189 39 Pakistan 166,916 13 India 156,638 100 Data sources (1) World Bank – http://data.worldbank.org (2) Meo, S.A., et al. (2013). Impact of GDP, Spending on R&D, Number of Universities and Scientific Journals on Research Publications among Asian Countries. PLOS One, 8(10): 10. Percentage of increases of total researchers in some countries (2000-2015) Data source: OECD Stat: Total researchers FTE
  10. 10. Publishing Polices • Globalization of Science • Publishing polices at various levels • Journals in English, with a peer review process, published in a foreign country (preferably in a developed country), and indexed by SCI or other internationally recognized indexes (carry more weight)
  11. 11. Adaptation of Predatory Publishing to Globalization Major Criteria of Globalization Predatory Journals' Answer to Criteria of Globalization English Most predatory journals are created and operated in a few developing countries, such as India, Pakistan, and Nigeria, where English is an official language. Peer view All predatory journals claim to be peer reviewed. Although Bohannon's sting operation detected non-existence of the process for many predatory journals, most researchers are unaware of it. In a developed country Many predatory journals pretend to be in a developed country, primarily with a US or UK address. Yet, their operations seem to be in a developing country, from their server addresses, payment currencies, etc. SCI or recognized indexes with an impact factor value Many predatory journals present an impact factor value and are indexed by an alternative open access directory. But they interpret "recognized" differently and hope researchers do not know the difference.
  12. 12. Thank you

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