Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Lilly Bethesda presentation

50 views

Published on

Keynote address on the current research on teaching and learning

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Lilly Bethesda presentation

  1. 1. How the Research on Learning Should be Changing the Way We Teach • Developed by Terry Doyle • Professor Emeritus Ferris State University • CEO Learner Centered Teaching Consultants • Doylet@ferris.edu
  2. 2. • Slides will be available at www.learnercenteredteaching.wordpress.com
  3. 3. Our Students Data Filled World • 2.5 billion gigabytes of data produced each day. • 4 billion google searches daily. • 10 billion you tube videos viewed daily. • While I was reading this slide there were 530,000 google searches and 1,184,000 you tube videos viewed
  4. 4. The Pace of Change Our Students Face Today’s chip when compared to the 1971 Intel processor chip( 4004) • Today’s chip has 3500 times more performance • Is 90,000 times more energy efficient • Is 60,000 times lower in cost ( Brian Krzanich Intel CEO)
  5. 5. If the same pace of change had happened to a Volkswagen Beetle of 1971 • Todays beetle would need to go 300,000 mph • It would need to get 2 million miles per gallon • It would cost 4 cents • ( Brian Krzanich Intel CEO)
  6. 6. The Growth of Knowledge/New Books Published • In 2017 according to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization there were 2.5 million books published worldwide.
  7. 7. The Speed of Change/3D Printing • In the past creating a new part could take two years from when you first had the idea. • Now using a 3D printer you can design it, send it to the printer and the part appears before your very eyes—you can immediately test it as many times as you want in one day making changes and getting a new printed part and with in a week you have the new part. Luana Lorio director of the GE three-dimensional manufacturing unit
  8. 8. Here is our Professional Obligation We must follow where the research leads us even if it makes us uncomfortable or results in major changes in our teaching practices.
  9. 9. Here is Our Challenge? We as teachers can’t make informed decisions about which teaching approaches or tools to use if we don’t first understand how our students learn.
  10. 10. Here is Our Challenge? To understand how our students learn we must understand how their brains take in, process, and retrieve information as well as the numerous factors that affect these processes.
  11. 11. Key Teaching Questions 1. What Should We Teach? What would make us happy that our students still knew and could apply from the content and skills of our courses a year later?
  12. 12. Key Teaching Questions 2. What can students do on their own? What knowledge and skills do students need our help to learn and what can they look up and learn on their own?
  13. 13. Key Teaching Questions 3. What are the best ways to facilitate our students’ learning? What teaching actions optimize the opportunities for students to master the learning outcomes of our courses?
  14. 14. An Old School View of Learning
  15. 15. Learner Centered Teaching “Many people who had difficulty in school might have prospered if the new ideas about effective instructional practices had been available. (Bransford et. al. p.5 How People Learn, 2000)
  16. 16. Learner Centered Teaching “Furthermore, given new instructional practices, even those who did well in traditional educational environments might have developed skills, knowledge, and attitudes that would have significantly enhanced their achievements.” (Bransford et. al. p.5 How People Learn, 2000)
  17. 17. Definition of Learner Centered Teaching Part One--To teach in harmony with how the brain learns. Part Two-- A Question Given the context of the learning situation ( # of students, time of day, place, difficulty of material) will this teaching action optimize my students’ opportunities to learn?
  18. 18. The Definition of Learning Learning is essentially a process of neurological change; as we absorb new skills and information, neurons form new connections and prune back others, and the brain as a whole recalibrates its networks and activity patterns. (NY Academy of Sciences) www.virtualgalen.com/.../ neurons-small.jpg
  19. 19. Teachers’ Definition of Learning Learning is the ability to use information after significant periods of disuse and it is the ability to use the information to solve problems that arise in a context different (if only slightly) from the context in which the information was originally taught. (Robert Bjork, Memories and Metamemories, 1994)
  20. 20. Basic Finding from Neuroscience Research about Learning It is the one who does the work who does the learning( Doyle , 2008).
  21. 21. What Instructors Don’t Control about the Learning Process • Genes • Family life • Home environment • Stress levels • Sleep • Diet • Hydration • Exercise • Prior knowledge* • Language skills* • Work Ethic • Financial situation • Other priorities • Mindset • Learning strategies/disabilities
  22. 22. What Instructors Do Control about the Learning Process • Perhaps most important-- • Our emotional readiness to teach and the use of emotion to promote learning.
  23. 23. Teachers Control the Use of Emotion • “Emotion promotes brain synchronization automatically allocating everyone's attention in the same direction by generating a similar psychological state that prompts us to view and act in a similar manner.” • ( Nummenmaa, 2014)
  24. 24. Emotion and Learning • “When our students share an emotional connection they have a context that can add to their understanding” • “Emotion = physiological state of the listener to the teacher—making it more likely the listener will process incoming information in a similar manner to how the teacher sees it.” (Nunmmenmaa, 2014))
  25. 25. Emotions and Learning • If we are excited about our content our students are much more likely to be excited about our content
  26. 26. Emotions and Learning • Our brains evolved to see emotional information as important. • Student need to see content as something that can do them good otherwise their brains are designed to avoid things that can do them harm, waste their time, are not relevant or useful. • ( Sharot, 2017)
  27. 27. Emotions and Learning • Anticipation of good things elicits action—we are built to associate forward action with a reward not with avoiding harm. • Rewards are simply more effective than punishment in producing learning. • ( Sharot, 2017)
  28. 28. Emotion and Memory Emotional arousal organizes and coordinates brain activity (Bloom, Beal & Kupfer 2003) When the amygdala detects emotions, it essentially boosts activity in the areas of the brain that form memories (Phelps,2004)
  29. 29. What Else Do Faculty Control • Our level of organization. • The quality of our learning activities, assessments and feedback to students. • The respect we show students.
  30. 30. What Else Do Faculty Control • Our accessibility to students. • The level of challenge in the course and the support to meet that challenge. • Level of preparedness both content readiness and instructional readiness.
  31. 31. Faculty Can Make a Significant Difference Gallup-Purdue Index survey (2014) of 30,000 college graduates found the most important combination of factors in a successful college experience were: 1. A professor who cared about me as a person 2. A professor who made me excited about learning 3. Finding a mentor who encouraged me to pursue my dreams
  32. 32. Relationship with Faculty • The same Gallup-Purdue survey found that success and happiness in life was not tied closely to grades or how much someone learned in college but to their relationship with faculty.
  33. 33. What Do We Know About the Learning Process?
  34. 34. Learning is Enhanced by Movement Natural selection developed a human brain to solve problems of survival in outdoor, unstable environments while in almost constant motion. A brain in motion is a brain better able to learn. (Medina, 2008)
  35. 35. Moving to Learn • A growing body of evidence suggests we think and learn better when we walk or do other forms of exercise. Rhodes, 2013
  36. 36. Movement and Learning • Even mild movement, like walking, sitting on balance balls or working a stationary bike all improve learning. • Try walking discussion groups! Ratey, 2013
  37. 37. Movement and Learning How can we get more movement into our classes?
  38. 38. Attention Drives Learning Attention is almost magical in its ability to physically alter the brain and enlarge functional circuits. (Merzenich and colleagues, UCSF, 2011)
  39. 39. Attention and Learning When we attend to something we are readying various cognitive process we may need for learning. (Merzenich and colleagues, UCSF, 2011)
  40. 40. Keeping Students’ Attention Neuroscientists have a saying: Emotion drives attention and attention drives learning—this makes Attention a key to learning. (Merzenich and colleagues, UCSF, 2011)
  41. 41. Attention without Prior Knowledge • In a recent study by Psychologist Danielle McNamara she found it is not effort, intelligence or attention that reign supreme but what a students already knew about the topic that had the biggest effect on learning.
