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Flash for the
Oracle DBAYODB - 1st March 2017
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.2
About Me
Ron Ekins
Oracle Solutions Architect for EMEA @ Pure Storage
ron@purestorage.com
@RonEk...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.3
A MAGIC QUADRANT LEADER
Source: Gartner Magic Quadrant for Solid State Arrays August 2016.
This ...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.4
AgendaFlash for the Oracle DBA
A brief History of traditional storage
An Introduction to Flash
O...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.5
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.6
Disk Evolution
However since 2000, drive capacities have increased
but speed has remained consta...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.7
Seek Time
• Time taken to move disk actuator head between platters
+ Rotational Latency
• Time t...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.8
So disk latency is a
problem
What have we tried ?
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.9
Storage Admin mitigations
• Use of 100’s or 1,000’s of LUN’s to spread I/O
• Dedicated LUN’s
• T...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.10
DBA Storage plasters
• Planning and careful placement of database data files/objects
• Use larg...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.11
Flash (a-ha)Saviour of our databases
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.12
So Flash is Great… What’s Inside?
• Components of Flash:
• Silicon wafer fabricated with hundre...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.13
How Does Flash Work?
Wordline – Floating Gate
Bitline – Silicon Substrate
• Flash Die is compri...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.14
TLC
Voltage
SLC
Voltage
MLC
Voltage
Types of Flash2D Planar NAND: SLC, MLC, eMLC, TLC
• There a...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.15
Source: anandtech.com
• eMLC & cMLC use the same
underlying NAND
• Main differences are the amo...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.16
Operations on Flash
• To write data, voltage is applied to attract
electrons along the wordline...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.17
Why All-Flash? The Car analogy
Traditional
Disk Array
Hybrid
Disk Array
All-Flash Array
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.18
Winter is already here
for Disk
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.19
The Death of the Legacy Disk Arrays
• Year-on-Year disk array sales are down.
• Traditional dis...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.20
What’s next ?
IT’S ALREADY
IN YOUR
DEVICES
IT’S FASTER AND
MORE PARALLEL
THAN SAS
IT’S BUILT TO...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.21
It’s all about the
data
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.22
What is DevOps ?
• The term DevOps comes from the combining of DEVelopment and
information tech...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.23
Why DevOps?
• Need to Accelerate Development, Improve Quality and
reduce ’Time-to-Market’
• How...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.24
Common Data Challenges
• Databases are getting bigger, and therefore harder to move around
• 10...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.25
The need for Speed
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.26
How will Flash help my database ?
Performance
• All-Flash-Arrays provide consistent sub-millise...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.27
Interpreting AWR Report Output
Top 5 (10) Timed Foreground Events
• The Top Wait Event section
...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.28
Interpreting the AWR Report Output
Grouped together different wait events into
classes and calc...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.29
Interpreting the Statspack and AWR Report Output
Foreground Wait Events Unfortunately, Foregrou...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.30
Oracle E-Business R12 Flash results
TEST	3 TEST4 Improvement %
Start	Time 15/12/2016	 10:49:50 ...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.31
It’s not just EBS runtimes that are important
Oracle RMAN backup and restore times
Backup Resto...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.32
Moving Oracle on to All Flash Array
Real-World Example: Large Insurance Company
Tier 1 Legacy D...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.33
How will Flash help my database ?
Simplicity
• No need to manage / use 10’s or 100’s of LUN’s
•...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.34
How will Flash help my database ?
Agility, Automation, and DevOps
• Enable consistent platform ...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.35
How will Flash help my database ?
Cost
• Use expensive Database server CPU’s and licences to pe...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.36
Cloudfor Disk Storage
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.37
Should we migrate our Databases to the Cloud ?
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.38
Oracle Cloud
• Oracle is investing heavily in the Cloud, both infrastructure and marketing.
• A...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.39
Data Considerations
Technical considerations
• Number, size and growth of
database(s)
• Frequen...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.40
Cloud Availability % figures matterUnderstand the small print
• Oracle 99.5%, Azure 99.9%, AWS ...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.41
AWS Outage28th Feb 2017
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.42
Hybrid Cloud – Best of both Worlds”Have your Cake and Eat it”
On-Premises & IaaS / PaaS
Deploy ...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.43
Hybrid Cloud deployment
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.44
Takeaways
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.45
Five Future Proofing SSA Questions
Gartner Feb 2017
1. Can the array support high capacity SSD’...
© 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.46
The Flash way
All-Flash Arrays solve the DBA – Storage Admin conflict by delivering:
• 100’s of...
