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Fort de gagel

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Feasibility study concerning sustainable concepts for 'Fort de Gagel'

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Fort de gagel

  1. 1.     Feasibility study Fort  de  Gagel,  Utrecht   Attn:  Lodewijk  le  Grand   A    study    concerning  the  sustainable  possibilities  for  forts  in  the  Netherlands,     Executed  by    Marjolijn  Bonnike,  De  Groene  Grachten  on  January  6 th  2015.  
  2. 2.   2   This  report  is  intellectual  property  of    ‘Stichting  De    Groene  Grachten’.  Please  do  not  spread  this  feasibility  study.        
  3. 3.   3   “Sustainability is not less, but different and especially more fun.” Wubbo Ockels (1946 – 2014)
  4. 4.   4   1. Introduction This  feasibility  study  concerns  two   forts  in  Utrecht:  ‘Fort  aan  de  Klop’  and   ‘Fort  de  Gagel’.  The  main  goal  is  to   extract  a  more  general  approach  for   these  special,  monumental  structures.   However,  in  this  document  we  study   Fort  de  Gagel.       This  feasibility  study  is  part  of  the  ReFoMo  project.   Refomo  stands  for  ‘Reduces  Footprint  Monumental   Structures’  and  is  part  of  Climate  KIC.  Within  this   program  there  are  three  case  studies:  1.  An  old   gasfactory  in  Budapest  (Hungary),  2.  An  university   building  in  Bologna  (Italy)  and  3.  Two  fortresses  in   Utrecht  (The  Netherlands).  When  compared,  these   three  cases  could  generate  common  solutions  for   monuments  and  energy  efficiency  methods.     The  Province  of  Utrecht  asked  De  Groene  Grachten   (‘The  Green  Canals’)  to  establish  the  study  concerning   the  fortresses.  De  Groene  Grachten  is  widely   experienced  in  the  field  of  sustainable  monuments;   our  core  business  is  energy  reduction  and  –generation   in  monuments.  This  expertise  was  shared  through  our   online  ‘Green  Menu’:  www.degroenemenukaart.nl.  In   the  next  paragraphs  you  find  some  more  information   about  ‘De  Groene  Grachten’  and  our  approach.     Content 1. Introduction   2. De  Groene  Grachten   3. Present  situation   4. Method  &  concept   5. Potential  measures   6. Conclusion   7. Next  steps     Appendix  A  –  Photographs   Appendix  B  –  Measure  analyse   Appendix  C  –  Data  Analyse  
  5. 5.   5   2. De Groene Grachten 1 De  Groene  Grachten     Wubbo  Ockels  –  also  a  citizen  of  the  Amsterdam  city   center  –  had  already  started  with  enhancing   sustainability  in  his  own  home.  It  occurred  to  him  that   there  are  lots  of  possibilities  for  monuments,  but  that   it  is  striking  to  see  that  it  is  not  widely  applied.  How   could  he  make  a  difference?  On  the  occasion  of  “400   years  of  Amsterdam  canals”  Wubbo  Ockels  started  in   2012  the  initiative  ‘De  Groene  Grachten’.  Its  mission?   Realizing  a  breakthrough  in  enhancing  sustainability   for  monuments  throughout  the  Netherlands.  Now,     ‘De  Groene  Grachten’  has  done  projects  for   householders,  hotels  and  company  buildings  of  100   m 2  up  to  more  than  2.500  m 2 .   With  our  sustainable  consultancy  practice  we  hope  to   help  building  owners  to  realize  their  ambition  for  a   more  sustainable  and  comfortable  building.  There  are   5  elements  that  characterize  our  approach  and   strengthen  the  quality  of  our  work:   Research   Through  working  groups  and  research  projects  with   our  partners  we  have  studied  all  sustainable  and   feasible  applications  for  monuments.  Furthermore,   we  started  an  Academy,  called  ‘Ockels  Innovation   Space’,  where  youth  is  the  force  behind  the  newest   developments  within  sustainability  in  historical   buildings.  Within  Ockels  Innovation  Space  they  work   with  our  partners  on  projects  that  contribute  to  a   2 sustainable  and  a  ‘future-­‐proof’  city.  This  is  how  our   knowledge  keeps  growing  and  how  we  stay  up-­‐to-­‐ date,  and  even  ahead,  of  todays  developments.     Experience   ‘De  Groene  Grachten’  focuses  on  sustainability  in   historical  buildings  and  monuments.  Together  with   Stadsherstel  Amsterdam  we  renovated  monuments   sustainably.    Within  these  projects,  like  the  ‘Nieuwe   Prinsengracht’  and  the  ‘Prins  Hendrikkade’  in   Amsterdam,  we  applied  several  sustainable   applications  such  as  solar  panels,  heating  pumps,   draught  proofing,  window  insulation,  roof  insulation   and  heat  recovery  within  ventilation  and  shower   water.     Furthermore,  we  work  on  special  projects  like  the   realisation  of  ‘one  acre  green  roofs’  on  the  roofs  of   Amsterdam  as  well  as  an  innovative  program  that   challenges  solar  PV  producers  to  come  up  with   innovative  solutions  for  monuments.   Pure  motive   ‘De  Groene  Grachten’  is  an  independent  non-­‐profit   foundation.  Within  our  projects  we  use  knowledge   that  is  not  provided  by  commercial  interests,  but  only   by  true  expertise.  Furthermore  we  have  no   commercial  interest  in  the  choice  of  partner  for   execution  of  the  work.  However,  we  do  have  a  pool  of   contractors  of  whom  we  know  that  they  deliver  work   of  a  high  quality.    
  6. 6.   6   3 Complete  approach   Sustainability  is  a  versatile  subject  and  techniques   develop  constantly.  Furthermore,  every  monument   demands  its  own  specific  approach.  What  are  the   wishes  from  the  owners  and/or  users?  What  are  the   possibilities  of  the  building  itself?  These  are  just  two   guidelines  that  give  us  a  direction  within  an  advice.   We  look  at  different  options  within  five  themes   (insulation,  energy,  warmth,  water  and  quick  wins)   and  the  connection  between  the  different  options.     After  an  advice  we  can  also  manage  the  execution.  By   doing  this  we  can  help  you  from  beginning  to  end  and   because  of  this  combination  we  strengthen  as  well  our   advice  as  the  execution.  Our  experience  in  the   execution  improves  our  advice,  because  we  know  how   they  work  out  in  practice.  On  the  other  hand  we   strengthen  the  execution,  because  of  the  acquired   knowledge  and  the  preliminary  work  put  in  the   advice.     Communication   Living  and  working  sustainably  is  a  story  about  the   future.  It  inspires  and  it  moves  people.  That  is  why  ‘De   Groene  Grachten’  attempts  to  inspire  people.  We   show  this  at  the  Amsterdam  Solar  Boat  Parade,  an   event  with  all  kinds  of  sustainable  solutions  on   mobility,  lifestyle,  food,  energy  and  many  other  areas.   The  first  edition  in  2013  was  an  enormous  success   with  8.500  visitors  and  a  new  report  by  BBC  news.  The   second  edition  took  place  this  September  and  was  an   4 even  bigger  success  than  the  first  edition.    For  more   information  visit:  www.solarboatparade.nl   ‘De  Groene  Grachten’  also  provided  a  tool  that   enables  owners  (of  monuments)  to  get  ready  for   action.  This  tool,  the  ‘Green  Menu’,  was  launched  on   March  13th  2014.  People  get  informed,  while  playing,   about  over  more  than  50  sustainable  possibilities.  For   each  possibility  they  see  what  it  means  for  comfort,   how  green  they  are  and  what  the  financial  and  legal   requirements  are.  If  a  certain  sustainable  solution   draws  the  attention  of  the  user,  they  can  add  this  to   their  ‘wish  list’.  In  this  way  you  can  directly  compose   your  personal  overview  of  the  possibilities  of  your   interest.  This  Green  Menu  shows  the  results  of  1,5   years  of  research  and  pilots  by  ‘De  Groene  Grachten’   in  close  cooperation  with  several  partners  such  as  the   municipality  of  Amsterdam.  This  tool  is  not  only   interesting  for  owners  of  monuments,  but  also  for   everyone  who  wants  to  live  of  work  more  sustainably.   “If  it  is  possible  in  a  monument,  then  it  is  possible   everywhere”,  according  to  Wubbo  Ockels.   Visit:  www.degroenemenukaart.nl      
  7. 7.   7   3. Present situation ‘Fort de Gagel 1 Fort  de  Gagels’  main  building  is  the   barrack  covered  by  a  green  wall.  This   barrack  used  to  house  soldiers  back  in   the  day.  This  building  is  accompanied   by  a  ‘wachthuis’  (guardhouse),  which   was  used  for  shelter  when  the  land   was  flooded  as  protection  against  the   enemy.  Furthermore  some  small   shelters  are  present  at  the  North  side.   At  present  time  the  Fort  is  ready  for  a   big  renovation.  Offices  are  already   present,  but  will  be  accompanied  by   functions  like  a  restaurant  and   outdoor  activities.       Locations   Fort  de  Gagel  is  an  element  within  the  “Nieuwe   Hollandse  Waterline”,  which  is  a  military  defense  line   built  in  the  nineteenth  century  to  stop  the  enemy  by   flooding  the  land.  The  water  level  would  be  too  high   to  pass  on  foot  or  by  horse,  but  would  be  too  low  to   pass  with  boats.  Nowadays  the  Dutch  Waterline  has   been  assigned  new  functions  and  roles,  turning  it  into   a  green,  modern  area  with  special  historic  features.   Fort  de  Gagel  is  located  on  the  northern  ring  road  of   2 Utrecht.  It  is  the  gateway  to  the  Noorderpark,  where   there  is  more  than  7,000  hectares  of  green  area.  The   barrack  is  used  as  offices  by  the  municipality  of   Utrecht.  More  office  space  is  present,  but  because  of   renovation  plans  for  the  next  year  all  other  companies   needed  to  leave.     Building  characteristics   Fort  de  Gagel  was  built  in  the  19th  century  and  it   carries  unique  monumental  values.  The  main  building   of  this  fortress  is  the  two-­‐storied  “Kazerne”,  which   used  be  to  barracks  for  the  soldiers  and  became  an   office  building  today.  A  bombproof  square   guardhouse  was  built  next  to  the  barrack  (“Kazerne”),   the  walls  of  which  are  as  thick  as  1.5  meters.  Apart   from  that,  three  (small)  group  shelters  were  built   behind  the  barrack  before  World  War  II  to  guarantee   extra  hiding  space.  The  barrack  was  built  with  one-­‐ meter-­‐thick  masonry  walls  in  order  to  make  it   bombproof  for  the  war.  Most  of  the  surface  of  the   barrack  is  covered  with  soil  and  grass,  leaving  only   one  side  of  the  masonry  walls  exposed.  This  feature   could  not  only  provide  disguise  for  the  barracks  during   the  war,  but  also  reduces  heat  loss  through  the   building  envelope  for  the  modern-­‐day  use.  Single   glazed  windows  are  set  back  in  the  wall  with  wooden   shutters  installed  on  the  outside.  The  first  floor  of  the   barrack  is  made  of  wood  and  the  ground  floor  is  brick   masonry  covered  with  a  layer  of  cement  smear.  Some   ground  floor  spaces  have  a  basement  underneath.  
