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© Ricardo plc 2017
© Ricardo plc 2019
UFP Measurements at Heathrow Airport
Brian Stacey
IAQM - Monitoring Air Quality, London, 30th Apr 2019
2Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
• AQM at airports – History and reminder
• UFP at airports – inc. Heathrow PhD
• Monitoring data and analysis
UFP Monitoring at Heathrow
Agenda
3Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
• Began (properly) in 1986
• Permanent station in 1992
• Terminal 5 – 5 sites to
west of airport from 2000
to 2007.
• Harlington from 2004
• 4 sites directly funded by
HAL, ~20 operated by LAs
• heathrowairwatch.org.uk
An History of AQM at Heathrow
4Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
• Emerging link with UFP and health
• Interest from EU, COMEAP and AQEG
• Still not enough data to establish regulations
• UK (and other MS) National network – not extensive
• Increasing evidence to suggest airport related UFP is
different to typical urban UFP
• Work at AMS, COP, and LAX airports
• Work at airports in F, B, D, NL, DK, I, UK
UFP and Airports - An Overview
5Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Evidence that high PN
concentrations are associated
with airport activity, even at
some distance from the source.
UFP and Airports - An Overview
Source:
Copenhagen
Airports: 2014
Source: Environ. Sci. Technol.
2014, 48, 6628−6635
Source: Atmospheric
Environment 104
(2015) 132-142
6Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
•Phase 1 - LHR2 / Oaks Road
– 30/9 to 25/11/2016
Compare data against
reference locations
(Paper in preparation…)
UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Measurement Campaigns
Pollutant Analyser Averaging
UFP (14-680nm) TSI 3775/3080 (Oaks Road)
TSI 3775/3082 (LHR2)
2:15 sweep every 3
mins
PM10/2/5/1 Palas Fidas 200 15 min
NOx API T200 15 min
BC Magee AE33-7 15 min
CO2 COZIR 15 min
Met Lufft WS600 (LHR2) 15 min
2 other campaigns:
Autumn 2017 – 1 minute data at LHR2
(awaiting publication)
(Autumn 2018 – 1 second trial)
Summer 2019 – 1 second data at LHR2
7Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
• Context – how do airport UFP data
compare with roadside, background and
rural measurements? Are there
differences upwind and downwind of the
airfield?
• Does the pollutant mixture differ at the
airport? Different operating modes?
• Assessment of airport contribution to local
UFP
• QA/QC – Already in place for conventional
pollutants – make sure it is just as robust
for the UFP measurements
• Individual aircraft “fingerprinting”? i.e. is it
possible to identify dirtier aircraft / engine
configurations?
UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Context, Aims and Objectives
8Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Headline:
Airport concentrations
(mostly) between
London traffic and
London background
UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Measurements in Context – Autumn 2016
Pollutant Marylebone Road North Kensington Chilbolton LHR2 Oaks Road
NO, ppb 80.4 9.1 1.6 43.9 21.8
NO2, ppb 39.2 18.9 8.4 27.5 20.7
PM10, ug/m3
21.6 17.1 13.4 15.9 13.8
PM2.5, ug/m3
12.8 11.1 7.3 9.5 9.4
BC, ug/m3
3.787 0.912 0.620 2.901 1.792
UVPM, ug/m3
0.305 0.198 0.277 0.615 0.537
Total PN,
particles/cm3 10046 5384 2637 9053 7964
But:
Total particle
numbers does not tell
the whole story…
9Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Context - Particle Size Distribution
10Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Nucleation size particles polar plots
LHR2 Oaks Road
11Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Wind Direction is critical!
12Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Can Individual aircraft be identified?
13Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Individual Aircraft – different runway modes
14Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Further exploration - aircraft
Is it possible to assign a
PSD to an aircraft?
Heathrow have high
resolution movement data,
position, speed and
altitude (up to 20m above
ground)
1 minute sweep not quick
enough
Met measurements not
quick enough either
Need to consider for final
campaign.
15Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
Further exploration – not (all) aircraft
When wind
not directly
from runway,
PSD profiles
are different
When no
activity at all,
there is
hardly any
fine particles
16Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
• EPA PMF5 used, 5
factors
• Aircraft factor
dominated by fine
PN, swamps
relationship to all
other pollutants
• Polar plot analyses
of Aircraft factors
correlates with
nucleation mode
measurements.
Model validation and relationship with other pollutants
17Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
•Phase 3 – LHR2 – November 2018
Only easterly wind, so no real value for PhD. Repeat for
Phase 4 in 2019.
UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Measurement Campaigns
Pollutant Analyser Averaging
UFP (5-1000nm) Cambustion DMS500 1 second
PM10/2/5/1 Palas Fidas 200 1 min
NOx API T200 1 min
BC Magee AE33-7 1 min
CO2 COZIR 1 min
Met Lufft WS600 1 min
18Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017
•Total PN concentrations at Heathrow fits profile of other
pollutants measured (Road > Airport > Background)
•But UFP near Heathrow very different in size distribution
to rest of London
•Finest particles originate from aircraft emissions.
•Highest concentrations are associated with departing
aircraft
•1 minute data not fast enough to identify individual
aircraft. Future campaign will try to address this.
UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Conclusions
brian.stacey@ricardo.com
Thanks for listening
Thanks to:
Professor Roy Harrison, University of Birmingham
Andrew Chen, Heathrow Airport Limited
Any questions?