Yodb flash for_the_oracle_dba
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  1. 1. Flash for the Oracle DBAYODB - 1st March 2017
  2. 2. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.2 About Me Ron Ekins Oracle Solutions Architect for EMEA @ Pure Storage ron@purestorage.com @RonEkins http://ronekins.wordpress.com Enterprise Architect and Oracle technologist for +25 years. Oracle ACE, UKOUG Database Server co-Chair Twitter: Blog:
  3. 3. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.3 A MAGIC QUADRANT LEADER Source: Gartner Magic Quadrant for Solid State Arrays August 2016. This graphic was published by Gartner, Inc. as a part of a larger research document and should be evaluated in the context of the entire document. The Gartner document is available upon request from Pure Storage. Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product, or service depicted in its research publications, and does not advise technology users to select only those vendors with the highest ratings or other designation. Gartner research publications consist of the opinions of Gartner’s research organization and should not be construed as statements of fact. Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to this research, including and warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Who are Pure Storage ? Source: Gartner (June 2015) A leader three years in a row!
  4. 4. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.4 AgendaFlash for the Oracle DBA A brief History of traditional storage An Introduction to Flash Oracle on Flash: Fast and Simple What about the Cloud ? Take-aways
  5. 5. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.5
  6. 6. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.6 Disk Evolution However since 2000, drive capacities have increased but speed has remained constant. Unlikely to ever see more than 15K rpm drives As drives get bigger, IOPS per GB gets worse 1956: IBM ships first hard drive (RAMAC) 5MB $50,000 1992: Seagate first to market with 7,200 rpm hard drive 1996: Seagate releases 10K rpm hard drives 2000: Another Seagate first, 15K rpm hard drive released 1978: RAID Patented 1980: First HDD 550lbs / 250KG ~$40K 1986: SCSI Developed
  7. 7. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.7 Seek Time • Time taken to move disk actuator head between platters + Rotational Latency • Time taken to rotate platter to correct location + Transfer Time • Time taken to transfer data from system to disk Disk Latency = Based upon 50 year old mechanical technology
  8. 8. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.8 So disk latency is a problem What have we tried ?
  9. 9. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.9 Storage Admin mitigations • Use of 100’s or 1,000’s of LUN’s to spread I/O • Dedicated LUN’s • Tiered Storage • Auto-Tiering • Intelligent data placement (Short Stroking) • Over Provisioning • Various RAID configurations • Use of Disk Array caches • QOS (Quality of Service) policies
  10. 10. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.10 DBA Storage plasters • Planning and careful placement of database data files/objects • Use large SGA’s to reduce IO (Logical vs Physical IO) • Impacted number of databases server platforms can host • SAME (Stripe and Mirror Everything) for performance • Always asking for Tier 1 storage • Request more (smaller) LUN’s • Manage, schedule, kill resource hungry jobs • Try sub-setting of databases to reduce storage footprint and move/copy times. • BAARF (Battle against any RAID Five) But databases are still IO bound
  11. 11. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.11 Flash (a-ha)Saviour of our databases
  12. 12. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.12 So Flash is Great… What’s Inside? • Components of Flash: • Silicon wafer fabricated with hundreds of individual NAND flash die • Multiple die are packaged in a single chip, or package, equaling up to 64 GB capacity, depending on the type of flash • Multiple packages are assembled onto a printed circuit board (PCB) along with additional components and firmware to control and manage storage on the board • This PCB is finally assembled, with the proper communication interface (typically SATA, SAS, or NVMe), into a consumable form-factor, like an SSD
