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My	
  name	
  is	
  Katerina.	
  I	
  am	
  CEO	
  of	
  a	
  new	
  organisation,	
  Climate	
  for	
  Change.	
  
Climat...
1) Trust	
  –	
  this	
  comes	
  primarily	
  from	
  who	
  is	
  conveying	
  the	
  message,	
  but	
  also	
  the	
  ...
There	
  has	
  been	
  a	
  lot	
  of	
  debate	
  within	
  the	
  climate	
  movement	
  about	
  whether	
  or	
  not	...
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Climate for change talk

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PSC Conference 2015

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Climate for change talk

  1. 1. My  name  is  Katerina.  I  am  CEO  of  a  new  organisation,  Climate  for  Change.   Climate  for  Change’s  mission  is  to  create  the  social  climate  needed  for  our  governments  and  other   leaders  to  be  taking  effective  action  on  climate  change.   Today  I  will  outline  how  Climate  for  Change’s  model  is  informed  by  theories  of  social  and   behavioural  change.  It  is  not  enough  time  to  go  give  any  of  the  ideas  justice,  but  feel  free  to  come  up   to  me  afterwards  to  discuss  any  ideas  further.   But  first,  what  would  the  social  climate  we  want  to  create  look  like?  Some  indicators  would  be:   1) In  polling,  climate  change  would  be  in  the  top  3  issues  that  people  care  about   2) It  would  be  unthinkable  for  those  seeking  election  not  to  have  a  strong  stance  and  viable   policy  proposals  on  climate  change   3) Action  on  climate  change  would  have  the  same  status  as  anti-­‐tobacco  action  –  you  just  don’t   oppose  it;  and   4) It  would  be  unthinkable  for  anyone,  much  less  a  prime  minister,  to  declare  that  coal  is  good   for  humanity   So  what  does  our  research  tell  us  about  how  we  might  create  that  climate  for  change?   Firstly,  we  know  that  innovation  new  ideas  move  through  society  like  this:  bell  curve.   I’m  sure  many  if  not  all  of  you  are  familiar  with  this  bell  curve  depicting  “Social  Innovation  Theory”   which  describes  how  new  ideas  start  with  a  small  group  of  people  –innovators,  who  make  up  about   3%  of  the  population.  They  could  also  be  called  guinea  pigs.  If  the  idea  takes  off  with  them,  it  soon   passes  through  to  the  early  adopters  (sometimes  known  as  trendsetters).  These  are  the  people  who   make  or  break  an  idea.  Once  it  is  successful  with  them,  it  passes  to  the  early  majority.  At  this  point,  it   passes  the  tipping  point  and  we  know  it  is  just  a  matter  of  time  before  the  idea  gains  full  acceptance.   However  it  is  not  until  we  have  the  early  majority  on  board  that  the  idea  is  mainstream.  At  this  point   it  is  a  social  norm  and  the  late  majority  is  rushing  to  get  on  board  –  and  the  laggards  don’t  really   matter.   I  don’t  have  time  to  go  into  the  polling  data  today,  but  basically  it  shows  us  that  we  are  about  here,   in  terms  of  the  acceptance  of  the  need  for  strong  action  on  climate  change  –at  or  just  before  the   tipping  point.  The  early  majority  is  sympathetic,  but  inactive  and  generally  unengaged  with  the   urgency  of  the  issue.   Perhaps  less  well  known  about  social  diffusion  theory  is  how  ideas  move  from  one  section  of  society   to  the  next.  It  happens  through  people  in  one  section  acting  and  their  friends  from  the  next  section   seeing  or  hearing  about  what  they  are  doing  and  talking  to  their  friends  about  acting  too.     So  the  two  key  ingredients  are:   1) Visible  action;  and   2) conversations   So  what  do  we  know  about  persuading  people  to  act  and  having  effective  conversations?   Behaviour  change  101  tells  that  information  plays  only  a  small  part  in  whether  we  are  convinced  by   something  and  whether  we  act  on  it.  That  is  not  to  say  it  is  irrelevant,  but  alone  it  is  not  sufficient.   Many  factors  have  been  identified  in  studies  of  behaviour  change  and  many  theories  been  written,   but  6  ingredients  consistently  identified  are:  
