Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Refrigeranti a basso GWP per il condizionamento e le pompe di calore - B. Bella - Emerson

594 views

Published on

Convegno Europeo
IL PASSAGGIO AI REFRIGERANTI ALTERNATIVI:
IMPATTO SU IMPIANTI NUOVI ED ESISTENTI
Le Ultime Tecnologie nel Condizionamento e nella Refrigerazione; Sistemi, Attrezzatura, Componenti, Formazione e Certificazione; il Phase Down
15 marzo 2018 | 14.00 - 18.30
Mostra Convegno Expocomfort
Centro Congressi Stella Polare: Sala Sagittarius
Organizzato da ATF - Associazione Tecnici del Freddo

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Refrigeranti a basso GWP per il condizionamento e le pompe di calore - B. Bella - Emerson

  1. 1. Low GWP Refrigerants for Comfort Applications Refrigeranti a basso GWP per il Condizionamento e Pompe di Calore Bachir Bella IL PASSAGGIO AI REFRIGERANTI ALTERNATIVI: IMPATTO SU NUOVI E VECCHI IMPIANTI MCE 2018
  2. 2. Agenda  Refrigerant dilemma for comfort to meet F-gas phase down  R32 performance for commercial comfort  HFO blends and R290 performances for residential heat pump  Flammability impact  Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Refrigerants Landscape & LGWP Candidates to Meet F-gas Phase Down Average GWP to meet Phase Down target R410A Like R407C Like R134a Like GWP < 1500 ~600 ~150 R1234yf R1234ze R410A 0 500 1000 1500 2000 VolumetricCapacity/Pressure R448A/ R449A R32/ R452B, R454B R134a R455A/ R454C R450A/ R513A 460-698 150 1 2 2030 R407C A1 - Non flammable A2L - Mildly Flammable A3 - Flammable R290 2 2024 20182021 2015 - 37%-29%-31%-32% ~600 Years Average GWP~900~400 ~1300 ~2000 Refrigerants below 150 GWP are well accepted as future proof long term solution R410A is the highest GWP
  4. 4. R410A Replacement? 4 R32 HFO Blends GWP 460-700 0% 36% 2% 11%15% 27% 9% Domestic Refrigeration Commercial Refrigeration Transport Refrigeration Industrial Refrigeration Mobile air-conditioning Stationary air-conditioning and heat pumps Chillers & hydronic heat pumps R32, HC, HFO blends High Glide Efficiency? High Pressure Total Annual Refrigerant consumption in CO2 Equivalent Medium Pressure 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 EffectivelTemperauteGlide(K) Evaporator Side Condenser Side GWP Sustainability? HFO blends GWP ~148 2015 consumption R290 GWP 3 Charge Limit Flammability? System Redesign Near Drop-In
  5. 5. AHRI Evaluation Program (AREP) Phase I & II Tests Results – Summary for R410A Near Drop-in Candidates  R32 test results improved in AREPII  R1234yf-based blends as leading near drop-in A2L candidates in Capacity  R1234ze-based blends tend to require more compressor upsizing and higher temperature glide 5 -8% -6% -4% -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% -15% -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% R32 - AREP 1.0 R32 - AREP 2.0 R452B(DR-55) - AREP 2.0 R454B (DR-5A) - AREP 2.0 L41-2 - AREP 2.0 R32 R452B/ R454B R446A/ R447A s source : AHRIAREP Conferences & reports % R410 EER (82F) % R410 Cap (95F) Composition GWP (AR4) R454B R32 68.9%/R1234yf 31.1% 460 R452B R32 67%/R1234yf 26%/R125 7% 698 R446A R32 68%/R1234ze 29%/R600 3% 461 R447A R32 68%/R1234ze 28.5%/R125 3.5% 583