  13. 13. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.13 How Does Flash Work? Wordline – Floating Gate Bitline – Silicon Substrate • Flash Die is comprised of one or more planes • Concurrent operations can occur on each plane • Each Plane is comprised of multiple Blocks • A Block is the smallest unit that can be erased (4-8MB) • Each Block is comprised of multiple Pages • A Page is the smallest unit that can be programmed (written to) • Typically 16KB, though depends on the NAND manufacturer • An individual cell is the intersection of the bitline (horizontal lines) and the wordline (vertical lines) • Each cell can hold 1, 2, or 3 bits depending on the type of flash: SLC, MLC, or TLC respectively (more on this later)
  14. 14. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.14 TLC Voltage SLC Voltage MLC Voltage Types of Flash2D Planar NAND: SLC, MLC, eMLC, TLC • There are three main types of NAND Flash: • SLC = Single Level Cell (One bit per cell) • MLC = Multiple Level Cell (Two bits per cell) • TLC = Triple Level Cell (Seven, wait … Three bits per cell) • More bits / cell means more data J • See reliability comparison on upcoming slide • To get more cells in the same physical footprint, die size must shrink • As die size shrinks, endurance drops, reliability drops, leading to more bit flips, requiring more error correction • Higher capacity needs a new approach • Enter 3D NAND Source: SeekingAlpha
  15. 15. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.15 Source: anandtech.com • eMLC & cMLC use the same underlying NAND • Main differences are the amount of overprovisioning and the firmware • eMLC uses up to 60% OP • cMLC typically uses 7% for OP • 3D-TLC is a new type of flash with stacked layers Types of Flash – Comparison Type of Flash SLC eMLC cMLC TLC 3D-TLC Bits per cell 1 2 2 3 3 P/E Cycles (in thousands) ≈ 100 ≈ 10 ≈ 3 ≈ 1 ≈ 3.5 Read Time (in μs) ≈ 25 ≈ 50 ≈ 50 ≈ 75 ≈ 50 Program Time (in μs) ≈ 300 ≈ 900 ≈ 800 ≈ 1350 ≈ 750 Erase Time (in ms) ≈ 2 ≈ 3 ≈ 3 ≈ 4.5 3 Relative Cost/GB $$$$$ $$$$ $$$ $$ $
  16. 16. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.16 Operations on Flash • To write data, voltage is applied to attract electrons along the wordline • Writing, or program, operations can occur to a single page (16KB) • To erase data, voltage is applied to attract electrons along the bitline • Erase operations must be applied to an entire block and all of its pages (8MB)
  17. 17. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.17 Why All-Flash? The Car analogy Traditional Disk Array Hybrid Disk Array All-Flash Array
  18. 18. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.18 Winter is already here for Disk
  19. 19. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.19 The Death of the Legacy Disk Arrays • Year-on-Year disk array sales are down. • Traditional disk vendors under pressure from both • All Flash Arrays (AFA)’s • Cloud Storage • Price of Flash no longer a barrier • Flash everywhere strategies being adopted
  20. 20. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.20 What’s next ? IT’S ALREADY IN YOUR DEVICES IT’S FASTER AND MORE PARALLEL THAN SAS IT’S BUILT TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF TOMORROW’S ADVANCES 1 SERIAL CHANNEL 64,000 PARALLEL LANES MASSIVELY MULTI-CORE CPUS SUPER-DENSE SSDS NEW MEMORY TECHNOLOGIES HIGH-SPEED INTERCONNECTS 40-50-100 GBE
  21. 21. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.21 It’s all about the data
  22. 22. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.22 What is DevOps ? • The term DevOps comes from the combining of DEVelopment and information technology OPerationS. Should be considered to be a set of practices and culture rather than a wide IT toolset. • Continuous Integration • The automated integration and testing of code as soon as it’s available. • Continuous Delivery • The continual delivery of code into a pre- Production / release area • Continuous Deployment • Deployment of code into Production as soon as it’s ready
  23. 23. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.23 Why DevOps? • Need to Accelerate Development, Improve Quality and reduce ’Time-to-Market’ • How: • By performing more, and quicker test cycles • Delivering smaller frequent releases (less change) • Using full size fresh, representative development databases • Performing parallel development and testing • Removing communication barriers with traditional silo’ed teams
