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Design and Operation of Utility-Scale
Battery Storage
Workshop
Date:
Venue:
1. Introduction
2. Applications of Stationary Electrical Energy Storage Systems
3. Technology Development, Cost and Market Growth
4. Life Cycle Phases
5. Performance Indicators
6. Lead Acid Batteries
7. Redox Flow Batteries
8. Li-Ion Batteries
9. Economical Assessment
10. Design Process
Agenda
2Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Energy Shifting
Bulk Energy Services
18Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
time [h]
power[MW]
08:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 00:00
Example PV generation
The battery stores the energy during the
midday and discharges in the evening
Another example is Arbitrage (Energy Trading)
04:00
Charge
Discharge
Redox-Flow Batteries
Electrochemical
37Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery
Vanadium ions
change ionic state
during charge and
discharge cycles.
Electrolyte is being
pumped (flowing)
through the half cells.
separator
- +
tank
positive
half cell
tank
negative
half cell
ion transfer
load
redox reaction at
electrode surface
P P
electrolyte flowelectrolyte flow
negativeelectrode
positiveelectrode
Battery Electricity Storage System Installed Energy Cost Reduction Potential 2016-2030
Cost Development
41Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Cost reduction of 73%
between 2010 and 2016
[Source: IRENA]
Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)
Manufacturing
51Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Factory visit at battery
manufacturer or system
integrator/EPC
Insights in the QM procedures and
check if all were successfully
applied on the batch to be delivered
for the project
Steps for Battery Module Installation
Installation
54Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Delivery Control Unboxing
Mounting of
Battery Modules
Mounting of
Switchgears
Cable Connection
• Transport conditions
• Damages
• Quantity
• DC Module/Module
• Auxiliary Supply
• Fan Power Supply
• Communication
Data Logging for Warranty Purpose
Data logging according to the supplier's requirements
agreed in the performance warranty contract needs to be
performed.
Operation
60Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Temperature SOC
DOD
C-rate Charge
Energy
Throughput
C-rate Discharge
End of Life (EOL)
Decommissioning and End of Life
64Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
time [a]
StateofHealth–SOH
75%
80%
85%
90%
95%
100%
2 4 6 8 10
SOH =
CapacityBOL
CapacityYear x
EOL
66Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Recycling
Decommissioning and End of Life
[Source: Duesenfeld]
Material recycling rate of 55-75% possible today, efficiency
is possible to increase up to 95% in the near future
66Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Max. Continuous Power and Peak Power
Power
73Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage[Source: Samsung SDI]
Max. Continuous
Power
Every battery system
has a rated max.
continuous power in
e.g. MW
The battery system
can perform at this
power for unlimited
duration
Peak Power
Some battery
systems can perform
for limited duration at
higher power than
they are rated
After peak
performance a resting
period has to be
respected
Capacity Test
Energy
82Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Capacity Validation Test Procedure
Charge Discharge
Mode CP-CV Mode CP
Power (AC) 100.00 MW Power (AC) 100.00 MW
Start 0% SOC Start 100% SOC
End 100% SOC End 0% SOC
DC Design
Capacity
540.617 MWh
DC Usable
Capacity
529.264 MWh
AC Usable
Capacity
502.801 MWh
usable
SOC
97.9%
one-way
AC Eff.
95.0%
Calendar Lifetime
Reliability and Availability
91Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Definition
Describes the
aging behavior of
a battery cell
independent of
charge and
discharge
operations
Mechanism
(Example for Li-Ion Batteries)
Li-ions are
deposited in the
graphite anode
and are therefore
no longer
available for ion
transfer between
anode and
cathode
[Source: Journal of the Electrochemical Society,
Calendar Aging of Lithium-Ion Batteries, I.