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Ultrafine particle measurements at Heathrow Airport - Brian Stacey

  • 1. © Ricardo plc 2017 © Ricardo plc 2019 UFP Measurements at Heathrow Airport Brian Stacey IAQM - Monitoring Air Quality, London, 30th Apr 2019
  • 2. 2Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 • AQM at airports – History and reminder • UFP at airports – inc. Heathrow PhD • Monitoring data and analysis UFP Monitoring at Heathrow Agenda
  • 3. 3Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 • Began (properly) in 1986 • Permanent station in 1992 • Terminal 5 – 5 sites to west of airport from 2000 to 2007. • Harlington from 2004 • 4 sites directly funded by HAL, ~20 operated by LAs • heathrowairwatch.org.uk An History of AQM at Heathrow
  • 4. 4Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 • Emerging link with UFP and health • Interest from EU, COMEAP and AQEG • Still not enough data to establish regulations • UK (and other MS) National network – not extensive • Increasing evidence to suggest airport related UFP is different to typical urban UFP • Work at AMS, COP, and LAX airports • Work at airports in F, B, D, NL, DK, I, UK UFP and Airports - An Overview
  • 5. 5Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Evidence that high PN concentrations are associated with airport activity, even at some distance from the source. UFP and Airports - An Overview Source: Copenhagen Airports: 2014 Source: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48, 6628−6635 Source: Atmospheric Environment 104 (2015) 132-142
  • 6. 6Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 •Phase 1 - LHR2 / Oaks Road – 30/9 to 25/11/2016 Compare data against reference locations (Paper in preparation…) UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Measurement Campaigns Pollutant Analyser Averaging UFP (14-680nm) TSI 3775/3080 (Oaks Road) TSI 3775/3082 (LHR2) 2:15 sweep every 3 mins PM10/2/5/1 Palas Fidas 200 15 min NOx API T200 15 min BC Magee AE33-7 15 min CO2 COZIR 15 min Met Lufft WS600 (LHR2) 15 min 2 other campaigns: Autumn 2017 – 1 minute data at LHR2 (awaiting publication) (Autumn 2018 – 1 second trial) Summer 2019 – 1 second data at LHR2
  • 7. 7Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 • Context – how do airport UFP data compare with roadside, background and rural measurements? Are there differences upwind and downwind of the airfield? • Does the pollutant mixture differ at the airport? Different operating modes? • Assessment of airport contribution to local UFP • QA/QC – Already in place for conventional pollutants – make sure it is just as robust for the UFP measurements • Individual aircraft “fingerprinting”? i.e. is it possible to identify dirtier aircraft / engine configurations? UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Context, Aims and Objectives
  • 8. 8Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Headline: Airport concentrations (mostly) between London traffic and London background UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Measurements in Context – Autumn 2016 Pollutant Marylebone Road North Kensington Chilbolton LHR2 Oaks Road NO, ppb 80.4 9.1 1.6 43.9 21.8 NO2, ppb 39.2 18.9 8.4 27.5 20.7 PM10, ug/m3 21.6 17.1 13.4 15.9 13.8 PM2.5, ug/m3 12.8 11.1 7.3 9.5 9.4 BC, ug/m3 3.787 0.912 0.620 2.901 1.792 UVPM, ug/m3 0.305 0.198 0.277 0.615 0.537 Total PN, particles/cm3 10046 5384 2637 9053 7964 But: Total particle numbers does not tell the whole story…
  • 9. 9Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Context - Particle Size Distribution
  • 10. 10Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Nucleation size particles polar plots LHR2 Oaks Road
  • 11. 11Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Wind Direction is critical!
  • 12. 12Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Can Individual aircraft be identified?
  • 13. 13Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Individual Aircraft – different runway modes
  • 14. 14Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Further exploration - aircraft Is it possible to assign a PSD to an aircraft? Heathrow have high resolution movement data, position, speed and altitude (up to 20m above ground) 1 minute sweep not quick enough Met measurements not quick enough either Need to consider for final campaign.
  • 15. 15Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 Further exploration – not (all) aircraft When wind not directly from runway, PSD profiles are different When no activity at all, there is hardly any fine particles
  • 16. 16Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 • EPA PMF5 used, 5 factors • Aircraft factor dominated by fine PN, swamps relationship to all other pollutants • Polar plot analyses of Aircraft factors correlates with nucleation mode measurements. Model validation and relationship with other pollutants
  • 17. 17Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 •Phase 3 – LHR2 – November 2018 Only easterly wind, so no real value for PhD. Repeat for Phase 4 in 2019. UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Measurement Campaigns Pollutant Analyser Averaging UFP (5-1000nm) Cambustion DMS500 1 second PM10/2/5/1 Palas Fidas 200 1 min NOx API T200 1 min BC Magee AE33-7 1 min CO2 COZIR 1 min Met Lufft WS600 1 min
  • 18. 18Apr 2019Unclassified - Public Domain© Ricardo plc 2017 •Total PN concentrations at Heathrow fits profile of other pollutants measured (Road > Airport > Background) •But UFP near Heathrow very different in size distribution to rest of London •Finest particles originate from aircraft emissions. •Highest concentrations are associated with departing aircraft •1 minute data not fast enough to identify individual aircraft. Future campaign will try to address this. UFP Monitoring at Heathrow – Conclusions
  • 19. brian.stacey@ricardo.com Thanks for listening Thanks to: Professor Roy Harrison, University of Birmingham Andrew Chen, Heathrow Airport Limited Any questions?