  24. 24. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.24 Common Data Challenges • Databases are getting bigger, and therefore harder to move around • 10 years ago 500GB was a large database, now many multi-TB databases to manage • Big Data, IOT leading to year-on-year hyper growth • Project timescales are getting shorter • When was the last time you worked on an 18mth / 2 year project, more likely 3 -6mths • DBA’s have given up asking Storage Admin for additional storage • We re-cycle, juggle, try sub-setting databases • Developers have given up asking DBA’s for clones / refreshes • Forced to work on stale out-of-date copies, or become another shadow IT team performing exports/imports SLA’s not designed for the DevOPS world. Traditional infrastructure & storage are not agile enough to support modern IT demands
  25. 25. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.25 The need for Speed
  26. 26. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.26 How will Flash help my database ? Performance • All-Flash-Arrays provide consistent sub-millisecond latencies • Use OEM, SQL or AWR reports to identify IO bottlenecks • After reviewing AWR Header and confirming Snap period, suggest reviewing the following for storage analysis • Top 5 Timed Foreground Events • Foreground Wait Class • Foreground Wait Events • Look for ‘db_file_sequential_read’ wait events • Explore ‘User I/O’, ‘System I/O’, and ‘Commit’ wait classes
  27. 27. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.27 Interpreting AWR Report Output Top 5 (10) Timed Foreground Events • The Top Wait Event section provides the best insight to a how a system is performing. • Wait Classes of User I/O, System I/O and Commit all indicate IO related bottlenecks • If Total Wait Time(sec) are high but Wait Avg(ms) is low you can ignore. • If both Total Wait Time and Wait Avg(ms) are both high further investigation is required. • We want to reduce Wait events and increase DB CPU time. • db_file_sequential_read • = 48.87% of DB Time • Average Latency of 5ms • log_file_sync • = 24.01% of DB Time • Average Latency of 1ms
  28. 28. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.28 Interpreting the AWR Report Output Grouped together different wait events into classes and calculated times and percentages. Total Wait Time(s) shows accumulated time for that group. Wait Classes: Administration, Application, Cluster Commit, Concurrency, Configuration, Idle Network, Other, System I/O, User I/O Using the Foreground Wait Class, we can easily see Proportion of CPU processing time Proportion of User, System I/O Top classes that contribute to database wait times • In this example, User I/O equates to 50% of DB time, Commit 24% and DB CPU 22%, Concurrency 5%. everything else is insignificant.
  29. 29. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.29 Interpreting the Statspack and AWR Report Output Foreground Wait Events Unfortunately, Foreground Wait Events does not show the Classes. But, we can easily identify top storage wait events. In this example, db_file_sequential_read (48,87%) log_file_sync (24.01%) Contribute 72.88% of DB Time
  30. 30. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.30 Oracle E-Business R12 Flash results TEST 3 TEST4 Improvement % Start Time 15/12/2016 10:49:50 13/12/2016 16:02:37 End Time 16/12/2016 09:26:34 14/12/2016 00:45:15 Duration 22hr 36min 8hr 42min 13hr 54min 61.5% Gather Schema Statistics TEST 3 TEST4 Improvement % Start Time 15/12/2016 10:51:48 13/12/2016 16:05:38 End Time 16/12/2016 05:59:32 13/12/2016 17:04:29 Duration 19hr 7min 0hr 58min 18hr 8min 95% BI Pay Advice Information Report - PDF
  31. 31. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.31 It’s not just EBS runtimes that are important Oracle RMAN backup and restore times Backup Restore Compressed 12hr 11hr 40min Uncompressed 2hr 20 1hr 40 min • For EBS and other packaged Applications Storage Savings are great but real business value maybe significantly more. • Large ERP projects may have limited window to perform upgrades of migrations e.g. After Year End reporting, before Change Freeze, End of Period etc.. • You can’t afford to miss your window. • For Developments ‘Time to Market’ could be a key driver • End User experience and productivity also provide real business benefits.
