Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Session 5a emma_watkins_ieep oecd sustainable plastics 310518 v3


Published on

Policy approaches to incentivise sustainable plastic design

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Session 5a emma_watkins_ieep oecd sustainable plastics 310518 v3

  1. 1. @IEEP_eu Policy approaches to incentivise sustainable plastic design OECD Global Forum on Environment Plastics in a Circular Economy - Design of Sustainable Plastics from a Chemicals Perspective Day 3, Session 5: Policy approaches to incentivise sustainable plastic design 31 May 2018 Emma Watkins Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)
  2. 2. @IEEP_eu Overview of presentation Summarising background paper: • Regulatory measures • Market-based instruments • Financing & investment • Information tools & voluntary commitments • Non-exhaustive range of examples from OECD countries Next steps
  3. 3. @IEEP_eu Summary of policy instruments Type of instrument + Advantages / - disadvantages Regulatory measures: international agreements, regulations, bans/phase-outs, standards + Legal rules/standards - certainty + Promote quality/alternatives/innovation + Respond to evidence - Can be inflexible/create barriers - Can lack ambition Market-based instruments: taxes, subsidies, extended producer responsibility, deposit refund schemes + Dis-/incentives – market signals + Create markets + Internalise costs & support infrastructure - Significant variation in approaches Financing & investment: Direct investments, R&D, green public procurement, overseas development + Support for infrastructure + Support for R&D (e.g. design) + Leveraging effect (e.g. public procurement) - Potential infrastructural lock-in Information & voluntary tools: certification, standards, labelling, technology (e.g. apps), LCAs, info exchange + Promote information exchange + Often industry-led + Respond to emerging concerns - Non-binding, hard to regulate/assess
  4. 4. @IEEP_eu Regulatory measures: Examples from OECD countries Regulations: • EU REACH (EC 1907/2006) – standards on chemicals use • Korea Food Sanitation Act (Article 8) – manufacture, sale & import of food contact materials containing poisonous/harmful materials Bans and phase-outs: • Ban on BPA in food contact materials – EU (Directive 2011/8/EU), FRA, DNK • Ban on microbeads in cosmetics – NLD, USA, CAN, AUS; forthcoming in NZL, ITA and IRL • Ban on single-use plastic bags – FRA, AUS, Paris, São Paulo, 132 US cities Standards: • Australian Standard on biodegradable plastics - ensure quality of plastic products, based on toxicity claims & biodegradability
  5. 5. @IEEP_eu Regulatory measures: Opportunities to explore • Harmonising chemicals and food contact materials legislation • Alignment of rules on hazard classification of chemicals and waste • Introducing eco-design standardisation • Supporting recycling and the uptake of secondary raw materials • Potential regulations triggered by China’s restriction on import of certain wastes
  6. 6. @IEEP_eu Market-based instruments: Examples from OECD countries Taxes & fees: • Swedish tax on flame retardant chemicals in electronics: ‘white goods’ SEK 8/kg of taxable good; other goods SEK 120/kg (max. SEK 320); plan to widen scope • Danish tax on soft PVC products: tax per kg on many PVC products containing phthalates; reduced rate for non-phthalate softeners Subsidies: • Colorado Plastic Recycling Investment Tax Credit: 20% of first $10,000 of payments to 3rd parties for new plastic recycling technology Extended producer responsibility & deposit refund schemes: • PRO-based EPR schemes: typically higher fees for plastic/composite packaging; different fees for different plastics; eco-modulation • Korean Waste Charge System: charge per plastic pesticides/toxic product container, per kg of synthetic resin in products for general/construction use • Deposit refund schemes: e.g. AUS, CAN, CHL, DNK, EST, ISR, MEX, POL, TUR, USA
  7. 7. @IEEP_eu MBIs: Opportunities to explore • Greater eco-modulation of EPR fees, and additional/improved guidance • Other options to encourage more sustainable product design? • Wider application of plastics taxes, e.g. virgin resins/plastics • Consideration of carbon-related taxes, e.g. lower for products containing recycled plastic
  8. 8. @IEEP_eu Financing & investment: Examples from OECD countries Investments in infrastructure • Waste prevention in EU PRE-Waste Project (European Regional Development Fund) Research and Development • New Plastics Economy Innovation Prize (Ellen MacArthur Foundation) • UK Environment Audit Committee – assessment on coffee cup waste management • Auckland, New Zealand – study on introduction of deposit refunds for bottles Green Public Procurement • Hamburg, Germany – Green Public Procurement guidelines on single use plastics • Turin, Italy – public procurement guidelines for school catering facilities • San Francisco, USA – Board of Supervisors Ordinance on packaged water Development assistance • Closed Loop Partners & Closed Loop Oceans (total USD 250m – private sector fund)
  9. 9. @IEEP_eu Financing & investment: Opportunities to explore • Providing investments to support move away from landfilling & incineration, and supporting waste prevention, recycling & re-use • Engage the private sector to leverage additional funds in key areas • Support R&D in sustainable plastic design (including grey areas – e.g. bio plastics / substitute materials) • Support overseas development including investments in waste management
  10. 10. @IEEP_eu Info & voluntary tools: Examples from OECD countries Labelling: • Safer Choice (US): identifies products with safer ingredients, incl. polymers & plasticisers • Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) label (US): certifies compostable products according to strict ASTM or ISO standards Apps: • Beat the Microbead: smartphone barcode scanner to check for plastic microbeads Voluntary commitments: • Nestlé and Danone R&D partnership: develop a 100% bio-based plastic bottle • McDonald’s: 100% of packaging from renewable, recycled or certified sources by 2025 • COOP Denmark: banned “dirty dozen” from own-brand products & packaging Public-private collaborations: • Australian Packaging Covenant: agreement to reduce env impacts of packaging • Chemical Information Exchange Network (CIEN): promoting global chemical information
  11. 11. @IEEP_eu Info & voluntary tools: Opportunities to explore • Developing internationally harmonised databases and information systems to ensure disclosure of chemicals content and provide accessible information along the value chain • Harmonising various information tools and standards in relation to plastic additives
  12. 12. @IEEP_eu Next steps • Feedback and further insights welcome by Friday 15 June! • … in particular additional examples from non-EU OECD countries • Revised background paper by mid-July
  13. 13. @IEEP_eu Some questions for discussion 1. What role can policies play in promoting sustainable plastics? 2. What are existing good practices which support the design of sustainable plastics? (In particular examples from non-EU OECD member countries.) 3. What role can different stakeholders play in the plastics value chain? 4. Where could new regulatory measures play a role (e.g. sust. criteria)? 5. Is greater regulatory harmonisation needed (within or between countries)? 6. Should MBIs be more widely used, and where in the value/supply chain? 7. Should eco-modulation of EPR fees be more widely implemented? 8. What additional investment/financing could facilitate plastics sustainability? 9. What potential might public procurement rules offer? 10. How to ensure the quality & robustness of info/voluntary tools? 11. How can info/voluntary tools address knowledge gaps/bottlenecks in the plastics value chain?
  14. 14. @IEEP_eu Emma Watkins Jean-Pierre Schweitzer Thank you for your attention