  8. 8.   8   3 The  basement  space  includes  an  old  cesspool  and  an   old  drinking  water  cellar  for  the  collection  of   rainwater,  both  of  which  are  not  in  use  any  more.   The  moisture  level  in  the  barrack  could  be  high  at   times  thus  dehumidifier  is  needed  to  prevent   condensation.     Use  of  the  building  (present  and  future)   Currently  the  barrack  is  in  use  by  the  municipality  of   Utrecht  as  an  office  building.  There  are  nine   workstations  for  the  municipality  on  the  first  floor.   Various  small  companies  and  unions,  like  one  for   homing  pigeons,  used  to  held  office  in  the   compartments  on  the  ground  floor.  The   workstations  on  the  first  floor  are  used  on  a  daily   basis,  around  11  hours  every  workday.  However  the   occupancy  rate  varies  from  20%  to  100%.  The   ground  floor,  on  the  other  hand,  is  momentarily   occupied  less  frequently.  It  is  indicated  by  the  users   that  the  barrack  is  open  around  2860  hours  a  year.     The  guardhouse  is  not  in  use  at  the  moment.   However  the  ventilation  below  the  ground,  in  the   basement,  is  insufficient,  thus  mechanical   ventilation  is  of  help  to  keep  sufficient  air  exchange.   The  three  group  shelters  have  no  modern  functions   at  this  moment  and  the  entrances  are  blocked.   The  municipality  of  Utrecht  has  the  intention  to   expand  the  fort  in  order  to  make  the  area  more   sustainable  and  recreational.  New  functions  could   attract  more  tourists  to  this  area  to  appreciate  the   4 historic  features  of  the  old  fortress.  A  new  and   sustainability-­‐oriented  restaurant  of  the  same  size  of   the  barrack  will  be  built  in  the  wall  at  the  backside  of   the  building.  The  green  cover  will  be  brought  back,  so   the  appearance  will  not  change  that  much.  A  big  glass   wall  is  designed  for  the  backside  of  the  restaurant  to   create  sufficient  natural  lighting  in  the  restaurant  as   well  as  gain  some  solar  heating.  However,  the   backside  of  the  restaurant  will  be  facing  Northeast,   thus  this  design  probably  requires  a  second   consideration.  The  workstations  on  the  first  floor  in   the  barrack  will  continue  to  be  used  as  offices,  but  in  a   more  energy-­‐efficient  way.  The  ground  floor  will   mainly  be  in  service  of  he  restaurant  with  the   entrance,  a  staff  area  and  a  playroom.  The   guardhouse  will  also  have  a  supporting  role  with   meeting  spaces.  The  barrack  and  the  guardhouse  will   be  connected  with  a  glass  roof.     Wishes  of  the  entrepreneur/municipality   The  users  of  Fort  de  Gagel  have  expressed  their   ambition  to  make  this  area  more  sustainable  and  give   the  old  fort  new  functions  so  that  the  historic  features   could  be  appreciated  by  future  generations.  Fort  de   Gagel  is  expected  to  become  an  interesting   destination  for  the  public  to  visit  while  they   experience  the  legacy  of  history.   Energy  saving  is  an  important  part  of  the  sustainable   and  green  concept.  At  this  moment,  Fort  de  Gagel  
  9. 9.   9   Barrack   R-­‐value   Surfaces  (m 2 )   Walls     371,35   1.021   Roof     321,78   5.125   Floor     201,83   0.896   Windows     34,46   0.512   Volume  (m 3 )   Total   1026,88       5 consumes  a  large  amount  of  energy,  especially  for   space  heating.  The  thick  walls  and  the  green  cover   keep  the  internal  temperature  relatively  constant,   around  14  degrees,  resulting  in  a  high  level  of  heating   load  and  heat  loss.  The  energy  audit  (MKB  advice)   gave  practical  suggestions  for  the  fort,  although  not   much  has  been  implemented  yet  because  of  the   renovation  plans.  The  users  also  want  to  improve  the   first  floor  of  the  Kazerne  in  order  to  make  it  more   soundproof  for  a  quiet  working  environment.     A  new  restaurant  is  planned  with  proper  insulation   and  a  sustainable  heating  system.  With  the  intention   to  serve  organic  and  healthy  food,  a  kitchen  garden   and  a  small  green  house  are  interesting  to  consider.   Given  that  the  fortress  is  built  along  the  Dutch   waterline,  it  would  also  be  interesting  to  make  good   use  of  the  water  and  surroundings.       Current  energy  use   Electricity:  16,600  kWh,  €3,900  (€0.23/kWh)   Gas:  3,900  m 3 ,  €2,200  (€0.56/m 3 )     Space  heating,  water  heating  and  lighting  are  the   main  aspects  of  energy  consumption  of  Fort  de  Gagel.   Therefore  these  are  the  key  areas  of  our  study  to   explore  the  energy  saving  possibilities.   Basically,  gas  is  only  used  for  space  heating  in  the   Kazerne.  The  solutions  to  reduce  the  gas  usage  could   6 be  reducing  the  heating  demand  of  the  building  itself   by  lowering  the  heat  loss  through  the  building   envelop  as  well  as  improving  the  efficiency  of  the   heating  system.  Currently  radiators  (gas  boilers  as   source)  heat  the  building  and  water  is  heated  with  an   electric  water  boiler.  This  leaves  much  room  to   improve  the  sustainable  level  of  the  heating  system.   Lightning  can  be  more  energy  saving  with  reasonable   costs  when  choosing  for  LED  bulbs  and  smart  control.  