  42. 42. General Consensus about Attention Capacity Attention capacity refers to the extent that one can allocate their processing resources. One’s arousal level meaningfulness/relevance/interest Type of task new vs. automatic How people allocate attention guided by previous experiences
  43. 43. Emotions and Attention The emotional engagement pathway is effective in capturing and sustaining attention. (LeDoux, 2003)
  44. 44. Dopamine is the Reward for Learning Dopamine is there to motivate the brain to learn new information, or engaging in new experiences. Without dopamine, you would not be interested in learning or trying new things. (LeDoux, 2003)
  45. 45. Short Term Stress Impairs Learning Acute stress activates selective CRH molecules (corticotropin) releasing hormones, which disrupt the process by which the brain collects and stores memories. (Baram,2010)
  46. 46. A Learner Needs a Clear Rationale for Learning Purpose of College To help students become life long learners. To help students gain employment and keep that employment. Meet the survival needs of the learner. College
  47. 47. Developing a Clear Rationale for Learning 1. Why do we want students to learn this? 2. How does it advance students’ skills or understanding? 3. Why is it part of this degree program? 4. How does it help prepare students for their careers? 5. Why is the teacher doing less and I ( the student) doing more?
  48. 48. Developing a Clear Rationale for Learning 6. What challenges would students face without this skill or knowledge?
  49. 49. Why do rationales matter? • Our brain prioritize. • Students are less likely to be bored or prioritize other learning when they understand how the new learning matters to them. (Brown, Roediger and McDaniel 2014)
  50. 50. Fix Prior Knowledge Deficits • The brain’s goal is to find established patterns of learning with which to connect new learning. (Ratey, 2013) • The more prior knowledge a students has the easier new learning usually is for them.
  51. 51. Fix Prior Knowledge Deficits • Deficits in prior knowledge need to be repaired in order to enhance the likelihood of new learning.
  52. 52. Fix Prior Learning Deficits • Assessment of prior knowledge • Tutoring or supplemental work • Online learning activities
  53. 53. Feedback to Students • Giving students regular feedback as to their successes and challenges, failures and errors is crucial for students if they are to improve their learning and study practices.
  54. 54. Feedback to Students • The value of feedback in improving students’ learning increases when it is given quickly following a learning or assessment activity.
  55. 55. Feedback to Students • The more specific and detailed the feedback the greater use it will have to students.
  56. 56. Four Crucial Ways Students Need to Ready their Brains for Learning Hydration • Drink water or other beverages first thing in the morning • Men 125 ounces of fluids per day • Women 91 ounces per day • Drink when thirsty/no 8 glasses a day
  57. 57. Mild Dehydration and Learning • Even mild dehydration can alter a person’s mood, energy level, and ability to think clearly. • Mild dehydration is defined as an approximately 1.5 percent loss in normal water volume in the body. (Armstrong & Lieberman, 2011)
  58. 58. Diet and Brain Performance Diet Learners need a balanced diet and need to eat before learning. • Food(glucose) is the energy source of the brain
  59. 59. Diet and Learning For learners, the research on diet implies that the contents and timing of meals may need to be coordinated to have the most beneficial cognitive effects that enhance learning.
  60. 60. Exercise Improves Learning Readiness Exercise is the single most important thing a person can do to improve their learning. (John Ratey, 2013, Spark, The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain)
  61. 61. Exercise Increases Attention and Concentration • Exercise directly stimulates the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices- the brain regions responsible for: • focus • concentration • organization • planning (Postal, 2015)
  62. 62. Exercise Boost the Brain’s Ability to Learn Exercise increases production of neurotransmitters that help: 1. Motivation 2. Patience 3. Mood (more optimistic) 4. Attention (Ratey, 2013) Energy Calm
  63. 63. Exercise Increases Production of BDNF BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ) Enhances the wiring of neurons which underlies all human learning (Ratey, 2008) Miracle Gro for the Brain
  64. 64. ATTENTION PLEASE • “Scientist have discovered a revolutionary new treatment that makes you live longer. It enhances your memory and makes you more creative. It makes you look more attractive. It keeps you slim and lowers your food cravings. It protects you from cancer and dementia. It wards off colds and flu. It lowers your risk of hearth attack and stroke, not to mention diabetes. You’ll even feel happier, less depressed, and less anxious. Are you interested?” • (Matthew Walker, 2017)
  65. 65. It is Sleep! A Key to Your Students Success • There are 17,000 well documented studies that support every claim made on the previous slide.
  66. 66. Sleep, Memory and Learning The World Health Organization has declared a “ sleep loss epidemic” throughout the industrialized world.
  67. 67. Sleep and Learning • Adults need 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. ( Teenagers 9-10) • (National Sleep Foundation 2016, Dement, 2005)
  68. 68. The Power of Sleep “Research on the role of sleep in hormonal, immunological and learning and memory function suggest that if you don’t get enough(sleep) you could— besides being very tired—wind up sick, overweight, forgetful and very blue.”(Strickgold, 2015)
  69. 69. Immediate Effects of Sleep Deprivation •Poor attention •Irritability •Difficulty with memory •Increased risk taking and impulsivity •Slowed reaction time •Depressed Immune system
  70. 70. Effects of Sleep Loss—Long term • If you routinely get less than 6-7 hours of sleep here is what happens 1. You demolish you immune system—doubling your risk of cancer. 2. Lack of sleep contribute to all psychiatric conditions especially depression 3. It makes you fat—you eat more when sleep deprived 4. It shortens your life span
  71. 71. Car Crashes • One person dies every hour in the United State due to a car crash caused by sleep loss. • Car crashes due to sleep loss out number all crashes caused by alcohol and drugs combined.
  72. 72. Sleeps Affect on Learning and Memory • Scientists have fortified evidence that a key purpose of sleep is to recalibrate the brain cells responsible for learning and memory • So the lessons can be “solidified” and used when awake. • (Diering,2017)
  73. 73. The Brain when Your Asleep • 1. The hippocampus sends all important information to the neocortex for memory storage. • 2. The hippocampus gets rid of all unimportant information so it is ready to learn the next day.
  74. 74. The Brain when Your Asleep • 3. The brain searches for every possible connection it can find for what has just been learned. • 4. The brain consolidates newly learned information with previously learned information yielding new insights to the learner.
  75. 75. The Brain when Your Asleep • 5. The brain practices newly learned motor skills improving the skill level of the learner while they are asleep.
  76. 76. When you don’t get enough sleep • None of these vital process can be completed when you don’t get enough sleep. • You are sabotaging your learning
  77. 77. Learning and Memory are Enhanced when Multiple Senses are Engaged • Humans are powerful visual and auditory learners—evolution made certain of it. (www.human- memory.net/processes_encoding.html)
  78. 78. Learning and Memory are Enhanced when Multiple Senses are Engaged • Each sensory pathway creates its own memory pathways —the more senses used in learning the more chances for understanding and recall.
  79. 79. Teach in a Multisensory Way • By using a multisensory approach to instruction you increase the chances of making connections to students’ background knowledge/memories—thus optimizing leaning opportunities.
  80. 80. Examples of Multisensory Learning Annotation when reading Cognitive mapping Using a smell as a memory cue Drawing a picture/image/diagram Listening while reading the same text (supportive reading) Taking notes Visualizing while listening
  81. 81. Our Brains Seek Patterns • The brain is a pattern seeking device. It seeks to connect new information to existing patterns of information. ( J. Ratey, 2001)
  82. 82. Patterns in Learning • When we don’t recognize the patterns we can get lost, stressed, anxious or fearful. Examples • Reading your first research journal. • Traveling to a foreign country for the first time.
  83. 83. Which of the following slides is easier to remember and WHY?
  84. 84. SLIDE ONE 4915802979
  85. 85. Slide Two (491) 580-2979
  86. 86. What is the pattern in the next slide. Raise your hand when you find it.
  87. 87. Slide One NRAFBINBCUSAMTV
  88. 88. Slide Two NRA NBC FBI USA MTV
  89. 89. Clustering is One Key to Efficient Teaching and Learning Clustering is a type of patterning used to organize related information into groups. Information that is categorized becomes easier to remember and recall.
  90. 90. Organize these Words to Make them Easy to Recall Clustering might help olives, tomatoes, carrots, chicken, lettuce, ham, grapes, beef, strawberries, spinach, pork, plums, mangos, potatoes, onions, fish, duck, broccoli, cheese, cherries, turkey.
  91. 91. Using Clustering to Make Learning Easier • Alphabetical—This is a familiar pattern but it doesn’t help very much. • Beef, carrots, cheese, cherries, etc.