  6. 6. Near Drop-In Candidates Evaluation Key Differences 6 A2L BV = 6.7 A2L BV = 3 + 1 - 6% GWP / Charge % to R410A Compressor Design & Cost Efficiency Vs. R410A Flammability/ Burn Velocity Refrigerant Cost R452B /R32 DT*/Oil & Envelope 675 / -20% R32 DT Concerns Varying BV but All are A2L 460 / -10% A2L BV = 5 Cooling Capacity (vs. R410A) R454B 698 / -10% Near Drop-In If Equal Capacity ~30% R1234yf 5% Compr. Downsize R454B Best GWP Vs. R410A R1234yf Cost 0 - 4% *Compressor Discharge Temperature MEPS (Ecodesign) GWP (F-gas) Flammability (Codes) TEWI Cost Evaluating R410A alternatives by balancing TEWI and A2L Flammability as they jointly impact overall system cost.
  7. 7. Scroll Performance w/ R410A & R32 Compressor Result System Effect Higher capacity (Avg. +7 %) Smaller displacement Higher efficiency (~ 2 %) Expected similar to higher SEER Higher discharge Temp. at high pressure ratio Heat pump limit at low ambient temperature Option.: design optimization /mitigation -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 5 % 5 % 5 % 5 % 5 % 4 % 2 % 1 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 30 5 % 5 % 6 % 5 % 5 % 5 % 5 % 1 % 1 % 0 % 0 % -1 % -1 % -1 % 35 6 % 6 % 6 % 6 % 6 % 5 % 5 % 1 % 1 % 0 % 0 % 0 % -1 % -2 % 40 6 % 7 % 7 % 6 % 6 % 6 % 1 % 1 % 1 % 1 % 0 % -1 % 45 7 % 7 % 8 % 7 % 7 % 7 % 2 % 2 % 2 % 1 % 0 % -1 % 50 8 % 9 % 9 % 9 % 9 % 8 % 2 % 3 % 3 % 3 % 2 % 0 % 55 10 % 10 % 10 % 10 % 10 % 4 % 4 % 4 % 4 % 2 % 60 13 % 13 % 13 % 12 % 5 % 6 % 6 % 4 % 62 14 % 14 % 14 % 7 % 6 % 5 % Evaporating Temperature (°C) Evaporating Temperature (°C) CodensingTemperature(°C) Cooling Capacity Variation COP -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 T0 Tc Discharge Temperature [°C] & Pressure ratio 2 3 45 6 7 8 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 T0 Tc 2 3 45 6 7 8 Discharge Temperature [°C] & Pressure ratio
  8. 8. Poor Miscibility Std. POE / R-32 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 PhaseSeparationTemperature(°C) Lubricant in Refrigeant by Weight % Lubribricant- RefrigerantMiscibilty Curves POE/R-410A POE/R-32 Oil B / R-32 R-32 Critical temperature POE Lubricity & Miscibility with R32 Lubrication Reliability POE/R32 Lubricant Result Fixed Scroll Orbit Scroll POE “A” Severe Wear POE “B” Improved POE “C” Good Scroll Over Heated Scroll Over Heated Scroll Over Heated Scroll Over Heated Non Over Heated Non Over Heated New POE Lubricant is Required for R32
  9. 9. 9 • Refrigerant: R410A • Nominal R410A cooling capacity 74 kW • Two finned coil condensers in parallel • One BPHE evaporator • Two scroll compressors in parallel 0% 0% 1% 3% 6% 6% 6% 5% -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 100% 74% 47% 21% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 R32Performancevs.R410A Cooling Load DischargeTemp.R32-R410A(°C) SEERon Cooling Load - 74 kW COP Cooling capacity Disch. Temperature Average SEER + 3% 0% 2% 2% 1% 2% 6% 7% 7% 6% 6% -2% 3% 8% 13% 18% 100% 88% 54% 35% 15% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 R32Performancevs.R410A Heating Load DischargeTemp.R32-R410A(°C) SCOPon Heating Load - 70 kW at -10°C COP Heating Capacity Discharge temp. Average SCOP + 2% Source: • Bella et al. (2014) Purdue Conference • Zilio et al. (2015) Science and Technology for the Built Environment Performance & Seasonal Efficiency of a Reversible Chiller with R32 & R410A - Case Study R32 gives slightly higher seasonal efficiency due to higher heat transfer properties Hot Climate Average Climate
  10. 10. Scroll Performance for Residential HP at Standard Rating with High & Medium Pressure Refrigerants 10 R410A-like R452B/R32/R454B vs R410A R407C-like R290/R454C/R455A vs R407C -6.7/50/10K SH/0K SC 96% 99% 108% 104% 94% 102% 85% 90% 95% 100% 105% 110% Capacity COP R452B R32 R454B 11 32 11 0 40 R452B R32 R454B 91% 101% 93% 107% 99% 102% 85% 90% 95% 100% 105% 110% Capacity COP R290 R454C R455A -13 -9 -6 -20 0 R290 R454C R455A PerformanceDisch.Temp.(K) Evap: -6.7°C, Cond:50 °C, 10K SH & 0K SC