  10. 10.   10   Energy  usage/consumption   Gas   Gas  usage  (m 3 )-­‐space  heating   3900   Total  gas  usage  (m 3 )   3900   Gas  bill  (€):  0.56/m 3   2184   CO2  emissions  (kg):  1.76  kg/m 3  gas   6864   Electricity   Electricity  usage  (kWh)-­‐  water  heating   6900   Electricity  usage  (kWh)-­‐ventilation   3900   Electricity  usage  (kWh)-­‐kitchen   450   Electricity  usage  (kWh)-­‐production  cooling   200   Electricity  usage  (kWh)-­‐lighting   4250   Electricity  usage  (kWh)-­‐office  equipment   900   Total  electricity  usage  (kWh)   16600   Electricity  bill  (€):  0.23/kWh   3818   CO2  emissions  (kg):  0.57  kg/kWh   9462   Total   CO2  emissions  (kg)   16326             Guests  per  week  -­‐  Restaurant   Year  1   Year  2   Year  3   Year  4   Year  5   Lunch   315   405   450   450   450   Dinner   315   405   428   428   428   Group  events   40   40   72   132   140   Current  energy  use  –  offices  (9  workspaces)   Restaurant  +  barrack  (ground  floor)   R-­‐value   Surfaces  (m 2 )   Walls   394.4   1.021   Roof   142.6   5.839   Floor     503.75   3.0   Windows     105.35   1.087   Volume  (m 3 )   Total   2336.4       Future  scenario  –  Restaurant  –  a  rough  estimate  
  11. 11.   11   4. Method & Concept 1 The  ambition  is  to  realise  not  only  a   sustainable  plan  for  this  fort,  but  also  a   more  general  approach  as  a  blueprint   for  other  forts  within  and  far  beyond   the  Netherlands.     Besides  many  similarities,  fortresses  do  differ  a  lot.   The  functions  that  the  fortresses  host,  vary  from  a   restaurant  to  offices  and  everything  in  between.  The   entrepreneurs  and  their  business  differ,  so  this  should   be  considered  when  creating  a  generic  plan.  The   ambition  and  the  financial  possibilities  of  the   entrepreneur  are  an  essential  element  in  what  could   be  done.  That  is  why  we  set  up  a  method  that   contains  four  scenarios  for  each  fortress,  considering   the  current  situation  (scenario  D)  as  the  starting  point.   The  image  on  the  left  shows  this  concept   schematically.  The  scenarios  are  supplementary  to   each  other.  When  moving  from  scenario  D  to  scenario   A,  the  sustainable  ambition  becomes  higher  with  each   ‘scenario-­‐  step’.  At  the  same  time  the  suggested   measures  tend  to  be  more  integrated  and  the  system   is  expected  to  be  more  and  more  self-­‐sufficient.     Scenario  D:  Present  situation   This  is  a  description  of  the  current  state.  For  instance,   the  fort  has  already  toilets  with  a  dual  flush,  which   saves  water.  A  summary  of  the  present  state  can  be   found  in  chapter  3.     2 Scenario  C:  first  steps  in  energy  reduction   In  2012  an  energy  audit  was  performed  by  ‘MKB   advise’.  This  advice  gave  practical,  yet  very  generic  tips   to  reduce  the  energy  bill.  Examples  are  the  use  of  LED   instead  of  incandescent  lamps  and  having  one  cooling   space  instead  of  several  freezers.  These  measures  can   be  found  in  the  scheme  on  the  next  page.   Scenario  B:  a  giant  leap  forward   Scenario  B  offers  a  more  integrated  approach  in  energy   reduction  and  generation.  However,  still  taking  into   account  current  systems.  We  are  looking  to  “add-­‐ons”   that  make  a  difference.     Scenario  A:  Towards  energy  independence     This  scenario  has  the  highest  possible  ambition  within   the  field  of  currently  proven  technologies.  This  scenario   tends  to  seek  the  boundaries  of  what  is  possible   technically,  financially  and  legally/aesthetically.     How  to  cope  with  the  future  plans?   In  the  light  of  the  Refomo  project  we  focus  on  the   monumental  structures;  the  guardhouse  and  barrack.   The  restaurant  is  for  this  research  less  relevant.   However,  to  aim  for  a  practical  output,  it  is  essential  to   do  take  into  account  the  restaurant  expansion.   Furthermore,  there  will  be  more  sustainable  measures   feasible  (in  a  financial  way)  when  considering  the  future   layout  of  the  fort.  So  we  will  mention  measures  for  the   future  layout,  however  not  all  relevant  data  is  available   to  make  exact  calculations.  Therefor  the  focus  is  on   current  layout,  but  with  consideration  of  future  plans.     D.     Current   situation   C.     First  step  to     energy  reduction   B.     A  leap  forward   A.     Towards  autarky  
  12. 12.   12   Column1 Column2 Column3 Column4 Column5 Column6 Themes Sub4themes A:4first4step4to4energy4reduction4(MKB4advice) B:4A4leap4foward4 4 Energy Contract Choose+a+green+energy+contract+(windenergy+ from+Holland,+"ecogas") Generation4 Place+solar+panels Place+the+maximum+amount+of+solar+panels+ possible and Lighting Barrack4&4guardhouse Place+LED+lighting+in+combination+with+motion+ or+daylight+dependent+sensors Outside Place+LED+lighting+in+combination+with+daylight+ dependent+sensors Expansion:4restaurant Place+LED+lighting+in+combination+with+motion+ or+daylight+dependent+sensors Insulation Barracks4&4guardhouse Barrack:+first+floor+insulation+(noise+reduction) and Draughtproofing+(doors,+windows,+connections) Secondary+glazing Barrack:+insulation+of+the+ground+floor+ and Expansion:4restaurant glass+opening+of+HR++++glass Heating Building4heating4 Use+radiator+foil+to+reduce+heat+loss Insulate+hot+water+pipes and Barrack&(1st&floor)&&&guardhouse:+Infrared+(IR)+ heating,+Restaurant&&&ground&floor&barrack:+ biomass+stove or Water4heating install+a+time+clock+on+the+electric+warm++water+ boiler and Place+solar+boilers,+with+buffertank hotfill+for+the+restaurant Ventilation Barracks4&4guardhouse natural+ventilation and Use+original+ventilation+holes+for+selfNregulating+ 'fans'+for+inflow+combined+with+exhausting+air or Expansion:4restaurant A+balanced+system+with+heat+recovery glass&roof,&entrance:+natural+ventilation Water Water4saving4equipment modern+toilets+with+dual+flush,+flow+stop+for+ water+taps Rainwater4reuse watertank+for+watering+the+green+area or Reuse+of+rainwater+for+the+toilets+(use+the+old+ 'drinkwaterbasement') or Water4&4education Water+playground+for+children Green Cultivate Kitchen+garden or a+small+greenhouse+with+hydroponics+or+even+ aquaponics+(also+with+breeding+fish) and Usage Green4purchase Turn+off+computers+after+working+hours,+set+ time+clock+on+the+printer and Responsable+purchase+of+food,+devices,+etc.; Install+one+big+cooling+device,+set+the+right+ temperature+and+defrost+the+freezer+regularly. and Waste Waste++seperation+system,+reuse+of+compostaN ble+waste+and+reuse+of+wood+for+heating Social+impact Smart4use/control appoint+someone+who+is+in+charge+of+the+energy+ use and Place+an+energy+manager+in+the+offices,+see+ what+you+use,+create+awarenees and
  13. 13.   13   Column6 Column7 Scenario401 Scenario402 4 C:4Towards4autonomy Choice Choice nergy+ B B nels+ and Apply+solar+windows+for+the+glass+entrance+ (solar+cells+in+glass) B A C C daylight+ B B motion+ B B ections) and Guardhouse:+insulation+of+the+ground+floor B A B A ed+(IR)+ ack:+ or Restaurant&&&barrack:+Gasabsorption+heat+ pump+with+floor+heating,+except+for+LTN+ radiators+for+1st+floor+barrack.&Guardhouse:+IR B A B B gulating+ ing+air or One+balanced+system+with+heat+recovery,+using+ origninal+holes+if+possible B A glass&roof,&entrance:+reuse+heat+from+entrance B p+for+ B B he+old+ or Reuse+of+toiletwater+with+a+helophyte+filter+(fort+ is+of+the+sewage+system) B A B B +even+ and Create+a+sustainable+parking+lot+(half+ pavement/half+green+and+electric+carstations B A etc.; ht+ gularly. and Use+biodegradable+cleaning+liquid+and+ biodegradablel+paint+for+maintenance B B mpostaN g B B see+ and Place+energymanagers+in++restaurant+to+create+ awareness+combined+with+a+biological+menu B A