  92. 92. A More Meaningful Clustering • Lunch and Dinner—categorizing the food by familiar areas like lunch and dinner gives it more meaning and makes it much easier to recall. • Lunch a salad including lettuce, cheese, tomatoes, olives, carrots, spinach, broccoli, onions, turkey, ham. • Dinner a fruit salad with plums, strawberries, mangos, grapes and cherries. • Choices of duck, chicken, beef, fish or pork with potatoes.
  93. 93. Patterns in Reading Textbooks 90 % of the time the first sentence of a paragraph is the Main Idea. Main Ideas are almost always followed by significant details— details clarify or support MI’s. Examples make up ½ of all textbook material.
  94. 94. Common Patterns for Learning Similarity and Difference Cause and Effect Comparison and Contrast In students’ own words
  95. 95. Own words equals better learning • Dunlosky and his colleagues investigated ten different learning strategies and one consistent finding was that anything that required learners to put things into their own words resulted in better learning • (Dunlosky, et al., 2013)
  96. 96. Prior Knowledge and Pattern Recognition • Expectations that certain patterns will exist can cause students (and professionals) to fail to see the actual patterns that exist. • Example: • Misdiagnosis of patients
  97. 97. Patterns in Your Content Material • What are the common patterns that exist in the content material you teach? • How do you teach these patterns to your students?
  98. 98. Teaching for Long Term Recall • “Teaching in the absence of learning is just talking” (Thomas Angelo)
  99. 99. Actions that Improve Memory Formation and Recall 1. Attention 2. Prior knowledge 3. Spaced learning 4. Naps and wakeful rest 5. Sleep 6. Wanting to remember 7. Distributive practice 8. Elaboration 9. Interest
  100. 100. Factors Impacting Recall 1. Number of memory pathways 2. The number of senses used in the learning process 3. The strength of the memory 4. The cue that is given to spark the recall 5. Was the information learned as a part of a whole idea or concept
  101. 101. Repetition and Recall • How many of you know the lyrics to songs that YOU DO NOT WANT TO KNOW THE LYRICS TO?
  102. 102. Keys to Remembering Three Rules 1.Repetition over time (distributive practice) 2.Elaboration of material 3. Wanting to remember
  103. 103. How to Strengthen Memories • To strengthen our memories it is vital to recall from memory what we have learned rather than just looking/reading it over. • Every time learning is recalled the memory gets stronger and faster (LTP). (Schacter, Seven Sins of Memory, 2001)
  104. 104. Keys to Memory Formation • The more elaborately you encode new information at the moment of learning the stronger the memory—make it detailed, multifaceted and emotional. • (Squire and Kandel, 2000)
  105. 105. Keys to Memory Formation • The same neural pathways used to process new learning are the same ones used to store it. • So the initial moments of learning are crucial to helping us to recall what we learned. (Squire and Kandel, 2000)
  106. 106. Practice Tests and Quizzes • An excellent way to promote recall practice is through the use of practice test and quizzes. • These can be put online so students can use them when ever they want. • The key is that they ask for recall from memory—so no multiple choice-true and false etc.
  107. 107. Keys to Memory Formation • The quality of our initial encoding of new learning is the greatest predictor of later learning success. (Squire and Kandel, 2000)
  108. 108. Learner’s Mindset and Learning • Dr. Carol Dweck spent 30 years developing the theory of mindset. • A mindset is belief a person has about their intelligence and abilities.
  109. 109. Growth or Fixed • Dweck’s work found that only two belief systems developed in learners. • In each learning situation learners either saw their intelligence as fixed at birth— hence a Fixed Mindset. These learners see people as being born either smart average or below average and that is just the way it is.
  110. 110. Growth Mindset OR • Learners see intelligence as malleable and changeable and that a person never knows how smart they might become. • You get smarter your whole life.
  111. 111. Students’ Mindsets • Our students’ mindsets begin in middle school or even before. • Correlated with the time when students, for the first time, are confronted with more difficult academic tasks.
  112. 112. Students’ Mindsets • Students begin to see clear differences between themselves and other learners. • A mindset is situation specific. Fixed in one area---- growth in another.
  113. 113. Growth Mindset In a growth mindset students believe their intelligence and abilities can be enhanced through hard work, practice and new skills or strategies They see failure as a result of a lack of effort or a poor strategy (not intelligence) and it is something to learn from.
  114. 114. Fixed Mindset In a fixed mindset students see their intelligence reflected in their performance. (Dweck, 2006). The famous—”I’m not good at math.”
  115. 115. Fixed Mindset Fixed mindsets believe they either shouldn’t need to work hard to do well or putting in the effort won’t make any difference in the outcome.
  116. 116. Growth Mindset Students are willing to take learning risks and understand that through practice and effort their abilities can improve.
  117. 117. Mistaking Fixed Mindset for Laziness • It is easy to mistake a fixed mindset for the student not caring or being lazy. • In fact, it is helpful to look for these behaviors as a way to identify a student with a fixed mindset.
  118. 118. Technology and Learning Serious Games A serious game is a game designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. The "serious" adjective refers to products used by industries like defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, religion, and politics.
  119. 119. Serious Games • There is a growing body of research on the effectiveness of online games as learning tools. In her review of the peer-reviewed material from the last ten years, Mary Jo Dondlinger concludes--- • “there is widespread consensus that games motivate players to spend time on task mastering the skills a game imparts…[A] number of distinct design elements, such as narrative context, rules, goals, rewards, multisensory cues, and interactivity, seem necessary to stimulate desired learning outcomes.”
  120. 120. Serious Games in Higher Education • Give psychology students a way to understand mental illness • Stage a play in the “original” Old Globe Theater • Teach hedge fund management • Accelerate time for science experiments • Teach Arabic language, culture and customs • http://www.adobe.com/resources/elearning/pdfs/serious_games_wp.p df
  121. 121. Virtual Textbooks The Future is Here--Almost Click on any bar in the timeline, and that bar expands to a list of images, which in turn are linked to video about that artist. That's key, because, like a great documentary, it makes learning about what can be a fairly narrow subject into something painless. Art Textbook
  122. 122. Explore Virtual Textbooks • http://plc.cwru.edu/tutorial/enhanced/files/textbook.htm
  123. 123. Simulations and Models • The ability for students to engage in a virtual world using simulations of the real world problems is a big step forward in enhancing learning. • Visit the Concord Consortium
  124. 124. Cognitive Enhancement Meditation The training has shown success in enhancing mental agility and attention by changing brain structure and function so that brain processes are more efficient, the quality associated with higher intelligence (Neuroscientist Amishi Jha of the University of Miami)
  125. 125. Caffeine + Sugar and Learning The combination of caffeine and sugar enhanced attention, learning and memory. Improves cognitive performance in terms of sustained attention and working memory by increasing the efficiency of the areas of the brain responsible for these two functions. (Grabulosa, Adan, Falcón, and Bargalló, 2010 reported in the journal Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental
  126. 126. Nicotine Promotes Cognitive Enhancement Nicotine enhances attention— that key driver of neuroplasticity and cognitive performance in both smokers and nonsmokers. Nicotine has significant positive effects on fine motor skills, the accuracy of short-term memory, some forms of attention, and working memory, among other basic cognitive skills. (Martha Farah, University of Pennsylvania) Scientists at the National Institute on Drug Abuse reported in a 2010 analysis of 41 double-blind, placebo- controlled studies.
  127. 127. Adderall has Cognitive Benefits There are cognitive benefits of stimulants like Adderall , at least in some people for some tasks. Enhance the recall of memorized words as well as working memory, which plays a key role in fluid intelligence. (Martha Farah of the University of Pennsylvania)
  128. 128. Adderall Adderall has stronger effects on the prefrontal cortex and can therefore improve concentration and minimize fatigue much more so than caffeine.
  129. 129. Adderall has Side Effects Adderall is not without health risks. Side effects include difficulty sleeping, seizures, high blood pressure, loss of appetite, depression, and many others.
  130. 130. Modafinil • A new analysis of the research revealed it does improve planning and decision making, flexibility, learning and memory, and even creativity. • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3204567/Smart-drugs- really-work-Pills-taken-fifth-university-students-improve-memory- learning-raising-ethical-questions.html#ixzz3rrs0gfvg
  131. 131. Modafinil • Professor Guy Goodwin, President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) said: • “This overview suggests that, on current evidence, modafinil enhances cognition independent of its known effects in sleep disordered populations”.
