Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Importance of evidence in digital age

183 views

Published on

Slide show to accompany workshop

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Importance of evidence in digital age

  1. 1. The Importance of Evidence in a Digital Age Kristen HawleyTurner, PhD @teachkht
  2. 2. Digital is different.
  3. 3. How are we doing on facts, lately?
  4. 4. What does our data tell us?
  5. 5. Post-truth?
  6. 6. What we won’t cover today… • Filter-bubbles • Overcoming misperceptions • Belief perseverance and confirmation bias • Prejudice and racism See Nyhan and Reifler (2012). Misinformation and Fact-Checking: Research Findings from Social Science. New America Foundation for more on these topics.
  7. 7. What we will discuss… • What is argument? • What is evidence? • How do we look for or provide evidence in digital texts?
  8. 8. What is argument?
  9. 9. “ ” Every great idea is really just a spectacular disagreement with some other great idea. Socrates quarrels with Homer. Aristotle quarrels with Plato. Locke quarrels with Hobbes and Rousseau quarrels with them both. Nietzsche quarrels with everyone. Wittgenstein quarrels with himself. These quarrels are never personal. Nor are they particularly political, at least in the ordinary sense of politics. Sometimes they take place over the distance of decades, even centuries. Most importantly, they are never based on a misunderstanding.On the contrary, the disagreements arise from perfect comprehension; from having chewed over the ideas of your intellectual opponent so thoroughly that you can properly spit them out. In other words, to disagree well you must first understand well.You have to read deeply, listen carefully, watch closely.You need to grant your adversary moral respect; give him the intellectual benefit of doubt; have sympathy for his motives and participate empathically with his line of reasoning. And you need to allow for the possibility that you might yet be persuaded of what he has to say. Bret Stephens. (September 24, 2017). “The DyingArt of Disagreement.” The NewYorkTimes
  10. 10. “ ” Every great idea is really just a spectacular disagreement with some other great idea. Socrates quarrels with Homer. Aristotle quarrels with Plato. Locke quarrels with Hobbes and Rousseau quarrels with them both. Nietzsche quarrels with everyone. Wittgenstein quarrels with himself. These quarrels are never personal. Nor are they particularly political, at least in the ordinary sense of politics. Sometimes they take place over the distance of decades, even centuries. Most importantly, they are never based on a misunderstanding.On the contrary, the disagreements arise from perfect comprehension; from having chewed over the ideas of your intellectual opponent so thoroughly that you can properly spit them out. In other words, to disagree well you must first understand well.You have to read deeply, listen carefully, watch closely.You need to grant your adversary moral respect; give him the intellectual benefit of doubt; have sympathy for his motives and participate empathically with his line of reasoning. And you need to allow for the possibility that you might yet be persuaded of what he has to say. Bret Stephens. (September 24, 2017). “The DyingArt of Disagreement.” The NewYorkTimes
  11. 11. Argument as Conversation Claim Data (Evidence) Warrant Rebuttal Stephen Toulmin
  12. 12. Conversational Partners •CLAIMWhat’s your point? •EVIDENCEWhat have you got to go on? •WARRANTSo what?
  13. 13. Conversational Partners •EVIDENCEWhat have you got to go on?
  14. 14. What is evidence?
  15. 15. “ ” “Evidence, we hear that word thrown around a lot.. But what does it mean? It means the facts used to prove that something happened.The things that people find when they’re looking, really looking...” –“Little Girl Lost.” Cold Case Podcast.
  16. 16. Evidence What do you see or know? Claim What is your conclusion? What is the rule?
  17. 17. CommonTypes of Evidence Scientific Law Statistical Data Expert Opinion Opinion of Noted Individual Anecdotes
  18. 18. Questions to Consider • How is this kind of evidence generated? • When might this kind of evidence be used? • What cautions should be taken when encountering/using this kind of evidence?
  19. 19. Let’s create some criteria.
  20. 20. How generated • Sustained, systematic inquiry • Conclusions about data made over time • Peer reviewed When used as evidence • To show gravitas Cautions • Often seen in conflict with issues of faith • Some readers do not equate science with truth
  21. 21. How generated • Controlled trials ideally with large samples with experimental and control groups • Surveys ideally of large, random samples When used as evidence • To show that a particular variable makes a difference • To show the author adheres to principles of scientific inquiry • To highlight the ideas, opinions, or concerns of a population Cautions • Studies designed without controls • Bias (funding) • Statistics without context • Correlation vs. causation (see SpuriousCorrelations!)
  22. 22. How generated • Individual with advanced knowledge of a field publishes, speaks, or is quoted in the media When used as evidence • To support claims with the authority of another Cautions • Making the case for the expert • The bias of the expert (funding) • Collective expertise may be valuable
  23. 23. How generated • Celebrities share their own opinions When used as evidence • To convince an audience who respects the individual Cautions • Taken in context • Opinions vs. interpretation of facts • Bias (funding) • Bandwagon appeals
  24. 24. How generated • Personal experience When used as evidence • To make an emotional appeal Cautions • Reliability of human memory • Telephone effect • Context • Generalizability
  25. 25. Let’s create some criteria.
  26. 26. Infographic “a visual image such as a chart or diagram used to represent information or data” Google definition
  27. 27. Video
  28. 28. SeeingArguments in My Social Media Life • What kind of claims are made? • How do people respond when they disagree? • How do they use evidence to support their claims?
  29. 29. Save the Pacific NorthwestTree Octopus!
  30. 30. Types of Fake News Wardle, Clair (February 16, 2017). Fake News: It’s Complicated. First Draft.
  31. 31. It goes viral… FACT CHECK?
  32. 32. “ ” The issue with the photograph, of course, is that the math is all wrong, to say the least.The picture uses an estimated jackpot of $1.3 billion spread over 300 million people, which would actually net each person $4.33, not the $4.33 million the photo promises.That $4.33 is barely enough to get a combo meal at McDonald’s, let alone end poverty. Tyler, Chris. (January 13, 2016). Powerball Math Meme:Viral Post Sucks at Math. dbtechno.com
  33. 33. Be MINDFUL
  34. 34. Fact Checking • “[A] completely independent, self-sufficient entity wholly owned by its operators and funded through advertising revenues,” Snopes: www.snopes.com • A project of the Tampa BayTimes and its partner news organizations, PolitiFact: www.politifact.com • A Project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center, FactCheck.org: www.factcheck.org • Center for Media and Democracy’s Source Watch: www.sourcewatch.org • Center for Responsive Politic’sOpen Secrets: www.opensecrets.org Fact Finding • ProCon: www.procon.org • Pew Research: www.pewresearch.org • ProPublica: www.propublica.org • Document Cloud: www.documentcloud.org • The Center for Public Integrity: www.publicintegrity.org • NewYorkTimes Room for Debate: www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate
  35. 35. TheVerification Handbook

×