  14. 14.   14   1 Scenario  C:     First  steps  in  energy  reduction   Scenario  C  presents  series  of  simple   measures  for  Fort  de  Gagel  in  order  to  reduce   the  energy  consumption.  Most  of  the   measures  are  based  on  the  energy  audit   (“MKB  advies”).  The  energy  performance  of   the  fort  can  be  improved  in  the  following   aspects:  smart  energy  saving  tips,  energy   generation,  lighting,  insulation,  heating  and   water.       In  general   In  Scenario  C,  not  many  changes  will  happen  in  Fort   de  Gagel.  We  proposed  to  implement  smarting  saving   measures,  add  soundproof  insulation  to  the  first  floor,   replace  the  bulbs  with  LED  bulbs  and  reuse  rainwater,   etc.  This  takes  only  into  account  the  current  layout   and  not  the  future  plans.     Scale  of  the  Fort  area     Energy     It  is  possible  to  install  solar  panels  for  the  generation   of  electricity.  However  a  permit  is  required  for  the   installation  of  solar  panels  in  the  old  fort.  The   electricity  generated  by  the  solar  panels  will  probably   not  cover  the  total  demand  for  electricity.  So  the  fort   2 would  still  party  rely  on  the  electricity  from  the  grid.       Water   To  reuse  the  rainwater,  a  water  tank  could  be   installed  to  collect  the  rainwater,  which  can  be  used   to  water  the  green  area  around  the  fortress.     The  barrack     Lighting   Currently,  the  lighting  in  the  fort  mainly  depends  on   traditional  light  bulbs,  which  can  be  replaced  by  the   energy-­‐efficient  LED  bulbs.  With  careful  choices  of   the  LED  bulbs,  the  electricity  consumption  of   lighting  would  be  significantly  reduced  and  the   payback  period  would  be  very  short  (less  than  2   years).  Combined  with  motion  sensors  or  daylight   dependent  sensors  this  can  avoid  unnecessary   energy  use.     Ventilation   Natural  ventilation  through  draughts  and  windows   can  provide  sufficient  air  exchange  between  the   internal  and  external  environment  of  the  barrack.  In   this  scenario  no  other  measures  are  proposed.     Social  impact  &  smart  saving  tips   Before  starting  to  implement  any  of  the  energy   saving  measures,  it  is  necessary  to  appoint  an   “energy  manager”  who  will  be  in  charge  of  the   C.1.   4.1 Scenario C
  15. 15.   15   3 energy  use  in  Fort  de  Gagel.  The  energy  manager  is   responsible  for  raising  awareness  of  energy  saving  as   well  as  supervising  the  implementation  of  energy   saving  measures.  Sometimes  without  enough   attention  or  determination,  even  good  plans  of   energy  conservation  cannot  lead  to  satisfactory   results.  An  energy  manager  would  prevent  this  kind   of  situation  from  happening.   In  this  scenario,  also  smart  energy  saving  tips  are   introduced,  for  example;  turning  off  computers  after   working  hours  (instead  of  standby),  setting  a  time   clock  on  the  printer  for  automatically  shutting  down   as  well  as  a  time  clock  on  the  electric  water  boiler.       Insulation   There  have  been  complains  that  the  first  (wooden)   floor  could  not  provide  satisfactory  soundproof   effect  and  the  noise  from  the  ground  floor  could  be   disturbing.  Because  of  this,  a  soundproof  insulation   should  be  added  to  the  first  floor  to  minimize  the   noise  from  the  ground  floor,  providing  the  offices  on   the  first  floor  a  quiet  working  environment.     Heating     Heat  loss  appears  when  the  heat  from  the  backside   of  the  radiators  is  heating  the  cold  walls.  Adding  a   layer  of  foil  on  the  wall  at  the  backside  of  the   radiators  could  solve  this  problem,  because  it  will   reflect  the  heat  towards  the  inside  again.     4   C.2.  
  16. 16.   16   1 Scenario  B:  a  leap  forward   Scenario  B  involves  a  range  of  more  complex   measures  to  achieve  big  improvements  of   energy  saving  and  sustainability  in  Fort  de   Gagel.  Suggestions  are  proposed  based  on   Scenario  C,  however  proposing  more  actions   in  many  aspects,  such  as  energy  generation,   insulation,  heating  system,  ventilation  and   water  use,  etc.     In  general   In  Scenario  B,  more  energy-­‐efficient  measures  will  be   implemented  to  bring  about  significant  effects  in   energy  consumption  reduction.  The  measures  are  not   only  proposed  for  the  existing  barrack  and   guardhouse,  but  also  takes  into  account  the  expansion   with  a  new  restaurant.  However  these  data  are  an   indicator  and  cannot  be  seen  as  exact  savings  or  costs,   because  therefore  more  data  of  the  future  plan  is   necessary.       Scale  of  the  Fort  area     Energy     In  Scenario  C,  it  is  proposed  to  use  solar  panels  to   generate  electricity  for  the  fort.  In  Scenario  B,  the   number  of  solar  panels  will  be  increased  to  the   maximum,  in  order  to  cover  as  much  as  possible  from   the  electricity  usage  in  the  fort.  A  supplementary   solution  is  to  sign  a  “green  energy  contract”  with  a   B.1.   4.2 Scenario B 2 green  energy  supplier,  which  provides  energy   generated  from  renewable  sources  such  as  wind.     Lighting   As  suggested  in  Scenario  C,  the  light  bulbs  will  be   replaced  with  LED  bulbs.  Scenario  B  will  include  the   light  bulbs  outside  the  buildings  and  the  new   restaurant,  which  means  all  the  light  bulbs  in  the  ‘fort   area’  will  be  replaced  with  energy  efficient  LED  bulbs.   In  combination  with  motion  sensors  or  daylight   dependent  sensors  unnecessary  lighting  will  be   avoid.     Water   Water  saving  equipment   Water  saving  equipment  such  as  modern  toilets  with   dual  flush  and  flow  stop  for  the  water  taps  could  be   used  to  achieve  more  efficient  use  of  water  in  the   fort.       Rainwater  reuse   Apart  from  reusing  rainwater  to  water  the  green   area,  the  rainwater  could  also  be  collected  (in  the  old   drinkwater  cellar  in  the  barrack)  and  reused  for   flushing  the  toilets.     Water  &  education   Considering  that  Fort  de  Gagel  is  built  along  the   Dutch  waterline,  it  would  be  interesting  to  build  a   symbolic  water  playground  for  children,  where  the   kids  could  have  fun  while  learning  more  about  the  
  17. 17.   17   3 construction  and  function  of  the  old  fort.  With  this   symbolic  water  playground,  the  fort  will  become   entertaining  as  well  as  educational  for  the  young   generations.  This  would  also  attract  more  tourists   and  create  more  business.       Green   A  small  greenhouse  can  be  combined  with  a   hydroponics  or  aquaponics  system.  The  herbs  and   vegetables  grown  in  the  small  greenhouse  whilst  the   fish  bred  in  the  aquaponics  system  could  be  served  in   the  new  restaurant.  A  closed  loop  system  is  created:   fish  are  fed  with  kitchen  waste  and  the  humus   produced  by  the  fish  will  be  used  to  cultivate  the   plants  in  the  greenhouse.  This  showcases  the   biological  and  self-­‐sufficiency  of  the  restaurant.     Usage   Responsible  purchase  of  food,  devices  and  other   equipment  stimulates  a  social  responsible   enterprise.   Due  to  toxicity  of  chemical  cleaning  agents,  we   propose  using  biodegradable  and  environmentally   friendly  cleaning  agents,  which  is  good  for  both  the   environment  and  health.   It  is  also  suggested  to  establish  a  simple  waste   separate  system  so  that  the  compostable  waste   could  be  reused  as  fertilizer  for  the  green   surroundings  and  the  plants  grown  in  the   greenhouse.   4 The  barrack  &  guardhouse     Social  impact   An  energy  monitoring  system  in  the  offices  can  help   keep  track  of  the  energy  use  and  even  provide   simple  analysis  about  the  energy  use.  One  can  see   the  exact  amount  of  energy  used  in  various   situations  and  moments.  This  can  help  to  identify   new  saving  opportunities.     Insulation   The  main  building  of  Fort  de  Gagel,  the  barrack,  has   single  glazed  windows.  Implementing  window   insulation  would  reduce  heat  loss  through  these   windows.  Although  it  is  not  permitted  to  replace  the   existing  monumental  windows  with  HR++  glass,   secondary  glazing  could  be  a  viable  option.   Secondary  glazing  can  be  achieved  by  installing  a   supplementary  glazing,  parallel  to  the  existing   single-­‐glazed  window.  The  installation  of  secondary   glazing  could  reduce  267m 3  gas  consumption  per   year,  which  is  6.4%  of  the  current  gas  use.     Draught  proofing  would  be  added  to  the  entire   buildings  envelope,  sealing  the  gaps  or  cracks  in  the   walls,  doors,  windows  and  other  connections.     In  addition,  we  suggest  implementing  floor   insulation  for  the  ground  floor  of  the  Barrack  so  that   the  thermal  performance  of  the  floor  could  be   enhanced  and  heat  loss  could  be  reduced   accordingly.     B.2.  