  132. 132. Modafinil • However, they can have worrying side-effects — including headaches, irritableness, vomiting, irrational behavior, tremors, palpitations and broken sleeping patterns • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3204567/Smart-drugs-really-work-Pills-taken- fifth-university-students-improve-memory-learning-raising-ethical- questions.html#ixzz3rrsbXCwZ
  133. 133. Cognitive Load and Student Learning 3 Parts 1. Intrinsic load This is the effort required for a student to understand a concept– Teachers can’t do a lot about this. (Sweller, 1988)
  134. 134. Cognitive Load and Student Learning 2. Germane mental load This is the load do to the pedagogy and activity relevant to schema formation. • PBL is high cognitive load • Lecture is low cognitive load • (Sweller, 1988)
  135. 135. Cognitive Load and Student Learning 3. Extraneous Mental load • These are activities not relevant to schema formation. • Distractions, poor communication, poor humor. (Sweller, 1988)
  136. 136. Cognitive Load and Student Learning Information overload is not just a metaphor it is a physical state. When learning is important we need to turn the information faucet down to a trickle. (Nicholas Carr, What the Internet is doing to our Brains, 2010)
  137. 137. Metacognition Skills and Learning • Metacognition consist of two basis process occurring simultaneously: monitoring your progress as you learn, and making changes and adapting your strategies if you perceive you are not doing well. ( Winn& Snyder, 1996)
  138. 138. Suggestions for Building Metacognition • When learners succeed at tasks of any kind, focus their attention on and label the thinking skills they used. • (By permission E. Vockell, Educational Psychology)
  139. 139. Suggestions for Building Metacognition • Provide feedback on the degree to which learners have evaluated their comprehension correctly. • Emphasize not only knowledge about strategies, but also why these strategies are valuable and how to use them.
  140. 140. Suggestions for Building Metacognition • Be aware that students may not transfer thinking strategies far from the original setting, unless they are guided to do so. • (By permission E. Vockell, Educational Psychology)
  141. 141. Slow Down and Take a Break • “ when you pause “ you start to reflect, you start to rethink your assumptions, you start to reimagine what is possible, and most importantly you start to reconnect with your’ most deeply held beliefs. Once you have done that you can reimagine a better path.” Dov Seidman, CEO of LRN ( advises global business on ethics and leadership)
  142. 142. Bibliography • REFERENCES • http://www.brainadvance.org/ Allen, Corinne (Water and Brain health, • Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (Complete ed.). New York, New York: Longman. • Andrews, J. D. (1980). The verbal structure of teacher questions: Its impact on class discussion. POD Quarterly, 2, 130-163. • Arnsten, A. F. T., Paspalas, C. D., Gamo, N. J., Yang, Y., & Wang, M. (2010). Dynamic network connectivity: A new form of neuroplasticity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 365-75. • Aronson, J. (2007). In ‘The secret to raising smart kids’ by Carol Dweck. Scientific American. 29 Jul. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://homeworkhelpblog.com/the-secret-to- raising-smartkids/ • Arum, R., & Roksa, J. (2011). Academically adrift: Limited learning on college campuses. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. • Atkins, D. (2010). Response to the article ‘Fixed mindset vs. growth mindset: Which one are you?’ by Michael Graham Richard. Retrieved May 5, 2010 from http://michaelgr.com/2007/04/15/fixed-mindset-vs-growth-mindset-which-one-are-you/ • Banaszynski, J. (2000). Teaching the American revolution: Scaffolding to success. Education World: The Educator’s Best Friend. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr218.shtml • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, New York: W.H. Freeman. • Baram, T. Z., Chen, Y., Dubé, C. M., & Rice, C. J. (2008). Rapid loss of dendritic spines after stress involves derangement of spine dynamics by corticotropin-releasing hormone. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 2903-11. • Barrett, N. F. Cognitive styles and strategies. Unpublished. Retrieved January 22, 2011 from http://barrett-evaluations.com/_pdfs/cogstrategies.pdf • Barton, J., Heilker, P., & Rutkowsk, D. (2008). Fostering effective classroom discussions. Retrieved February 12, 2011 from http://www.utoledo.edu/centers/ctl/teaching_resources/Fostering_Effective_Classroom_Discussions.html • Bibb, J. A., Mayford, M. R., Tsien, J. Z., & Alberini, C. M. (2010). Cognition enhancement strategies. The Journal of Neuroscience, 10 November, 30(45), 14987-14992. doi:10.1523/​JNEUROSCI.4419-1. • Birbili, M. (2006). Mapping knowledge: Concept maps in early childhood education. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 8(2). • Bjork, D. R. (1994). Memory and metamemory: Considerations in the training of human beings. Metacognition: Knowing about knowing, J. Metcalfe and A. Shimamura (Eds.). 185-205. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. • Bjork, D. (2001). How to succeed in college: Learn how to learn. APS Observer, 14(3), 9. • health: Key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends in Neurosciences, 30(10), 489. • : Alliance. • Address: Learning in school and out. Educational Researcher, 16(9), 13-20.
  143. 143. Bibliography • Bligh, D. A. (2000). What’s the use of lectures? San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Bloom, B. S., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York, New York: Longmans. • Bohn, R., & Short, J. E. (2009). How much information? 2009 report on American consumers. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://hmi.ucsd.edu/pdf/HMI_2009_ConsumerReport_Dec9_2009.pdf • Bok, D. (2006). Our underachieving colleges: A candid look at how much students learn and why they should be learning more. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. • Bottge, B. A., Rueda, E., Serlin, R., Hung, Y. H., & Kwon, J. (2007). Shrinking achievement differences with anchored math problems: Challenges and possibilities. Journal of Special Education, 41, 31-49. • Brain seeks patterns where none exist. (2008). Scientific American. Retrieved November 13, 2010 from http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=brain-seeks-patterns-where-none-exi- • Brainard, J., & Fuller, A. (2010). Graduation rates fall at one-third of 4-year colleges. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved December 12, 2010 from http://chronicle.com/article/Graduation-Rates-Fall-at/125614/ • Bransford, J., National Research Council, Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, National Research Council, & Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. • Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (ed.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. • Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classrooms (2nd ed.). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Brown, G., & Atkins, M. (1988). Effective teaching in higher education. London: Methuen. • Brown, J. (1958). Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10, 12-21. • Brown, J. S., Collins , A., & Duguid, P. (1989.) Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. • Brown, J. S. (1999). Learning, working & playing in the digital age: A speech given at the 1999 Conference on Higher Education of the American Association for Higher Education. Retrieved October 18, 2010 from http://www.ntlf.com/html/sf/jsbrown.pdf • Bruffee, K. (1993). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence and the authority of knowledge. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. • Bruffee, K. (1984). Collaborative learning and the conversation of mankind. College English. 46(7), 635-652. • Caine, G., & Caine, R. (2006). Meaningful learning and the executive functions of the human brain. In Johnson, S., & Taylor, K. (eds.), The Neuroscience of Adult Learning, 53-62. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Caine, G., McClintic, C., & Klimek, K. (2009). 12 Brain/Mind learning principles in action. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. • Caine, R., & Caine, G. (1991). Making connections: Teaching and the human brain. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. • Carles, S. Jr., Curnier, D., Pathak, A., Roncalli, J., Bousquet, M., Garcia, J., . . . Senard, J. (2007). Cardiac rehabilitation: Brief report effects of short-term exercise and exercise training on cognitive function among patients with cardiac disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation & Prevention, 27(6), 395-399. doi:10.1097/01.HCR.0000300268.00140.e6. • Carmichael, M. (2007). Stronger, faster, smarter. Newsweek, March 26. • Carnegie Mellon Learning Principles. Retrieved January 24, 2011, from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/principles/learning.html • Cashman, T. G. (2007). Issues-centered projects for classrooms in the United States and Mexico borderlands. Journal of Authentic Learning, 4(1), 9-24. • Cassady, J. C., & Johnson, R. (2002). Cognitive test anxiety and academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(2), 270-295. • Chamberlin, S. A., & Moon, S. (2005). Model-eliciting activities: An introduction to gifted education. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 17, 37-47. • Chan, J. C., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2007). Retrieval-induced facilitation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135(4), 553-571. • Charbonnier, E., Huguet, P., Brauer, M., & Monte, J. (1998). Social loafing and self-beliefs: People’s collective effort depends on the extent to which they distinguished themselves as better than others. Social Behavior and Personality, 26(4), 329-340. doi:10.2224/sbp.1998.26.4.329. • Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1991). Applying the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 47. San Francisco, California: Jossey Bass. • Collier, K. G. (1980). Peer-group learning in higher education: The development of higher-order skills. Studies in Higher Education, 5(1), 55-62. • Cooke, S. F., & Bliss, T.V. (2006). Plasticity in the human central nervous system. Brain, 129(7), 1659–73. doi:10.1093/brain/awl082. PMID 16672292. • Cooper, J., & Associates. (1990). Cooperative learning and college instruction. Long Beach, California: Institute for Teaching and Learning, California State University. • Cooperative Institutional Research Program. (1995). 1994 Nine year follow-up survey (of 1985 freshmen). Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA. Retrieved October 18, 2010 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3211250 • Cotm, C., Carl, W., Berchtold, N., & Christie, L. A. (2007). Corrigendum: Exercise builds brain