  32. 32. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.32 Moving Oracle on to All Flash Array Real-World Example: Large Insurance Company Tier 1 Legacy Disk Pure Storage 100% Flash 26ms .3-.7ms Business Transformation Simulated Controller failure Purity Upgrade SAS cable pull Over 15x transaction time improvement
  33. 33. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.33 How will Flash help my database ? Simplicity • No need to manage / use 10’s or 100’s of LUN’s • Use File systems (minimal overhead with XFS) or ASM, your preference • If using ASM only one +DATA, +CONTROL_REDO & + FRA disk groups required • Use your Flash Arrays protection • Set ASM redundancy to EXTERNAL • No need to split Online-Redo from Data files • Forget SAME (”Stripe and Mirror Everything” ) • RAID 10 was designed for Disks not All-Flash Arrays • Don’t worry about ’Noisy Neighbours’, • Abandon storage tierring, adopt a “Flash Everywhere” strategy
  34. 34. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.34 How will Flash help my database ? Agility, Automation, and DevOps • Enable consistent platform build automation through use of Public RESTful API’s • Removing storage and time constraints through Thin-Provisioning • Accelerate Application development by enabling more parallel activities • Improve quality by delivering on-demand full size database clones to DevOps teams. • Discover bugs sooner in the lifecycle by developing on full size database copies Automation Tools • Jenkins, Team City, Travis Orchestration Tools • Chef, Puppet, Ansible, Vagrant Compute Virtualisation • Vmware, OpenStack, Docker Chef Puppet OpenStack DockerVMware Ansible Jenkins Vagrant TravisTeam City
  35. 35. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.35 How will Flash help my database ? Cost • Use expensive Database server CPU’s and licences to perform real work. • Do more with Less • Allocate less memory (SGA) to test / development databases to consolidate databases or • Run more databases, improving developer / tester productivity • Also, you may no longer need expensive Database Enterprise Edition Options e.g. • Advanced Compression (+ additional 25%) • Oracle Advanced Security (+ additional 30%)
  36. 36. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.36 Cloudfor Disk Storage
  37. 37. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.37 Should we migrate our Databases to the Cloud ?
  38. 38. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.38 Oracle Cloud • Oracle is investing heavily in the Cloud, both infrastructure and marketing. • All OOW16 Keynote messaging was Cloud focused. • IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) • Servers, storage, network admin • PaaS (Platform as a Service) • Includes DBA admin effort • SaaS (Software as a Service) • E.g. Oracle EBS • Oracle’s 23rd Jan 17 database licence announcements have made non-Oracle Clouds 2x more expensive. • Non-Oracle platorm support needs to be confirmed https://oracle-base.com/articles/misc/oracle-databases-in-the-cloud#pricing
  39. 39. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.39 Data Considerations Technical considerations • Number, size and growth of database(s) • Frequency of refreshes / syncs • Direction i.e. One-Way / Bi-Directional • Network capacity / capabilities • Data Availability Data considerations • Data sensitivity • Do you need to mask / encrypt data? • Data classification • Can your HR data allowed to be sent off-shore?
  40. 40. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.40 Cloud Availability % figures matterUnderstand the small print • Oracle 99.5%, Azure 99.9%, AWS 99.95% (measured against planned availability) • 99.9% or “three nines” uptime sounds great • However, adds up to more than 8 hours unplanned downtime per year. • For business critical systems look for “six- nines” or better. • Three nines vs five nines may not seem significant until the day your system is down for a day.
  41. 41. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.41 AWS Outage28th Feb 2017
  42. 42. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.42 Hybrid Cloud – Best of both Worlds”Have your Cake and Eat it” On-Premises & IaaS / PaaS Deploy highly available infrastructure on- premises providing 99.9999% availability. Mask non-Production data on-site and only share sanitised data. Burst into Cloud for short term development, and functional test requirements Use IaaS and PaaS services to provide elastic compute and Sysadmin / DBA skills.
  43. 43. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.43 Hybrid Cloud deployment
  44. 44. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.44 Takeaways
  45. 45. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.45 Five Future Proofing SSA Questions Gartner Feb 2017 1. Can the array support high capacity SSD’s ? 2.Can the array support NVMe PCI SSD technology ? 3. Will the future software features be inclusive 4. Will this array integrate with the cloud ? 5.Is this simple, non-disruptive and supported / guaranteed by business models
  46. 46. © 2017 PURE STORAGE INC.46 The Flash way All-Flash Arrays solve the DBA – Storage Admin conflict by delivering: • 100’s of thousands of IOPS with sub-millisecond latency • Provides consistent, predictable performance for all database workloads • Cost per GB, at or below the cost of disk • Compression, de-duplication and sophisticated management of consumer grade flash have dropped the price of All-Flash Arrays. • Better data protection and higher availability • The best All-Flash Arrays will offer space-optimised snapshots that deliver superior RPO’s & RTO’s • Demand NDU (Non-Disruptive Upgrades), look for 6 x ‘9’ of availability inclusive of planned down-time • Reduced power consumption, less data centre floor space.

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