  18. 18.   18   5 Heating     Space  heating  does  not  always  have  to  rely  on  gas.   Infrared  heating  is  an  interesting  option  to  replace   the  radiator  heating  in  the  barrack  (the  first  floor).  It   is  a  more  focused  way  of  heating,  in  comparison  with   the  existing  heating  system.  Infrared  heating  is   realized  through  infrared  panels  that  consume   electricity  and  can  heat  up  the  space  quickly  when   needed.       Ventilation   We  suggest  to  add  a  few  “self-­‐regulating  fans”  in   existing  air  holes  to  increase  the  air  exchange   between  the  internal  and  external  environment.  This   accounts  for  the  barrack  as  well  as  the  guardhouse.       Restaurant  suggestions     Insulation   A  glass  opening  is  designed  for  the  new  restaurant   that  is  going  to  be  built.  It  is  essential  to  use  HR+++   glass  for  the  opening,  especially  because  the  glass   surface  is  orientated  on  the  North  in  the  design.         Heating   Biomass  stove  heating  system  could  be  a  good   choice  for  the  new  restaurant  and  the  ground  floor  of   the  barrack,  considering  the  ground  floor  of  the   barrack  would  be  part  of  the  restaurant  in  the  future.   Biomass  stove  uses  wood  pellets  as  energy  source,   6 which  means  it  consumes  sustainable  energy.  The   CO2  footprint  of  wood  pellet  is  much  lower  than   traditional  energy  source  such  as  gas  and  electricity.   Biomass  stove  will  deliver  heat  to  a  floor  heating   system.  In  addition  solar  boilers  will  heat  warm   water.  A  HR-­‐boiler  will  be  combined  for  peak   moments  and  to  raise  the  warm  water  temperature   to  prevent  legionella  risk.   It  is  suggested  to  connect  the  dish  washing  machine   in  the  restaurant  to  a  hot  fill  device  so  that  the  water   can  be  heated  in  a  more  efficient  way.     Ventilation   The  new  restaurant  will  be  built  with  good  insulation,   which  would  reduce  air  exchange  through  the   building  envelope.  Simply  depending  on  the  natural   ventilation  of  the  buildings  could  cause  insufficient   ventilation.  A  balanced  ventilation  system  can   distribute  fresh  air  to  the  inner  space  and  exhaust   stale  air  out  to  insure  stable  and  enough  air   exchange.  With  the  heat  recovery  system,  the   energy  in  the  stale,  warm  inside  air  can  be  recovered   and  used  to  pre-­‐heat  the  fresh,  cool  outside  air  that   is  vented  in.  So  the  balanced  heat  recovery   ventilation  system  could  not  only  improve  the  indoor   air  quality  and  comfort,  but  also  use  energy  more   efficiently.        
  19. 19.   19   1 Scenario  A:     Towards  energy  independence   Scenario  A  aims  to  create  an  energy   independent  future  for  Fort  de  Gagel.  On  the   basis  of  Scenario  C  and  Scenario  B,  energy-­‐ efficient  actions  could  have  been   implemented  and  the  target  of  energy  saving   could  be  achieved.  This  scenario  requires   deeper  commitment  to  become  self-­‐ sustainable  and  energy  independent.       In  general   In  Scenario  A,  the  focus  is  on  clean  energy  generation   and  highly  efficient  energy  use  in  combination  of  the   green  surrounding,  making  Fort  de  Gagel  an  integral,   sustainable  system.    Furthermore  is  there  an  integral   plan  for  the  barrack  and  the  restaurant.  These  cannot   be  seen  apart  anymore.       Scale  of  the  Fort  area     Green   A  sustainable  parking  lot  will  be  created  in  the  green   surroundings.  The  parking  lot  can  be  constructed  with   green  tiles  and  parking  space  for  electric  cars.  In   addition  solar  carports  can  generate  electricity,   making  it  a  green  fuel  supply  station!   A  green  menu  can  be  served  in  the  restaurant  by  using   4.3 Scenario A A.1.   2 ingredients  from  the  own  greenhouse  or  purchasing   it  at  biological  farms.       Water   A  helophyte  filter  would  be  an  interesting  option  for   sewage  clarification,  as  it  is  a  completely  natural   system.  The  helophyte  filter  can  clean  the  water  with   certain  types  of  plants  and  bacteria  that  grow  in  the   filter.  The  quality  of  the  treated  water  could  become   harmless  to  the  environment  and  could  be  reused  for   flushing  toilets  and  watering  plants.      Usage   In  addition  to  Scenario  C  and  Scenario  B,  we  suggest   using  sustainable  biological  paint  instead  of  harmful   chemical  materials  when  renovation  or  repair  is   required.  The  using  of  chemical  cleaning  agent  or   paint  could  pose  a  threat  to  the  helophyte  filter  as   the  oxidizing  or  corrosive  chemicals  could  enter  the   sewage  and  flow  into  the  filter,  killing  the  bacteria   living  in  the  helophyte  filter  which  leads  to  the   malfunction  of  the  clarification  system.     The  guardhouse,  barrack  &  restaurant     Ventilation   The  balanced  system  with  heat  recovery  for  the   restaurant  in  scenario  B  will  be  expanded  to  the   whole  barrack/restaurant  building.  The  guardhouse   will  keep  its  own  system  with  self-­‐regulating  fans  and   exhaust  air,  also  combined  with  heat  recovery.    
  20. 20.   20   A.2.   3 Another  benefit  of  the  balanced  ventilation  system   combined  with  heat  recovery  is  that  it  can  reduce  the   moisture  level  of  internal  air,  thereby  improving  the   indoor  comfort  and  solve  the  damp  problem  for  the   users.     The  air  underneath  the  glass  entrance  roof  will   become  warm,  like  in  a  greenhouse.  By  extracting   this  air  in  combination  with  heat  recovery,  this  heat   can  be  re-­‐used  in  for  instance  the  restaurant  or   offices.    The  heat  can  be  tempered  by  making   window  openings  in  the  roof  and  by  placing  screens   on  the  glass  roof.   Heating     The  guardhouse  will  remain  heated  by  infrared   panels,  because  of  the  attention  on  moist  and  the   temporarily  use.  Furthermore  it  only  needs   electricity,  which  is  an  advantage  in  the  guardhouse   where  no  current  system  is  present.  This  makes   infrared  heating  cost  and  energy  efficient  in  the   guardhouse.     The  barrack  in  combination  with  the  restaurant  will   have  one  system;  floor  heating  with  a  gas  absorption   heat  pump  (GAHP).  This  heat  pump  in  combination   with  low  temperature  floor  heating  is  a  highly   efficient  heating  system.  It  is  fired  by  gas,  however   making  use  of  renewable  energy  source  such  as  in   this  case,  air.  The  heating  efficiency  of  a  GAHP   system  is  high.  The  temperature  of  floor  heating  is   lower  than  traditional  radiators,  which  makes  it  also   more  energy  efficient.  Therefore  it  can  significantly   4 reduce  the  energy  consumption  for  heating.   According  to  our  calculation,  the  GAHP  system  could   reduce  31.2%  of  the  heating  energy  use  annually.     The  first  floor  of  the  barrack  (the  offices)  will  have   Low  Temperature  radiators.     Warm  water  will  be  produced  by  the  heat  pump  in   combination  with  solar  boilers.  A  HR-­‐boiler  will  be   combined  for  peak  moments  and  to  raise  the  warm   water  temperature  for  legionella  risk.     Insulation   When  the  guardhouse  will  be  frequently  in  use,  we   suggest  floor  insulation  on  the  ground  floor  of  the   guardhouse  so  that  the  thermal  performance  of  the   floor  could  be  enhanced.     Energy   A  glass  entrance  is  planned  between  the  barrack  and   guardhouse.  Depending  on  the  solar  radiation  and   shadowing  effect,    ‘Solar  window’  could  be  a  good  e   choice.  A  solar  window  contains  solar  cells  in  the  see-­‐ through  glass,  which  can  make  use  of  the  natural   sunlight  to  generate  electricity.  This  is  again,  a   fantastic  demonstration  for  the  fortress  to  show   their  sustainable  ambition  together  with  actions  to   become  self-­‐sustainable.       Social  impact   We  suggest  an  energy  monitoring  system  in  the   restaurant  to  create  awareness  of  energy  use  as  well   as  discover  further  energy  saving  opportunities.  