  144. 144. Bibliography • REFERENCES • http://www.brainadvance.org/ Allen, Corinne (Water and Brain health, • Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (Complete ed.). New York, New York: Longman. • Andrews, J. D. (1980). The verbal structure of teacher questions: Its impact on class discussion. POD Quarterly, 2, 130-163. • Arnsten, A. F. T., Paspalas, C. D., Gamo, N. J., Yang, Y., & Wang, M. (2010). Dynamic network connectivity: A new form of neuroplasticity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 365-75. • Aronson, J. (2007). In ‘The secret to raising smart kids’ by Carol Dweck. Scientific American. 29 Jul. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://homeworkhelpblog.com/the-secret-to- raising-smartkids/ • Arum, R., & Roksa, J. (2011). Academically adrift: Limited learning on college campuses. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. • Atkins, D. (2010). Response to the article ‘Fixed mindset vs. growth mindset: Which one are you?’ by Michael Graham Richard. Retrieved May 5, 2010 from http://michaelgr.com/2007/04/15/fixed-mindset-vs-growth-mindset-which-one-are-you/ • Banaszynski, J. (2000). Teaching the American revolution: Scaffolding to success. Education World: The Educator’s Best Friend. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr218.shtml • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, New York: W.H. Freeman. • Baram, T. Z., Chen, Y., Dubé, C. M., & Rice, C. J. (2008). Rapid loss of dendritic spines after stress involves derangement of spine dynamics by corticotropin-releasing hormone. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 2903-11. • Barrett, N. F. Cognitive styles and strategies. Unpublished. Retrieved January 22, 2011 from http://barrett-evaluations.com/_pdfs/cogstrategies.pdf • Barton, J., Heilker, P., & Rutkowsk, D. (2008). Fostering effective classroom discussions. Retrieved February 12, 2011 from http://www.utoledo.edu/centers/ctl/teaching_resources/Fostering_Effective_Classroom_Discussions.html • Bibb, J. A., Mayford, M. R., Tsien, J. Z., & Alberini, C. M. (2010). Cognition enhancement strategies. The Journal of Neuroscience, 10 November, 30(45), 14987-14992. doi:10.1523/​JNEUROSCI.4419-1. • Birbili, M. (2006). Mapping knowledge: Concept maps in early childhood education. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 8(2). • Bjork, D. R. (1994). Memory and metamemory: Considerations in the training of human beings. Metacognition: Knowing about knowing, J. Metcalfe and A. Shimamura (Eds.). 185-205. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. • Bjork, D. (2001). How to succeed in college: Learn how to learn. APS Observer, 14(3), 9. • health: Key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends in Neurosciences, 30(10), 489. • : Alliance. • Address: Learning in school and out. Educational Researcher, 16(9), 13-20.
  145. 145. Bibliography • Crisp, B. (2007). Is it worth the effort? How feedback influences students’ subsequent submission of assessable work. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(5), 571-581. • Cull, W. (2000). Untangling the benefits of multiple study opportunities and repeated testing for cued recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 215-235. • Customer Service Training. McDonald’s developed by 3dsolve.com. Retrieved December 12, 2010 from http://www.3dsolve.com/ • Schacter, D. (2001). The seven sins of memory. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. • Dale, E. (1969). Cone of experience, in educational media: Theory into practice. Wiman, R.V. (ed). Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill. • Damasio, A. R. (2001). Fundamental feelings. Nature, 413, 781. • Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York, New York: Grosset/Putnam. • Davachi, L., & Bernhard, P. S., (2009). Mind the gap: Binding experiences across space and time in the human hippocampus. Neuron, 63(2), 267-276. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.06.024. • Davachi. L., Tambini, A. & Ketz, N. (2010). Enhanced brain correlations during rest are related to memory for recent experiences. Neuron, 65(2), 280–290. • De Byl, P. (2009). Is there an augmented reality future for e-learning? Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on e-Learning Algarve, Portugal 17-20 June. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://www.iadisportal.org/e-learning-2009-proceedings • De Groot, A. D. (1965). Thought and choice in chess. Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgeversmaatschappij. • Deheane, S. (2009). Reading in the brain. New York, New York: Penguin Publishing. • Devlin, K. (2002). In PBS literacy links program synopses, p.12. Retrieved February 12, 2011 from http://www.ketadultlearning.org/pdf/ged_synopses.pdf • Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath. • Diefes-Dux, H., Follman, D., Imbrie, P.K., Zawojewski, J., Capobianco, B., & Hjalmarson, M. (2004). Model eliciting activities: An in-class approach to improving interest and persistence of women in engineering. Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition. American Society for Engineering. Retrieved October 29, 2010 from http://www.iwitts.com/html/022diefes-dux.pdf • Diekelmann, S., & Born, J. (2010). Slow-wave sleep takes the leading role in memory reorganization. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 218. doi:10.1038/nrn2762-c2 • Dondlinger, M. J. (2007). About serious games. Journal of Applied Educational Technology, 4(1). Retrieved January 17, 2011 from http://www.abfirstresponse.co.uk/Aybee/serious%20games.html • Donovan, M. S., Bransford, J. D., & Pellegrino, J. W. (Eds.). (1999). How people learn: Bridging research and practice. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. • Doyle, T. (2008). Helping students learn in a learner centered environment: A guide to teaching in higher education. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus. • Duclukovic, N. M., & Wagner, A. D. (2006). Attending to remember and remembering to attend. Neuron, 49, 784-787. • Duncan, N. (2007). Feed-forward: Improving students’ use of tutor comments. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(3), 271-283. • Dux, P. E., Ivanoff, J., Asplund, C. L. O., & Marois, R. (2006). Isolation of a central bottleneck of information processing with time-resolved fMRI. Neuron, 52(6), 1109-1120. • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, New York: Random House. • Dweck, C. S. (2007). Interview in Stanford News. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://news.stanford.edu/news/2007/february7/videos/179_flash.html • Dweck, C. S. (2009). ‘Mindset: Powerful insights’ from interview on the Positive Coaching Alliance website. Retrieved October 28, 2010 from http://www.positivecoach.org/carol-dweck.aspx • Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. New York, New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  146. 146. Bibliography • Bligh, D. A. (2000). What’s the use of lectures? San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Bloom, B. S., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York, New York: Longmans. • Bohn, R., & Short, J. E. (2009). How much information? 2009 report on American consumers. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://hmi.ucsd.edu/pdf/HMI_2009_ConsumerReport_Dec9_2009.pdf • Bok, D. (2006). Our underachieving colleges: A candid look at how much students learn and why they should be learning more. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. • Bottge, B. A., Rueda, E., Serlin, R., Hung, Y. H., & Kwon, J. (2007). Shrinking achievement differences with anchored math problems: Challenges and possibilities. Journal of Special Education, 41, 31-49. • Brain seeks patterns where none exist. (2008). Scientific American. Retrieved November 13, 2010 from http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=brain-seeks-patterns-where-none-exi- • Brainard, J., & Fuller, A. (2010). Graduation rates fall at one-third of 4-year colleges. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved December 12, 2010 from http://chronicle.com/article/Graduation-Rates-Fall-at/125614/ • Bransford, J., National Research Council, Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, National Research Council, & Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. • Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (ed.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. • Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classrooms (2nd ed.). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Brown, G., & Atkins, M. (1988). Effective teaching in higher education. London: Methuen. • Brown, J. (1958). Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10, 12-21. • Brown, J. S., Collins , A., & Duguid, P. (1989.) Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. • Brown, J. S. (1999). Learning, working & playing in the digital age: A speech given at the 1999 Conference on Higher Education of the American Association for Higher Education. Retrieved October 18, 2010 from http://www.ntlf.com/html/sf/jsbrown.pdf • Bruffee, K. (1993). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence and the authority of knowledge. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  147. 147. Bibliography • Crisp, B. (2007). Is it worth the effort? How feedback influences students’ subsequent submission of assessable work. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(5), 571-581. • Cull, W. (2000). Untangling the benefits of multiple study opportunities and repeated testing for cued recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 215-235. • Customer Service Training. McDonald’s developed by 3dsolve.com. Retrieved December 12, 2010 from http://www.3dsolve.com/ • Schacter, D. (2001). The seven sins of memory. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. • Dale, E. (1969). Cone of experience, in educational media: Theory into practice. Wiman, R.V. (ed). Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill. • Damasio, A. R. (2001). Fundamental feelings. Nature, 413, 781. • Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York, New York: Grosset/Putnam. • Davachi, L., & Bernhard, P. S., (2009). Mind the gap: Binding experiences across space and time in the human hippocampus. Neuron, 63(2), 267-276. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.06.024. • Davachi. L., Tambini, A. & Ketz, N. (2010). Enhanced brain correlations during rest are related to memory for recent experiences. Neuron, 65(2), 280–290. • De Byl, P. (2009). Is there an augmented reality future for e-learning? Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on e-Learning Algarve, Portugal 17-20 June. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://www.iadisportal.org/e-learning-2009-proceedings • De Groot, A. D. (1965). Thought and choice in chess. Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgeversmaatschappij. • Deheane, S. (2009). Reading in the brain. New York, New York: Penguin Publishing. • Devlin, K. (2002). In PBS literacy links program synopses, p.12. Retrieved February 12, 2011 from http://www.ketadultlearning.org/pdf/ged_synopses.pdf • Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath. • Diefes-Dux, H., Follman, D., Imbrie, P.K., Zawojewski, J., Capobianco, B., & Hjalmarson, M. (2004). Model eliciting activities: An in-class approach to improving interest and persistence of women in engineering. Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition. American Society for Engineering. Retrieved October 29, 2010 from http://www.iwitts.com/html/022diefes-dux.pdf • Diekelmann, S., & Born, J. (2010). Slow-wave sleep takes the leading role in memory reorganization. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 218. doi:10.1038/nrn2762-c2 • Dondlinger, M. J. (2007). About serious games. Journal of Applied Educational Technology, 4(1). Retrieved January 17, 2011 from http://www.abfirstresponse.co.uk/Aybee/serious%20games.html • Donovan, M. S., Bransford, J. D., & Pellegrino, J. W. (Eds.). (1999). How people learn: Bridging research and practice. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. • Doyle, T. (2008). Helping students learn in a learner centered environment: A guide to teaching in higher education. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus. • Duclukovic, N. M., & Wagner, A. D. (2006). Attending to remember and remembering to attend. Neuron, 49, 784-787. • Duncan, N. (2007). Feed-forward: Improving students’ use of tutor comments. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(3), 271-283. • Dux, P. E., Ivanoff, J., Asplund, C. L. O., & Marois, R. (2006). Isolation of a central bottleneck of information processing with time-resolved fMRI. Neuron, 52(6), 1109-1120. • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, New York: Random House. • Dweck, C. S. (2007). Interview in Stanford News. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://news.stanford.edu/news/2007/february7/videos/179_flash.html • Dweck, C. S. (2009). ‘Mindset: Powerful insights’ from interview on the Positive Coaching Alliance website. Retrieved October 28, 2010 from http://www.positivecoach.org/carol-dweck.aspx • Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. New York, New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  148. 148. Bibliography • Ebbinghaus, H. (1913). A contribution to experimental psychology. New York, New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. • Edwards, J., & Fraser, K. (1983). Concept maps as reflections of conceptual understanding. Research in Science Education, 13, 19-26. • E-Health MD. (2011). What is AIDS? Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://ehealthmd.com/library/aidswomen/AID_whatis.html • Eriksson, P., Perfilieva, E., Bjork-Eriksson, T., Alborn, A. M., Nordborg, C., Peterson, D., & Gage, F. H. (1998). Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nature Medicine, 4(11), 1313-1317. • Ewell, P. T. (1997). Organizing for learning: A point of entry. Discussion proceedings at the 1997 AAHE Summer Academy at Snowbird. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS). • Examples of Authentic Assessment. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from jove.geol.niu.edu/faculty/kitts/GEOL401/inquiryassessment401.pp • Farah, M. (2011). Analyzing successful ways to build better brains and improve cognitive performance. Retrieved January 03, 2011 from http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/01/analyzing-successful-ways-to-build.html • Ferris, S. (2003.) Insufficient memory: Can a pill boost your brain’s ability to hold information? Newsday.com. Retrieved October 17, 2010 from http://www.cognitiveliberty.org/dll/memory_drugs_newsday.html • Ferry, B., Kervin, L., Carrington, L., & Prcevich, K. (2007). The need for choice and control: Preparing the digital generation to be teachers. ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning. Proceedings ASCILITE Conference, Singapore. Retrieved October 11, 2010 from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/ferry.pdf • Ferry, B., Kervin, L., Carrington, L., & Prcevich, K. (2007). The need for choice and control: Preparing the digital generation to be teachers. ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning. Proceedings ASCILITE Conference, Singapore. Retrieved January 12, 2011 from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/ferry.pdf • Foerde, K., Knowlton, B. J., & Poldrack, R. A. (2006). Modulation of competing memory systems by distraction. Retrieved September 11, 2010 from http://www.pnas.org/content/103/31/11778.abstract
  149. 149. Bibliography • Hart, P. (2006). How should colleges prepare students to succeed in today’s global economy? Retrieved April 24, 2010, from http://www.aacu.org/advocacy/leap/documents/Re8097abcombined.pdf • Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81-112. • Herrington, J., Oliver, R., & Reeves, T. C. (2003). Patterns of engagement in authentic online learning environments. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 19(1), 59–71. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet19/herrington.html • Heuer, F., & Reisberg, D. (1990). Vivid memories of emotional events: The accuracy of remembered minutiae. Memory & Cognition, 18, 496–50. • Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D. M., Buck, S. M., & Erwin, H. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in 3rd & 5th Grade Students. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29, 239-252. • Hillman, C. H., Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., Castelli, D. M., Hall, E. E., & Kramer, A. F. (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience, 31; 159(3), 1044-54. • Hillman, C. H., & Castelli D. M. (2007). Physical education performance outcome and cognitive function. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19, 249-277. • Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: Exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 58-65. doi:10.1038/nrn2298. • Hillman, C., & Castelli, D. M. (2007). Physically fit children appear to do better in classroom. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 178-188. • Hillman, C., Motl, R. W., Pontifex, M. B., Iversiteit, V., Boomsma,D., De Geus, E. J. C., Posthuma, D., & Stubbe, J. (2006). Exercise appears to improve brain function among younger people. Science Daily. Retrieved March 13, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2006/12/061219122200.htm • Institute of Education Sciences. (2007). Organizing instruction and study to improve student learning. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research. • Isaac, J. T., Buchanan, K. A., Muller, R. U., & Mellor, J. R. (2009). Hippocampal place cell firing patterns can induce long-term synaptic plasticity in vitro. Journal of Neuroscience, May 27; 29(21), 6840-50. • Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. • Jha, A. (2011). Meditation improves brain anatomy and function. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging on Science Direct, 191(1), 1-86. Retrieved January 30, 2011 from www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09254927 • Jukes, I., & Dosa, A. J. (2003). The InfoSavvy Group, as quoted on www.apple.com. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from /au/education/digitalkids/disconnect/landscape.html • Kempton KJ, et al. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents. Human Brain Mapping 24 March 2010 • Kaner, S., Lind, L., Toldi, C., Fisk, S., & Berger, D. (2007). Facilitator's guide to participatory decision-making. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Karp, D. A., & Yoels, W. C. (1976). The college classroom: Some observation on the meaning of student participation. Sociology and Social Research, 60, 421-39. • Kensinger, E. A. (2004). Remembering emotional experiences: The contribution of valence and arousal. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 15, 241-251.