Impact of the Graphite Anode on Capacity
Fade]
Energy Density
energy density: 140 – 210 Wh/kg
power density: 82 – 410 W/kg
Li-Ion Batteries
116
energy density [Wh/kg]
powerdensity[W/kg]
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
50 100 150 200 250 300
Li-Ion (NCM)*
Lead-Acid
Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
Li-Ion (LFP)
*estimated according to current
battery platforms of Samsung SDI
for stationary applications
Remark: NMC Li-Ion batteries
represent 98.5% of the battery
applications excluding China
Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Example
Self Consumption Optimization with Utility-Scale PV
Levelized Cost of Storage (LCOS)
151Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Lifetime (t) 10 years
CAPEX 300 €/kWh
OPEX 1 €/kWh per year
Fuel *33 €/MWh
Discount Factor (r) 2%
RTE 100% (assumption)
Charge/Discharge 10 MWh a day
*[Source: Lazard]
Li-Ion (LFP) Containerized BESS
DC Design Capacity: 10 MWh
Rated Power: 5 MW (DC)
Operation: 1 full eq. cycle per day
Simplified
Load Profile Analysis
159
time [h]
power[MW]
-30
-20
-10
10
20
30
00:00 04:00 08:00 12:00 16:00
Charge and discharge cycles of the battery
over time
A battery load profile analysis provides
information about the required system size
and the key factors for the capacity
degradation.
20:00
0
Charge
Discharge
Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
166Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Peak Shaving
Sizing Exercise
Technology: SAFT Intensium Mini Li-Ion Battery System (50kW/200kWh)
Location: Spain
Application: PV + Storage
Reducing the peak power element of the utility bill by combining energy storage with PV
integration.
Reducing the electricity supply factor of the bill by self-consumption of energy drawn from the
batteries at the most expensive time of the day.
Replenishment (Augmentation)
175Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
Purpose
Lowering CAPEX
by installing less
capacity at BOL
and adding
capacity in year x
to realize lifetime
of e.g. 10 years
Possibilities
o Installation of
empty racks for
future
augmentation
o Addition of
whole BESS
(modular
system)
Factors
o Development of
battery price
o Costs for
transport and
transport
constraints
o Costs for
installation and
commissioning
Contact
In case of any questions please feel free to contact:
Leon Gosh
l.gosh@cellutionenergy.com
+49 173 276 97 92

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Battery Workshop Sample Slides

  • 1. Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Workshop Date: Venue:
  • 2. 1. Introduction 2. Applications of Stationary Electrical Energy Storage Systems 3. Technology Development, Cost and Market Growth 4. Life Cycle Phases 5. Performance Indicators 6. Lead Acid Batteries 7. Redox Flow Batteries 8. Li-Ion Batteries 9. Economical Assessment 10. Design Process Agenda 2Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
  • 3. Energy Shifting Bulk Energy Services 18Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage time [h] power[MW] 08:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 00:00 Example PV generation The battery stores the energy during the midday and discharges in the evening Another example is Arbitrage (Energy Trading) 04:00 Charge Discharge
  • 4. Redox-Flow Batteries Electrochemical 37Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Vanadium ions change ionic state during charge and discharge cycles. Electrolyte is being pumped (flowing) through the half cells. separator - + tank positive half cell tank negative half cell ion transfer load redox reaction at electrode surface P P electrolyte flowelectrolyte flow negativeelectrode positiveelectrode
  • 5. Battery Electricity Storage System Installed Energy Cost Reduction Potential 2016-2030 Cost Development 41Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Cost reduction of 73% between 2010 and 2016 [Source: IRENA]
  • 6. Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) Manufacturing 51Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Factory visit at battery manufacturer or system integrator/EPC Insights in the QM procedures and check if all were successfully applied on the batch to be delivered for the project
  • 7. Steps for Battery Module Installation Installation 54Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Delivery Control Unboxing Mounting of Battery Modules Mounting of Switchgears Cable Connection • Transport conditions • Damages • Quantity • DC Module/Module • Auxiliary Supply • Fan Power Supply • Communication