  21. 21.   21   5. Potential measures 1 The  different  scenarios  are  an  addition   to  each  other  in  many  ways.  The  first   step  to  a  more  sustainable  fortress   (scenario  C)  is  the  energy  audit  done   by  ‘MKB  advies’.    The  proposed   measures  are  explained  in  this   document,  so  we  will  focus  on   scenario  B  and  A.     On  the  next  pages  we  will  discuss  the  sustainable   options  within  the  different  themes  (energy,   lightning,  insulation,  heating,  ventilation,  water,   green,  usage  &  social  impact)  for  the  three  scenarios.     Fort  de  Gagel  –  scenario’s     5.1.  Energy   5.1.B.  Scenario  B     5.2.  Lightning   5.2.B.  Scenario  B     5.3.  Insulation   5.3.B.  Scenario  B/A   2 5.4.  Heating   5.4.B.  Scenario  B   5.4.A.  Scenario  A     5.5.  Ventilation   5.5.B.  Scenario  B   5.5.A.  Scenario  A     5.6.  Water   5.6.B.  Scenario  B   5.6.A.  Scenario  A     5.7.  Green   5.7.C.  Scenario  C   5.7.B.  Scenario  B   5.7.A.  Scenario  A     5.8.  Usage  &  social  impact   5.8.B.  Scenario  B   5.8.A.  Scenario  A        
  22. 22.   22   5.1. Energy 1 Here  we  give  a  short  introduction  on   the  proposed  scenarios  within  the   energy  theme.  On  the  next  pages   the  measures  will  be  explained  one   by  one.       Scenario  C   The  ‘MKB  advies’  proposes  to  place  solar   panels  for  generation  of  electricity.   However,  they  do  not  find  it  feasible  on  the   barrack,  because  this  has  a  North   orientation.   2 Scenario  B     In  contradiction  to  the  ‘MKB  advies’  we  do   see  possibilities  for  solar  panels.  The   expansion  of  the  restaurant  has  as  side   effect  that  the  green  wall  will  be  removed   and  placed  back.  This  forms  an  opportunity   to  shape  the  wall  with  a  flat  ‘terrace’  on  the   top  for  placing  solar  panels.  A  large  tree  is   situated  at  the  Northwest  side  of  the   guardhouse.  This  tree  will  block  the  sun  in   the  afternoon,  so  we  will  not  recommend   solar  panels  on  the  guardhouse.  Additionally   a  green  energy  contract  can  cover  the   remaining  energy  demand.     3 Scenario  A   In  the  future  design  a  glass  entrance  is   planned  between  the  barrack  and   guardhouse.  If  the  glass  roof  is  not  in  the   shadow,  one  can  integrate  solar  cells  in  the   glass.   Furthermore  we  evaluated  the  possibility  of   generating  electricity  by  wind  turbines.   However,  the  mid-­‐size  wind  turbines  of  15   meters  high,  appeared  to  be  less  cost   effective  than  solar  panels.  You  can  find   more  information  in  Appendix  B.       Themes Sub)themes A:)first)step)to)energy)reduction)(MKB)advice) B:)A)leap)foward) ) C:)Towards)autonomy Choice Energy Contract Choose+a+green+energy+contract+(windenergy+ from+Holland,+"ecogas") B Generation) Place+solar+panels Place+the+maximum+amount+of+solar+panels+ possible and Apply+solar+windows+for+the+glass+entrance+ (solar+cells+in+glass) B
  23. 23.   23   5.1.B Energy 5.1.B.  Green  energy  contract   The  most  sustainable  energy   companies  of  2014  are  listed  by  a   cooperation  of  7  partners,  including   ‘de  Consumentenbond’,  WNF  and  CE   Delft.  These  energy  companies   provide  green  energy  to  their  clients   and  invest  in  the  development  of   green  energy.  The  top  of  the  list  is  as   following:  1.  Windunie,  2.  Raedthuys,   3.  HVC  Energie,  4.  Eneco,  5.  DONG   Energie,  6.  Greenchoice  and  7.  MKB   energiebeheer.  The  last  is  one  is  a   specialist  in  collective  procurement   for  corporate  contract,  that  is  why   they  can  guarantee  low  rates  for   green  energy.     1 Green  energy  for  Fort  de  Gagel   Current  energy  provider  is  unknown  for  us.   Additionally  the  energy  use  shall  increase  if   the  future  plans  are  realized.  So  current   situation  will  not  give  a  correct  image  of  the   energy  use.  However,  it  is  likely  to  assume   that  the  energy  contract  can  be  greener.   Depending  on  the  end  date  of  the  current   contract,  it  could  be  possible  to  switch  from   energy  provider.  This  could  not  only  result  in   a  greener  energy  contract,  but  also  in  more   beneficial  energy  rates.     We  have  good  experiences  with  ‘MKB   Energiebeheer’,  who  are  specialists  in   collective  procurement.  That  is  why  they  can   arrange  lower  rates,  than  you  could  on  your   own.  Furthermore  they  assure  the  lowest   rates  every  year.  Once  your  contract  is  up   for  renewal,  they  will  make  you  a  new  offer.   Your  contract  can  therefore  not  be  silently   2 extended  by  a  year  one  the  same  or  higher   rates.     Price   Unknown,  depends  on  current  energy   contract  and  energy  use.     Finance  and  regulations     Not  applicable    
  24. 24.   24   5.1.B Energy 1 5.1.B/A.  Solar  panels   Solar  panels  can  be  placed  on  flat   roofs  and  roofs  with  a  slope  that  are   mainly  free  of  shadow.  The  best   orientation  is  between  Southwest   and  Southeast  with  a  slope  of  30  to   40  degrees.  For  monuments  there   are  rules  that  could  limit  the   possibilities,  for  instance  that  solar   panels  should  not  be  visible  from   public  space.  The  ‘MKB  advies’  did   not  see  possibilities  for  solar  panels   on  Fort  de  Gagel.  But  when   considering  the  expansion  with  the   restaurant  and  the  accompanying  re-­‐ shaping  of  the  green  wall,  this   creates  possibilities  for  a  ‘solar  wall’.     2 Solar  panels  for  Fort  de  Gagel   The  barrack  has  a  green  wall  with  a  slope   towards  the  North  side.  This  is  not  a   favourable  position  for  solar  panels.  But  if   the  restaurant  is  realized  in  this  green  wall,   the  wall  will  be  re-­‐shaped.  In  the  design  it  is   already  visible  that  the  top  of  the  wall  will  be   flattened.  This  can  become  a  ‘solar  terrace’,   with  around  75  solar  panels.  These  solar   panels  can  generate  up  to  9.800  kWh  a  year.   With  current  energy  rates,  this  is  €2.270  a   year.  We  need  to  underline  that  when  the   electricity  rate  will  become  lower  with  a   more  beneficial  contract,  the  savings  in   euros  will  also  become  lower.  This  has  an   effect  on  the  return  of  investment  period,   which  becomes  more  extended..   Investment   75  panels:  €20.000;  return  of  investment:  ±9   years  (incl.  permit)   3 Finance  and  regulations   Permit  costs:  €775     At  the  moment  VAT  can  be  returned.   Additionally  there  are  financial  benefits  if  a   company  makes  profit.  This  states  that   41,5%  of  the  investment  in  solar  panels  can   be  lowered  on  the  taxable  profit.  This  means   that  you  can  pay  less  tax  on  your  profit,   which  makes  the  solar  panels  indirectly   cheaper.  Currently  this  is  not  taking  into   account  when  calculating  the  return  of   investment.   -­‐  Extra  suggestion  -­‐   A  glass  entrance  is  planned  between  the   barrack  and  guardhouse  in  the  future   design.  If  the  glass  roof  is  not  in  the  shadow   of  the  buildings  or  trees,  solar  cells  could  be   integrated  in  the  glass.  This  is  called  ‘solar   windows’.  Specific  details  are  unknown,  so   we  only  give  this  as  a  tip.        
