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Caa2021 s12-tudhope-a

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Caa2021 s12-tudhope-a

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Presentation given by Doug Tudhope, University of South Wales, at the Digital Infrastructures and New (and Evolving) Technologies in Archaeology roundtable organised by ARIADNEplus at the CAA 2021 virtual conference.

Presentation given by Doug Tudhope, University of South Wales, at the Digital Infrastructures and New (and Evolving) Technologies in Archaeology roundtable organised by ARIADNEplus at the CAA 2021 virtual conference.

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Caa2021 s12-tudhope-a

  1. 1. ARIADNEplus is funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Programme Archaeological Linked Data? Douglas Tudhope and Ceri Binding Hypermedia Research Group University of South Wales (USW)
  2. 2. Linked Data “The Semantic Web isn't just about putting data on the web. It is about making links, so that a person or machine can explore the web of data. With linked data, when you have some of it, you can find other, related, data. Like the web of hypertext, the web of data is constructed with documents on the web. However, unlike the web of hypertext, where links are relationships anchors in hypertext documents written in HTML, for data they links between arbitrary things described by RDF,. The URIs identify any kind of object or concept. But for HTML or RDF, the same expectations apply to make the web grow: 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) 4. Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.” Tim Berners-Lee, 2006 https://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  3. 3. Linked Data Best Practices for Publishing Linked Data 1. Prepare Stakeholders 2. Select a Dataset 3. Model the Data 4. Specify an Appropriate License 5. The Role of "Good URIs" for Linked Data 6. Standard Vocabularies 7. Convert Data to Linked Data 8. Provide Machine Access to Data 9. Announce to the Public 10. Social Contract of a Linked Data Publisher [And now Linked Open Data etc.] W3C Working Group Note 09 January 2014 http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-bp/
  4. 4. Linked Data Best Practices for Publishing Linked Data • Use HTTP URIs • Provide at least one machine-readable representation of the resource identified by the URI A URI structure will not contain anything that could change • URI Opacity W3C Working Group Note 09 January 2014 http://www.w3.org/TR/ld-bp/
  5. 5. Linked Data “Be unambiguous. There should be no confusion between identifiers for Web documents and identifiers for other resources. URIs are meant to identify only one of them, so one URI can't stand for both a Web document and a real-world object. … There are two solutions that meet our requirements for identifying real-world objects: 303 URIs and hash URIs. Which one to use depends on the situation, both have advantages and disadvantages.” W3C Cool URIs for the Semantic Web https://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/
  6. 6. What form can it take? • Ontological models, schema, application profiles – SKOS, FOAF, VoID, DCTERMS, GVP, CIDOC CRM, schema.org • Reference data - Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) – Classification schemes - DDC, UDC, ILC – Subject heading schemes - LCSH – Thesauri – Getty AAT, HeritageData, AGROVOC, UNESCO – Gazetteers - Pleiades, Getty TGN, GeoNames • Datasets – ARIADNEplus - what kind of linked data? • Combinations of the above – Perio.do, Nomisma
  7. 7. Multilingual mapping via AAT • ARIADNEplus building on ARIADNE use of KOS Linked Data • ARIADNE Registry subject enrichment service derived AAT concepts that augment subject metadata for partner resources • When applied to ARIADNE portal this allowed the search functionality to retrieve records with metadata expressed in different languages via the AAT concepts - the AAT acting as a mapping spine • When applied to the data integration case studies, allowed the integration of data and archaeological grey literature in different languages via the core ontology and authoritative vocabulary resources
  8. 8. Map local subject terms to a central concept “windmill”@en “windmolen”@nl “Moulin à vent”@fr “molino de viento”@es “mulino a vento“@it „Windmühle“@de “väderkvarn”@sv “melin wynt”@cy “ ”@ja “szélmalom”@hu “veterný mlyn”@sk “вятърна мелница”@bg “szélmalom”@hr “větrný mlýn”@cs “vindmølle”@da “15. vuosisadan mainos”@fi “αιολικό μύλο”@el “vindmylla”@is “muileann gaoithe”@ga “ ‫ט‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ”@he “vindmølle”@no “moinho de vento”@pt “moara de vant”@ro “mlin na veter”@sl The words may be different, but the concept is (more or less) the same… Now we can include all these variants in a single query
  9. 9. Multilingual results via AAT mappings ARIADNE Portal Query on AAT subject: Settlements and Landscapes shows results from IACA (Fasti), INRAP and DANS in multiple languages
  10. 10. Multilingual results via AAT mappings ARIADNE Portal Query on AAT subject: Churches (buildings) shows results from IACA (Fasti), DAI and DANS in multiple languages
  11. 11. ADS Linked Data (STELLAR)
  12. 12. ADS Linked Data (STELLAR) Examples: Excavation Cuts and one particular Cut
  13. 13. Challenges - Opportunities? • “There is a widespread notion of an unfavourable ratio of costs compared to benefits of employing Semantic Web / Linked Data standards for information management, publication and integration. • … • Major benefits of Linked Data can be gained from integration of heterogeneous collections/ databases and enhanced services through combining own and external data. But examples that clearly demonstrate such benefits for archaeological data are needed.” Towards a Web of Archaeological Linked Open Data, ARIADNE WP15 Study, Guntram Gesser, 2016 • What examples currently demonstrate the benefits? • What form should Linked Data take in ARIADNEPlus? • Strict definition of Linked Data or a looser notion of linking data?
  14. 14. What Strategy for ARIADNEplus? • Seems clear how A+ can use Semantic (Ontology) Frameworks and (KOS) Reference Data to good advantage But less clear as regards the data itself • What granularity of data should be accessible via dereferenceable URIs? • Only metadata? • fine data granularity? • important individual data elements (finds)?
  15. 15. What Strategy for ARIADNEplus? For semantic data integration: • Emphasis on collection level metadata? • Option to download (RDF) dataset? • Conventional Linked Data server? • SPARQL endpoint (with URIs for data items)? – How to make it accessible to wider community? • API based on semantic framework • All of the above?
  16. 16. References • ARIADNEplus. https://ariadne-infrastructure.eu • ARIADNEplus Portal. https://portal.ariadne-infrastructure.eu • Hypermedia research group. http://hypermedia.research.southwales.ac.uk/kos/ Related publications • Binding C. & Tudhope D. 2016. Improving Interoperability using Vocabulary Linked Data. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 17(1), 5-21 • Binding C, Tudhope D, Vlachidis A. (2018) A study of semantic integration across archaeological data and reports in different languages. Journal of Information Science, Sage. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551518789874 Open Access versions available from https://bit.ly/2ocaHC6
  17. 17. THANK YOU! ARIADNEplus is a project funded by the European Commission under the H2020 Programme, contract no. H2020-INFRAIA-2018-1- 823914. The views and opinions expressed in this presentation are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission. Contact: douglas.tudhope@southwales.ac.uk ceri.binding@southwales.ac.uk http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu/

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