  2. 2. 1) Trust  –  this  comes  primarily  from  who  is  conveying  the  message,  but  also  the  original  source   of  the  information   2) Social  norms  and  identity  –  closely  related  to  trust,  people  are  influenced  by  how  people   ‘like  them’  are  responding  and  acting  and  what  they  perceive  to  be  the  norm   3) Values  –  study  after  study  has  shown  that  most  of  us  do  not  form  our  values  based  on   information,  but  interpret  information  based  on  our  values.  For  people  to  accept  the  need  to   act  on  climate  change,  t  they  must  be  able  to  see  how  that  action  fits  with  their  values   4) Emotion  –    according  to  Marshall  Ganz,  who  devised  the  community  organising  model  for   Barack  Obama’s  2008  campaign:     “because   we   experience   value   through   our   emotions,   making   moral   choices   …in   the   absence  of  emotional  information  is  futile.  …  As  St.  Augustine  observed,  “knowing”  the   good  is  not  the  same  thing  as  “loving  the  good”,  being  moved  to  act  on  it.”   Marshall  Ganz,  has  identified  5  emotions  that  need  to  be  activated  in  order  for  people  to   feel  compelled  to  act  on  something:  Hope,  Urgency,  Outrage  Confidence,  Solidarity   5) Frames  –  we  all  see  the  world  through  different  glasses  or  frames,  based  on  our  experiences,   upbringing,  culture,  values  and  more.  In  order  to  persuade  people  we  must  either  fit  things   in  to  a  frame  they  are  already  familiar  with  or  create  a  new  frame  for  them  –  this  takes  time.   6) Narrative  –  is  the  way  in  which  human  beings  interpret  the  world  around  them  and  give  it   meaning  and  it  is  the  way  that  we  can  bring  all  the  above  elements  together  and  it  is  the   way  to  create  new  frames.  Amongst  other  things,  to  be  effective,  narratives  must  be   coherent  and  complete   So  how  has  Climate  for  Change  incorporated  this  knowledge  into  what  we  do?   Climate  for  Change’s  model  is  the  “Tupperware  party  model”  that  is,  small  gatherings  in  people’s   homes,  each  of  which  generates  at  least  one  more,  some  two  more,  thus  enabling  us  to  grow.   Firstly,  this  model  enables  us  to  reach  people  through  people  they  trust.  It  is  also  an  intimate  space   in  which  it  is  easier  to  build  trust  between  the  presenter  and  the  audience  and  a  safe  space  in  which   to  engage  with  climate  change  fully  and  emotionally.   Secondly,  the  space  is  a  controlled  one.  Important  to  the  model  is  that  our  host  is  prepped  only  to   invite  early  adopters  and  early  majority  –  people  sympathetic  to  climate  change,  but  either  not   engaged  or  not  active  other  than  perhaps  composting  their  veggie  scraps  and  signing  the  odd   petition  sent  their  way.  This  enable  us  to  target  our  audience,  but  also  to  reinforce  the  social  norm   and  use  peer  pressure  positively  to  encourage  people  to  act.   Our  key  asks  at  the  end  of  the  session  are:   1) Step  up  –  take  regular  visible  action;   2) Reach  Out  –  have  regular  conversations  (about  climate  change,  but  more  importantly  about   what  they  are  doing  and  why  and  how  it  makes  them  feel)   Climate  for  Change  will  support  them  to  do  these  things  after  the  gathering  when  they  take  a  public   and  online  pledge  to  do  them.   At  the  gathering  our  trained  facilitator  uses  narrative  and  conversation  to  build  trust,  evoke   emotion,  gauge  and  speak  to  values  and  create  new  frames  for  the  audience  in  order  to  get  them  to   the  point  where  they  are  willing  to  step  up  and  reach  out.  There  is  not  time  to  go  how  we  will  do  this   in  detail,  however  there  is  one  final  point  I  want  to  make:  
  3. 3. There  has  been  a  lot  of  debate  within  the  climate  movement  about  whether  or  not  to  talk  about  the   problem  of  climate  change  or  just  its  solutions  and  if  we  do  talk  about  it,  how?   In  keeping  with  the  idea  that  a  narrative  must  be  complete  and  that  it  is  important  to  evoke  a  sense   of  urgency,  the  Climate  for  Change  narrative  does  include  a  truthful  and  emotive  account  of  the   problem.  However,  as  well  as  following  up  with  a  hopeful  account  of  solutions  available,  we  consider   it  just  as  important  to  follow  that  with  an  account  of  how  vested  interests  are  holding  us  back,  how   social  movements  have  overcome  vested  interests  in  the  past  and  what  ordinary  people  can  and  are   already  doing  to  make  that  happen,  thereby  giving  the  story  an  ending  and  taking  the  audience   through  the  gamut  of  Marshall  Ganz’s  emotions:  urgency,  hope,  outrage,  confidence  and  solidarity.    

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