  • 8. Data Logging for Warranty Purpose Data logging according to the supplier's requirements agreed in the performance warranty contract needs to be performed. Operation 60Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Temperature SOC DOD C-rate Charge Energy Throughput C-rate Discharge
  • 9. End of Life (EOL) Decommissioning and End of Life 64Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage time [a] StateofHealth–SOH 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 2 4 6 8 10 SOH = CapacityBOL CapacityYear x EOL
  • 10. 66Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Recycling Decommissioning and End of Life [Source: Duesenfeld] Material recycling rate of 55-75% possible today, efficiency is possible to increase up to 95% in the near future 66Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
  • 11. Max. Continuous Power and Peak Power Power 73Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage[Source: Samsung SDI] Max. Continuous Power Every battery system has a rated max. continuous power in e.g. MW The battery system can perform at this power for unlimited duration Peak Power Some battery systems can perform for limited duration at higher power than they are rated After peak performance a resting period has to be respected
  • 12. Capacity Test Energy 82Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Capacity Validation Test Procedure Charge Discharge Mode CP-CV Mode CP Power (AC) 100.00 MW Power (AC) 100.00 MW Start 0% SOC Start 100% SOC End 100% SOC End 0% SOC DC Design Capacity 540.617 MWh DC Usable Capacity 529.264 MWh AC Usable Capacity 502.801 MWh usable SOC 97.9% one-way AC Eff. 95.0%
  • 13. Calendar Lifetime Reliability and Availability 91Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Definition Describes the aging behavior of a battery cell independent of charge and discharge operations Mechanism (Example for Li-Ion Batteries) Li-ions are deposited in the graphite anode and are therefore no longer available for ion transfer between anode and cathode [Source: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Calendar Aging of Lithium-Ion Batteries, I. Impact of the Graphite Anode on Capacity Fade]
  • 14. Energy Density energy density: 140 – 210 Wh/kg power density: 82 – 410 W/kg Li-Ion Batteries 116 energy density [Wh/kg] powerdensity[W/kg] 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 50 100 150 200 250 300 Li-Ion (NCM)* Lead-Acid Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Li-Ion (LFP) *estimated according to current battery platforms of Samsung SDI for stationary applications Remark: NMC Li-Ion batteries represent 98.5% of the battery applications excluding China Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
  • 15. Example Self Consumption Optimization with Utility-Scale PV Levelized Cost of Storage (LCOS) 151Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Lifetime (t) 10 years CAPEX 300 €/kWh OPEX 1 €/kWh per year Fuel *33 €/MWh Discount Factor (r) 2% RTE 100% (assumption) Charge/Discharge 10 MWh a day *[Source: Lazard] Li-Ion (LFP) Containerized BESS DC Design Capacity: 10 MWh Rated Power: 5 MW (DC) Operation: 1 full eq. cycle per day
  • 16. Simplified Load Profile Analysis 159 time [h] power[MW] -30 -20 -10 10 20 30 00:00 04:00 08:00 12:00 16:00 Charge and discharge cycles of the battery over time A battery load profile analysis provides information about the required system size and the key factors for the capacity degradation. 20:00 0 Charge Discharge Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage
  • 17. 166Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Peak Shaving Sizing Exercise Technology: SAFT Intensium Mini Li-Ion Battery System (50kW/200kWh) Location: Spain Application: PV + Storage Reducing the peak power element of the utility bill by combining energy storage with PV integration. Reducing the electricity supply factor of the bill by self-consumption of energy drawn from the batteries at the most expensive time of the day.
  • 18. Replenishment (Augmentation) 175Workshop: Design and Operation of Utility-Scale Battery Storage Purpose Lowering CAPEX by installing less capacity at BOL and adding capacity in year x to realize lifetime of e.g. 10 years Possibilities o Installation of empty racks for future augmentation o Addition of whole BESS (modular system) Factors o Development of battery price o Costs for transport and transport constraints o Costs for installation and commissioning
  • 19. Contact In case of any questions please feel free to contact: Leon Gosh l.gosh@cellutionenergy.com +49 173 276 97 92