  11. 11. R290 Map & Efficiency Vs R410A No EVI (No Vapor Injection) EVI (w/ Vapor Injection) • R290 is showing very promising performances versus R410A compressors both EVI and non-EVI • Thanks to its properties R290 has good performance at higher pressure ratio • The low discharge temperature is compensating the EVI need w/ R410A at low evaporating and high condensing temperatures with a positive impact on the system cost -5% -1% 0% -1% 2% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -35 -25 -15 -5 5 15 25 -8% 2% 0% -4% -5% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -35 -25 -15 -5 5 15 25 R290 w/o vapor injection R410 w/Vapor Injection R290 w/o vapor injection R410 w/o Vapor Injection HCOP Comparison HCOP Comparison
  12. 12. Impact Of Flammability on Scroll 12 PED Risk Mitigation Increase use of compressor integrated electronics (Inverter, Controller..) require a risk assessment and mitigation • Flammability Definition is not aligned with ASHRAE 34 – No difference between A2L/ A3 • R410A Scroll compressor w/ (A2L/A2/A3) belongs to higher PED category (2014/68/EU) • Higher PED category define more stringent requirement Source: Eiji Hihara – University of Tokyo – Research project on risk assessment of Mildly Flammable refrigerants PED Category I II III Pressure x Volume (bar.liter) Non flammable 50 - 200 200 -1000 1000 - 3000 Flammable 25 - 50 50 - 200 200 - 1000 Quality System approval Internal NB NB Design Review Internal Internal NB Welding process approval Internal NB NB Weld Inspection (Non destructive Test) - - NB R410A Scroll cannot be used with an A2L R410A-like refrigerant due to higher PED category
  13. 13. A2L Low Burning velocity Requires Lower Protection for Electrical Components According to New IEC60335-2-40 Standard Electrical Switching Load Clause 22 • Max opening size in relays and similar components • Switching devices are not source if switched electrical load is less than: – 𝐿 𝑒 = 5 × ( 6.7 𝑆 𝑢 )4 when breaking all phases – 𝐿 𝑒 = 2.5 × ( 6.7 𝑆 𝑢 )4 When breaking 2 legs of a 3ph load, or when breaking one or 2 legs of a 1ph load R32 R452B R454C R455A R290(*) Burning Velocity [cm/s] 6.7 3 1.5 1.6 39 Le (3 legs) [kVA] 5 124 1990 1537 0.004 Le (2 or 1 leg) [kVA] 2.5 62 995 769 0.002 R32 R452B R454C R455A R290(*) Deff Calculated 2.8 6.7 14.3 13.4 0.4 Dmax (Quench) 2.8 6.7 7.0 7.0 *R290 data are for reference ONLY. Formula do not apply to A3 Quenching Effect (Extinction diameter) Annex JJ Flame go out thru the opening Source: IEC60335-2-40:2018
  14. 14. Summary and Conclusions • AREP find out that R32, R454B and R452B are near drop-in candidates for R410A • Trade-offs between flammability, GWP and efficiency is the best approach for selecting the combination refrigerant/application • R32 demonstrates to outperform R410A capacity by some 6 % and seasonal efficiency by 1 to 2 % • HFO blends and R290 offer good performance refrigerants for HP residential system to replace today HFC. R290 offers a wide operating application • A2L refrigerants are not a drop-in solutions due to PED, flammability but are attractive for OEM who’d like to keep their R407C/R410A design • IEC60335-2-40:2018 standard results in an easier integration of electrical and electronics components in A2L system • Solutions exist to comply with ErP directive and F-gas phase down scenario 14

×