  150. 150. Bibliography • Kerr, N.L. (1989). Illusions of efficacy: The effects of group size on perceived efficacy in social dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 287-313. • Khatri, P., Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M. A., Craighead, W. E., Herman, S., Baldewicz, T., Madden, D. J., . . . Krishnan, K. R. (2001). Effects of exercise training on cognitive functioning among depressed older men and women. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 9, 43-57. • Kilbourne, J. (2009). Sharpening the mind through movement: Using exercise balls as chairs in a university class. Retrieved October 12, 2010 from www.balldynamics.com/research/a1237990661.pdf • Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry- based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. • Klopfer, E. (2008). Augmented learning research and design of mobile educational games. London, England: The MIT Press Cambridge. • Kohn, A. (1993).Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A's, praise, and other bribes. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. • Kolb, D. A., & Fry, R. (1975). Toward an applied theory of experiential learning in C. Cooper (ed.). Theories of Group Process. London, England: John Wiley. • Krakovsky, M. ( 2007). The effort effect. Stanford Magazine, March/April, (Quote by Dweck came from this article). Retrieved September 14, 2010 from http://www.stanfordalumni.org/news/magazine/2007/marapr/features/dweck.html • Kramer, A. F., Hahn, S., Cohen, N. J., Banich, M. T., McAuley, E., Harrison, C. R., . . . Colcombe, A. (1999). Ageing, fitness and neurocognitive function. Nature, 400, 418–419. • Kramer, A. F., Voss, M. W., Ericjson, K. I., Prakash, R. S., Chaddock, L., Malkowski, E., . . . McAuley, E.. (2010). Functional connectivity: A source of variance in the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognition? Neuropsychologia, 48, 13943-1406. • LaBar, K. S., & Phelps, E. A. (1998). Arousal-mediated memory consolidation: Role of the medial temporal lobe in humans. Psychological Science, 9, 490-493. • Larson, B. E. (2000). Classroom discussion: A method of instruction and a curriculum outcome. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(5-6), 661-677. • Latane, B., Williams, K., & Harkins, S. (1979). Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personal Sociology and Psychology, 37, 822-832. • Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press. • Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press. • Lepper, M. R., Woolverton, M., Mumme, D. L., & Gurtner, J. L. (1993). Motivational techniques of expert human tutors: Lessons for the design of computer-based tutors. In S. P. Lajoie & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Computers as Cognitive Tools, 75–105. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum. • Lesh, R. (1998). The development of representational abilities in middle school mathematics: The development of student's representations during model eliciting activities. In I.E. Sigel (Ed.), Representations and Student Learning. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. • Lesh, R., Hoover, M., Hole, B., Kelly, A., & Post, T. (2000). Principles for developing thought-revealing activities for students and teachers. In A. Kelly & R. Lesh (Eds.), Handbook of Research Design in Mathematics and Science Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. • Levy, F., & Murnane, R. (2005). The new division of labor: How computers are creating the next job market. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. • Loftus, E. (2010). Explanations for forgetting: Reasons why we forget. In about.com Psychology. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/tp/explanations-for-forgetting.htm
  151. 151. Bibliography • Lombardi, M. M. (2007). Authentic learning for the 21st century: An overview. ELI Paper 1. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://www.educause.edu/ELI/AuthenticLearningforthe21stCen/156769 • Lowinson, J., Ruiz, P., Millman, R., & Langrod, J. (1997). Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook (3rd ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkens. • Lowman, J. (1995). Mastering the techniques of teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Lwin, M. O., Morrin, W., & Krishna, A. (2010). Exploring the superadditive effects of scent and pictures on verbal recall: An extension of dual coding theory. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20, 317–326. • MacKay, W. A. (2010). Neuro 101, neurophysiology without tears (6th ed.). Toronto, Ontario: Sefalotek. • Marra, T. (2010). Authentic learning environments. Retrieved November 10, 2010 from • ? • Mattson, M. P., Duan, W., Wan, R., & Guo, Z. (2004). Prophylactic activation of neuroprotective • stress response pathways by dietary and behavioral manipulations. NeuroRx, 111-116, online. • Mayer, R. E., & Anderson, R. B. (1991). Animations need narrations: An experimental test of a dual-coding hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 484-490. • Mayer, R. E., & Anderson, R. B. (1992). The instructive animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational 84(4), 444-452. • Mayer, R. E., & Gallini, J. K. (1990). When is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 715-726. • Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2001). A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual information processing systems in working memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 000-000. • Mayer, R. E., & Sims, V. K. (1994). For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 389-401. • Mayer, R. E. (1989). Systematic thinking fostered by illustrations in scientific text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 240-246. • Mayer, R. E. (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? The case for guided methods of instruction. American Psychologist, 59(1), 14-19. • Mayer, R. E. (2009). Multimedia learning (2nd ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. • Mayer, R. E., Steinhoff, K., Bower, G., & Mars, R. (1995). A generative theory of textbook design: Using annotated illustrations to foster meaningful learning of science text. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43, 31-44. • McAleese, R. R. (1994). A theoretical view on concept mapping. ALT, 2(2), 38-48. • • McCabe, S. E., Knight, J. R., Teter, C. J., & Wechsler, H. (2005). Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among U.S. college students: Prevalence and correlates from a national survey. Addiction, 99, 96– 106. • McDaniel, M. A., Roediger, H. L. III, & McDermo, K. B. (2007). Generalizing test-enhanced learning from the laboratory to the classroom. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 200-206. • McFarlene, A., Sparrowhawk, A., & Heald, Y. (2002). Report on the educational use of games. Technical Report, TEEM. Retrieved October 19, 2010 from www.teem.org.uk/publications/teem_gamesined_full.pdf
  152. 152. Bibliography • McKeachie, W. (1994). Teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (9th ed.). Lexington, Massachusetts: DC Heath. • McKeachie, W. J. (1978). Teaching tips: A guidebook for the beginning college teacher, (7th ed.). Lexington, Massachusetts: Heath. • McKenzie, J. (1999). Scaffolding for success. From now on: The Educational Journal, (9), 4. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.fno.org/dec99/scaffold.html • McKone, E. (1998). The decay of short-term implicit memory: Unpacking lag. Memory and Cognition, 26(6), 1173–86. • Medina, J. (2008). Brain rules. Seattle, Washington: Pear Press. • Mevarech, Z. R., & Kramarski, B. (2003). The effects of metacognitive training versus worked-out examples on students' mathematical reasoning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 449-471. • Michigan State University Career Services Network. 12 Essentials for success. Retrieved October 12, 2010 from http://careernetwork.msu.edu/pdf/Competencies.pdf • Microsoft Training. (2010). How a good smell can induce a better learning environment with PowerPoint. Retrieved September 12, 2010 from http://www.microsofttraining.net/article-924-how-good- smell-can-induce-better-learning-environment-with-powerpoint.html • Middendorf, J., & Kalish, A. (1996). The "Change-Up" in lectures. Teaching Resources Center, Indiana University. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.ntlf.com/html/pi/9601/article1.htm • Mintzes, J. J., Wandersee, J. H., & Novak, J. D. (2000). Assessing science understanding: A human constructivist view. San Diego: Academic Press. • Modie, J. (2003). 'Good' chemical: Neurons in brain elevated among exercise addicts. Oregon Health & Science University (September 29). ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 13, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2003/09/030929053719.htm • Mohs, R. C. (2010). How human memory works. Retrieved January 11, 2011 from • http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/human-memory4.htm • Muller, J. Authentic tool box. Retrieved January 15, 2011 from http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox • Najjar, L. J. (1998). Principles of educational multimedia user interface design. Human Factors, 40(2): 311 – 323 • National Library of Medicine. Visible human project. Retrieved December 12, 2010 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html • Nellis, B. (2006). Mayo clinic obesity researchers test classroom of the future. Pediatrics/Children's Health, Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/39630.php • New Horizons for Learning. Johns Hopkins University School of Education, Definition of Authentic Learning. Retrieved February 14, 2011 http://education.jhu.edu/newhorizons/strategies/topics/index.html • Newell, F., Bulthoff, H. H., & Ernst, M. (2003). Cross-modal perception of actively explored objects. Proceedings EuroHaptics, 291 – 299. • Nicol, D., & Draper, S. (2008). Redesigning written feedback to students when class sizes are large. Paper presented at the Improving University Teachers Conference, July, Glasgow. • Nidich, S. I., Fields, J. Z., Rainforth, M. V., Pomerantz, R., Cella, D., Kristeller J., . . . Schneider, R.H. (2009). A Randomized controlled trial of the effects of transcendental meditation on quality of life in older breast cancer patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 8(3), 228-234. • Nilson, L. (1996). Leading effective discussions. Teaching at its best, 69-76. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University.