  25. 25.   25   5.2. Lighting 1 Here  we  give  a  short  introduction  on   the  proposed  scenarios  within  the   lighting  theme.       Scenario  C   The  ‘MKB  advies’  proposes  to  place  LED   lightning,  where  no  LED  is  already  present  in   combination  with  motion  or  daylight   dependent  sensors  in  places  where  this  is   convenient,  like  in  toilets.  However,  when   replacing  light  for  LED,  you  are  producing   2 light  much  more  efficient,  which  make   motion  sensors  less  effective  and  relative   expensive,  because  the  return  of  investment   will  be  enlarged.     Scenario  B     Scenario  B  is  an  addition  to  scenario  C,   which  suggests  replacing  the  light  bulbs  in   outside  lighting  for  LED.  Here  we  do  suggest   daylight  dependable  sensors,  because  you   do  not  have  to  switch  the  lights  on  and  off,   because  they  will  switch  on  automatically   3 depending  on  the  light  intensity.  Besides   that  this  is  energy  saving,  it  is  comfortable.   Furthermore  we  suggest  LED  for  the   restaurant  in  combination  with  daylight   dependable  sensors  in  the  restaurant  and   motion  sensors  in  toilets  and  storage  rooms.   We  aspect  sensors  to  be  beneficial,  because   of  the  occupation  rate.  We  do  not  know  the   quantity  of  lighting  in  the  planned   restaurant,  so  we  cannot  give  an  estimation   of  investment,  savings,  etc.     Themes Sub)themes A:)first)step)to)energy)reduction)(MKB)advice) B:)A)leap)foward) ) C:)Towards)autonomy Choice Lighting Barrack)&)guardhouse Place,LED,lighting,in,combination,with,motion, or,daylight,dependent,sensors C Outside Place,LED,lighting,in,combination,with,daylight, dependent,sensors B Expansion:)restaurant Place,LED,lighting,in,combination,with,motion, or,daylight,dependent,sensors B
  26. 26.   26   5.2.B Lighting 1 5.1.B.  LED  lighting   Energy  saving  begins  with  lighting,   because  it  is  a  very  easy  and  effective   way.  Lighting  causes  15%  of  all   energy  used  in  a  household.  By   replacing  halogen  and  incandescent   lighting  for  LED  you  can  save  a  lot.   Furthermore,  LED  is  there  in  all  kinds   of  light  colours  and  not  only  in  white   and  too  bright  light.  LED  is  there  for   all  types  of  lamps,  they  can  be   dimmable  and  they  do  not  have  a   starting  time  like  energy  saving  light   bulbs.  And  with  more  lighting  hours,   the  LED  will  have  a  shorter  payback   time.  On  the  other  hand  their   lifespan  will  decrease.     2 LED  for  Fort  de  Gagel   The  buildings  of  Fort  de  Gagel,  the  barrack   and  guardhouse,  can  be  relatively  dark   inside  with  the  setback,  relatively  small   windows.  So  lighting  will  be  on  very  often,   when  the  buildings  are  in  use.  LED  is  very   suitable  for  high  lighting  hours,  given  its   long  lifespan  (in  lighting  hours).  Also,  due  to   its  high  savings,  it’s  a  very  cost-­‐effective   measure.  By  replacing  6  energy  saving  lights   (10W)  in  the  workstations  and  10  halogen   light  bulbs  (80W)  in  the  corridors  in  Fort  de   Gagel  for  LED  of  5W  to  6W  we  can  save  up   to  3,750  kWh,  if  we  calculate  with  11  lighting   hours  per  day  for  260  days  a  year.  This  is   almost  23%  of  the  current  energy  use.  This   saves  around  €860  per  year.  If  you  also   replace  the  6  lights  outside  for  LED  this  can   save  another  €130  (580  kWh).  We  suggest   placing  daylight  dependent  sensors  with  the   3 outside  lighting  for  energy  saving  as  well  as   comfort.  Comfort  because  no  one  has  to   manage  the  lightings  anymore.   The  restaurant  will  have  a  high  occupation   rate,  so  LED  will  be  very  beneficial  and  will   save  a  substantial  amount  of  energy.   Sensors  can  be  placed  to  make  the  lighting   easier  to  control.           Investment   Replacing  all  the  lighting  for  LED  costs  up  to   €1,620  (excl.  VAT).  In  total  savings  are   almost  €1,ooo  and  4,330  kWh  per  year.  The   return  of  investment  period  will  be  less  than   two  year.   Finance  and  regulations   Not  applicable.  However,  there  is  a  financial   regulation,  the  ‘EIA’,  which  makes  it  possible   to  deduct  41,5%  of  the  investment  in  LED   from  your  taxable  profit.  
  27. 27.   27   5.3. Insulation 1 Here  we  give  a  short  introduction  on   the  proposed  scenarios  within  the   Insulation  theme.       Scenario  C   The  ‘MKB  advies’  proposes  to  insulate  the   first  floor  of  the  barrack  for  purposes  of   noise  reduction.     Scenario  B     For  the  barrack  and  guardhouse  we  propose   placing  secondary  glazing.  Replacing  the   current  glass  for  double  glass  is  not  allowed,   2 so  the  best  option  is  placing  secondary   glazing  (‘achterzetramen’),  because  you   preserve  the  historic  windows  by  adding  a   second  frame.  Additionally  we  propose   draught  proofing,  for  instance  around   connections  between  frame  and  wall.  For   specifically  the  barrack  we  propose   insulation  of  the  ground  floor.  All  these   measures  are  proposed  on  the  assumption   that  the  guardhouse  and  the  ground  floor  of   the  barrack  will  be  regularly  in  use  in  the   near  future.  If  a  space  is  not  in  use,  it  is   financially  less  interesting  to  invest  in   3 sustainable  measures.     A  large  glass  opening  is  planned  at  the   North  side  of  the  restaurant.  This  is  a  cold   side,  so  it  is  important  to  place  HR+++  glass   to  realize  a  low  heat  exchange.     Scenario  A   If  the  guardhouse  ground  floor  is  used  as  a   conference/meeting  space,  we  suggest   insulating  the  ground  floor,  so  the  cold  from   the  cellar  has  less  effect  on  the  climate.     Themes Sub)themes A:)first)step)to)energy)reduction)(MKB)advice) B:)A)leap)foward) ) C:)Towards)autonomy Choice Insulation Barracks)&)guardhouse Barrack:/first/floor/insulation/(noise/reduction) and Draughtproofing/(doors,/windows,/connections) Secondary/glazing Barrack:/insulation/of/the/ground/floor/ and Guardhouse:/insulation/of/the/ground/floor B Expansion:)restaurant glass/opening/of/HR+++/glass B
  28. 28.   28   5.3.B/A Insulation 1 5.3.B/A.  Window  insulation,   draught  proofing,  ground  floor   insulation  &  solar  windows   Calculations  on  the  thermal   resistance  of  the  barrack  pointed  out   that  the  outer  shell  creates  a  stable   inner  climate  with  its  thick  walls  and   green  roof.  The  windows,  draughts   and  ground  floor  form  the  weakest   points  in  the  building  envelope.  So   scenario  B  will  focus  on  the  above,   also  including  secondary  glazing  and   draught  proofing  of  the  guardhouse.   Scenario  A  is  an  addition  on  scenario   B  with  ground  floor  insulation  of  the   guardhouse  and  solar  windows  for   the  glass  entrance.     2 Secondary  glazing  for  Fort  de  Gagel   The  windows  are  monumental  single  glazed   windows  with  a  wooden  (barrack)  or  steal   (guardhouse)  frame.  The  thermal  resistance   (the  R-­‐value)  of  the  current  windows  is   0.512.  If  you  place  secondary  glazing  this   becomes  1.087  m2K/W.  When  the  R-­‐value   becomes  higher,  the  thermal  resistance   increases.  This  means  that  less  heat  is   leaving  the  building  through  the  windows.     If  we  calculate  the  new  thermal  resistance   with  secondary  glazing,  savings  can  be  up  to   €200  per  year  (with  current  rates).  Decent   secondary  glazing  that  fits  in  nicely  in  a   monumental  building,  is  quite  expensive.   For  47  windows  of  barrack  and  guardhouse,   the  cost  are  assumed  to  be  around  €20,000   (excl.  VAT).  So  if  the  aim  for  a  more   sustainable  building  is  based  on  economic   motives,  then  this  is  perhaps  not  advisedly.   3 But  when  comfort  and  energy  savings  is  the   motive,  it  can  be  considered.     Draught  proofing  for  Fort  de  Gagel     Draught  proofing  is  considered  a  quick  win.   Most  easy  is  to  place  brush  strips  at  the   down  side  of  doors.  In  addition  aluminium   draught  strips  can  be  placed  on  the  long   (closing)  side  of  the  door.  Furthermore,   other  draughts  around  a  hatch  or  lead-­‐ through  of  pipes  can  be  sealed  by  a   handyman,  saving  up  to  €60  per  year.     Ground  floor  insulation  (barrack)     The  floor  is  made  of  masonry  with  in  most   spaces  a  finish  of  plaster.  Ground  floor   insulation  can  save  a  lot  (if  the  space  is  used   on  a  regular  base).  However,  if  insulation   underneath  the  floor  is  not  possible,   insulation  needs  to  be  placed  on  top  of  the   Secondary  glazing  of  Isoglas  
  29. 29.   29   4 floor.  This  often  demands  adjustments  on   doors,  stairs,  skirting,  etc.  This  makes  it   more  expensive.  Calculated  is  that,  with  a   surface  of  300  m 2  ground  floor,  the  savings   could  be  around  €790  per  year.  The  costs  are   estimated  on  circa  €15,000.  Including  permit   costs,  this  makes  a  return  of  investment   around  20  years.     HR+++  glass  for  restaurant   We  advice  placing  HR+++  glass  in  the  large   window  opening  of  the  restaurant.  This   window  opening  is  designed  with  a  surface   of  72  m 2  and  orientated  on  the  North.  Such  a   large  glass  opening  on  a  North  side  is  not   advisable.  However,  if  this  will  be  executed   make  sure  that  the  window  is  made  of   HR+++  glass.  In  comparison  to  double  glass   for  this  surface,  this  can  save  up  to  €480  per   year.     5 Ground  floor  insulation  (guardhouse)   The  ground  floor  of  the  guardhouse  can  be   insulated  from  underneath,  at  the  ceiling  of   the  cellar.  Insulation  underneath  the  floor   has  a  (little  bit)  higher  thermal  resistance   and  is  less  expensive,  because  less  alteration   is  necessary.  Per  m 2  this  costs  on  average   €37,50,  in  contradiction  to  insulation  on  top   of  the  floor,  which  costs  on  average  €50/m 2 .   For  the  guardhouse  this  will  be  an   investment  of  €6,300  and  possible  savings  of   €530  (if  regularly  in  use).     Investment   Secondary  glazing  for  47  windows  costs   around  the  €20,000  excluding  VAT.   Draught  proofing  of  doors  and  other   connections  is  around  €1,850  (excl.  VAT)   based  on  the  ground  surface  and  the   number  of  doors  of  barrack  and  guardhouse.   6 The  insulation  of  the  ground  floor  of  the   barrack  costs  around  €15,000.  For  the   guardhouse  this  will  be  around  €6,300.   Eventually  we  propose  HR+++  glass  for  the   glass  opening  of  the  restaurant.  On  the   information  available  we  estimate  these   costs  on  €14,000  to  €16,000.  However,  this   depends  on  the  detailed  design  (surface,   construction,  frame)  and  can  eventually  be   different.     Finance  and  regulations   A  permit  is  necessary  for  the  different   measures.  There  is  a  financial  regulation,  the   ‘EIA’,  which  makes  it  possible  to  deduct   €20/m 2  floor  insulation  (if  the  R-­‐value   increases  with  at  least  1,50)  of  the   investment  from  your  taxable  profit.   Floor  insulation  
  30. 30.   30   5.4. Heating 1 Here  we  give  a  short  introduction  on   the  proposed  scenarios  within  the   Heating  theme.  On  the  next  pages   the  measures  will  be  explained.     Scenario  C   The  ‘MKB  advies’  proposes  smart  and  quick   wins  on  the  heating  costs,  like  setting  a   timer  on  the  electric  boiler,  placing  radiator   foil  and  insulating  hot  water  pipes.  These   measures  can  save  up  to  €90.  And  this  only   costs  €200,  so  financially  this  is  interesting.     2 Scenario  B     For  the  offices  in  the  current  situation  we   propose  infrared  heating,  because  this  is   very  comfortable  type  of  heating.  Lastly,  it  is   energy  efficient  because  of  the  focused  way   of  heating.    If  the  guardhouse  is  renovated   and  will  be  used  as  conference/meeting   spaces,  we  would  also  recommend  infrared   heating.  Because  this  function  will  not   occupy  the  space  every  hour  of  he  day  and   infrared  is  a  flexible  way  of  heating.  If  we   look  at  the  designs  for  the  restaurant,  we   propose  a  biomass  stove.  This  fits  the  fort,   3 because  it  is  situated  in  nature  and  was   originally  heated  by  small  wood  stoves.   Solar  boilers  can  cover  the  warm  water   demand.  Furthermore  a  hotfill  could  be   installed  to  the  dishwasher;  this  produces   warm  water  more  efficiently  then  the   dishwasher.       Scenario  A   The  guardhouse  remains  on  infrared   heating.  But  the  restaurant  and  barrack  will   be  heated  by  one  integral,  system;  gas   absorption  heat  pump  with  floor  heating.   Themes Sub)themes A:)first)step)to)energy)reduction)(MKB)advice) B:)A)leap)foward) ) C:)Towards)autonomy Choice Heating Building)heating) Use*radiator*foil*to*reduce*heat*loss Insulate*hot*water*pipes and Barrack&(1st&floor)&&&guardhouse:*Infrared*(IR)* heating,*Restaurant&&&ground&floor&barrack:* biomass*stove or Restaurant&&&barrack:*Gasabsorption*heat* pump*with*floor*heating,*except*for*LTB* radiators*for*1st*floor*barrack.&Guardhouse:*IR B Water)heating install*a*time*clock*on*the*electric*warm**water* boiler and Place*solar*boilers,*with*buffertank hotfill*for*the*restaurant B
  31. 31.   31   5.4.B Heating 1 5.4.B.  Heating   The  majority  of  the  gas  usage  is  due   to  heating  of  the  buildings  and  warm   water.  Cooking  on  a  gas  stove  is  just   a  little  part  of  the  total  gas  bill.  In   scenario  B  we  look  at  sustainable   measures  that  can  be  an  addition  to   the  current  way  of  heating.  Without   making  big  changes  in  the  current   situation,  we  establish  savings  as   well  as  more  comfort.  The  group   accommodations  and  Guardhouse   have  a  separate  system.  We   maintain  this  and  propose  suitable   measures  for  as  well  the  guardhouse   as  the  group  accommodations,   based  on  their  usage.       2 Infrared  heating  –  Barrack  &  guardhouse   The  barrack  needs  heating  from  September   until  April.  Heating  will  be  more   permanently  needed  from  November  until   February.  During  autumn  and  fall  heating   will  be  needed,  but  more  occasionally  then   in  winter.  From  Monday  until  Thursday  most   working  stations  will  be  occupied.  However,   on  Friday  on  average  just  one  person  is   present.  The  layout  of  the  office  is   extremely  suitable  for  focused  heating.  In   other  words  not  the  whole  office  needs  to   be  heated  if  not  all  colleagues  are  there.     Only  the  working  stations  where  people  are   present  can  be  heated.  When  heating   locally,  the  heating  device  does  have  to  be   able  to  quickly  anticipate  on  fluctuations  in   present  colleagues.  Infrared  panels  meet   this  condition.  These  panels  (quite  similar  in   aesthetics  to  the  acoustic  panels)  create   3 warmth  efficiently  and  in  a  very  comfortable   way.  Infrared  panels  do  not  heat  the  air,  but   rather  heat  the  present  objects:  the  people,   tables  etc.  The  infrared  panels  heat  up  in  10   minutes,  so  warmth  is  quickly  produced.   They  can  be  combined  with  a  smart  control   system  and  motion  sensors.  This  way,  one   does  not  have  to  control  the  ‘on/off’  switch   of  the  panels  from  an  app  or  screen.   Everything  can  be  run  automatically  based   on  motion  in  the  room.  Also,  infrared  works   well  in  moist  conditions.  They  are  expected   to  have  a  positive  effect  on  the  climate  of   forts.  So  even  in  the  guardhouse  they  will  be   suitable,  especially  when  the  guardhouse   has  a  flexible  function.  Furthermore  they  do   not  need  difficult  infrastructure  to  function,   only  a  power  point.     Based  on  available  data,  like  user  number   and  the  ‘heating  hours’  throughout  the  year,  
  32. 32.   32   4 we  estimate  that  infrared  panels  in  the   barrack  can  save  around  €325  per  year.  This   is  based  on  occupancy  of  in  general  9  people   for  10  hours  per  day  during  the  week,  except   for  Friday  when  just  one  person  is  present   for  9  hours.  Additionally  we  calculated  with   a  certain  heating  demand  during  8  months   per  year.     If  the  ground  floor  of  the  guardhouse  is   heated  by  a  gas  boiler  we  expect  a  gas  use  of   around  1500  m 3  per  year.  If  you  install   infrared  you  save  this  amount  of  gas,  but   you  need  more  electricity.  Eventually  this   can  result  in  a  saving  of  around  €260.     An  important  note  is  that  the  expected   energy  savings  are  based  on  a  right  use:   focused  way  and  not  non-­‐stop.  To  ensure   the  right  use  we  included  motion  sensors   and  the  smart  control  option  in  the   investment  cost.     5 Biomass  stove  -­‐  restaurant   A  biomass  stove  creates  heat  by  burning   wooden  pellets.  These  pellets  can  be  made   by  ones  self,  though  it  is  time-­‐consuming   and  special  devices  are  needed  to  make  the   pellets  on  the  right  size.  So  eventually  we   will  not  advice  for  using  local  wood   production.  Pellets  can  be  bought  in  big   quantities  and  will  be  delivered  at  the  fort.   Ordered  in  big  quantities,  one  kilogram  of   pellets  can  cost  around  €0.28  and  1.5  kg   pellets  will  produce  1  m 3  natural  gas.  This   makes  pellets  €0.15  cheaper  than  1  m 3  gas,   based  on  current  gas  rates.  The  biomass   stove  is  therefore  financially  interesting.  A   note  is  that  the  pellets  have  to  come  from   wood  that  is  responsibly  gained,  because   otherwise  the  sustainability  of  the  system   can  be  questioned.  The  biomass  stove  uses  a   big  amount  of  pellets.  A  large  part  can  be   6 stored  in  a  container  next  to  the  stove,   which  fills  it  up  automatically.  The  system   does  require  a  lot  of  space,  so  this  must  be   considered  in  the  design.  Lastly,  a  biomass   stove  demands  a  fair  amount  of   maintenance.  For  instance  the  ashtray  has   to  be  cleaned  2-­‐5  times  a  year.  A  biomass   stove  can  produce  warm  water  and  can  work   well  together  with  a  solar  boiler.  If   necessary,  a  combi-­‐boiler  can  further  raise   the  water  temperature.  A  biomass  stove  can   be  combined  with  floor  heating  as  well  as   radiator  heating.  We  did  made  an   estimation  for  the  biomass  stove,  however   we  do  need  more  data,  so  this  is  a  first   indication  based  on  opening  hours  and   occupancy.    Here  we  assume  that  the   restaurant  has  a  heat  demand  that  equals   9,000  m 3  gas.  Furthermore  we  expect  that   the  restaurant  will  be  heated  during  6   Biomass  stove  

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