  153. 153. Bibliography • North Central Regional Education Laboratory. (2011). Traits of Authentic Education. Retrieved October 14, 2010 from www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/science/sc500.htm • Novak, J. D. (1990). Concept maps and vee diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education. Instructional Science, 19, 29-52. • Novak, J. D., & Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. • Novak, J. D., & Cañas, A. J. (2006). The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them. Retrieved Dec 7, 2010 from http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.htm • Oberlander, E. M., Oswald, F. L., Hambrick, D. Z., & Jones, L. A. (2007). Individual differences as predictors of error during multitasking. Technical Report for Navy Personnel Research, Studies, and Technology (NPRST-TN-07-9). Millington, Tennessee. • Ochsner, K. N. (2000). Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 129, 242-261. emotional valence • Orts, E. W. (2010). Tragedy of the Tuna, Retrieved December 12, 2010 from http://www.wharton.upenn.edu/learning/tragedy-of-the-tuna.cfm • Overbaugh, R. C., & Schultz, L. Examples of Bloom’s taxonomy. Retrieved November 17, 2010 from http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm • Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. • Pashler, H., Cepeda, N., Wixted, J., & Rohrer, D. (2005). When does feedback facilitate learning of words? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 3-8. • Pashler, H., Rohrer, D., Cepeda, N. J., & Carpenter, S. K. (2007). Enhancing learning and retarding forgetting: Choices and consequences. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 14, 187-193. • Payne,J, Matthew A. Tucker, Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen, Erin J. Wamsley, Matthew P. Walker, Daniel L. Schacter, Robert Stickgold. Memory for Semantically Related and Unrelated Declarative Information: The Benefit of Sleep, the Cost of Wake. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (3): e33079 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033079 • Perry, D. J. (2002). Unit 5: Cognitive development theories. Retrieved November 16, 2010, from http://www.education.indiana.edu/~p540/webcourse/develop.html • Pert, C. B. (1997). Molecules of emotion: The science behind mind-body medicine. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster. • Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York, New York: Basic Books. • Piezon, S. L., & Donaldson, R.L. (2005). Online groups and social loafing: Understanding student-group interactions. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 8(4). Retrieved online July 7, 2010 from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter84/piezon84.htm • Polaris: An online portfolio system for undergraduate engineering students at the University of Texas at Austin, innovations and implementations. (2006). Exemplary practices in Teaching and Learning Educause. Retrieved September 2006 from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI5015.pdf • Prensky, M. (2001). What readers are saying about digital game-based learning. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill. • Price, K. H., & Harrison, D. A. (2006). Withholding inputs in team context: Member composition, interaction process, evaluation structure, and social loafing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6). Psychology, 84, 444-452. • Pytel, B. (2007). No more classroom chairs, students are sitting on exercise balls. Suite101.com. Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://www.balldynamics.com/research/a1235761967.pdf • Rasch, B., Buchel, C., Gais, S., & Born, J. (2007). Odor cues during slow wave sleep prompt declarative memory consolidation. Science 9 March 2007, 1333. doi:10.1126/science.315.5817.1333k. • Ratey, J. (2001). A user’s guide to the brain. New York, New York. Pantheon Books. • Ratey, J. (2008). Spark: The new science of exercise and the brain. New York, New York: Little Brown. • Rawson, K. (2010). Tests really do improve learning: Study practice tests really do improve learning: Study. The Journal Science Practice. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/brain-and- behavior/articles/2010/10/14/practice-tests-really-do-improve-learning-study.html • Resnick, L. B. (1987). The 1987 Presidential
  154. 154. Bibliography • Ribeiro, S., Gervasoni, D., Soares, E. S., Zhou, Y., Lin, S. C., Pantoja, J., Lavine, M., Nicolelis, M. A. (2004). Long-lasting novelty-induced neuronal reverberation during slow- wave sleep in multiple forebrain areas. PLoS Biology, 2(1): e24. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020024. • Ribeiro, S. (2004). Sleeper effects: Slumber may fortify memory, stir insight. Science News, 165(4). • Rinck, M. (1999). Memory for everyday objects: Where are the digits on numerical keypads? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 329-350. • Robert, B. C. (2000). Patterns, the brain, and learning. The Science of Learning, 4(3). • Roediger, H. L., III, & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). The power of testing memory: Implications for educational practice. Unpublished manuscript, Washington University in St. Louis. • Rogers, S., Ludington, J., & Graham, S. (1998). Motivation and Learning. Evergreen, Colorado: Peak Learning Systems. • Rogers, S., Renard, L. (1999). Relationship-driven teaching. Educational Leadership. September, 34-37. • Ruggerio, V. (1995). Oral presentation on Thinking Critically, given at Ferris State University, March, 1995. • Rule, A. C. (2006). Editorial: The components of authentic learning. Journal of Authentic Learning, 3(1), 1-10. • Sahakian, B., & Morein-Zamir, S. (2007). Professor’s little helper. Nature, 450, 1157-1159. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501157a.html • San Francisco Edit. (2010). Research related questions. Retrieved October 11, 2010 http://www.sfedit.net/index.html • Schacter, D. L., & Dodson, C. S. (2001). Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, September 29; 356(1413), 1385–1393. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2001.0938. • Schacter, D. (2001). Seven sins of memory how the mind forgets. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. • Schwarz, R. (2002). The skilled facilitator: A comprehensive resource for consultants, facilitators, managers, trainers, and coaches. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Seitz, A. R., Kim, R., & Shams, L. (2006). Sound facilitates visual learning. Current Biology, 16(14) 1422-1427. • Shams, L., & Seitz, A. (2008). Benefits of multisensory learning. Trends in Cognitive Science, 12(11), 411-417. • Shankardass, A. (2009). A second opinion on learning disorders (TED). Retrieved September 9, 2010 from http://www.ted.com/talks/aditi_shankardass_a_second_opinion_on_learning_disorders.html • Simon, P. (1966). I am a Rock, I am an Island [Simon & Garfunkel]. Simon & Garfunkel Collected Works, [LP]. New York, New York: Columbia Records. (1981). • Smagorinsky, P. (2007). Vygotsky and the social dynamic of classrooms. English Journal, 97(2), 61-66.
  155. 155. Bibliography • Soanes, C., Stevenson, A., & Hawker, S. (2006). Concise Oxford English dictionary (computer software) (11th ed.). Oxford University Press. Entry mnemonic. • Spiller, D. (2009). Assessment: Feedback to promote student learning. Retrieved Nov 1, 2010 from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/24436889/Assessment-Feedback-to-promote-student-learning • Stark, L. A. (2010). The new science of addiction. Genetics Science Learning Center, University of Utah. Retrieved October 4, 2010 from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/addition/index.cfm • Stenberg, G. (2006). Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect. The European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 18(6), 813-847(35). • Stern, Y. (2006). The concept of cognitive reserve: A catalyst for research. In Stern, Y. (Ed), Cognitive Reserve: Theory and Applications, 1-4, 44. • Stern, P., (2010) Can you build a better brain? In Newsweek, Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://www.newsweek.com/2011/01/03/can-you-build-a-better-brain.html • Sweller, J., Krischner, P. A., & Clark, R. E. (2007). Why minimally guided teaching techniques do not work: A reply to commentaries. Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 115-121. • Swing, E. L., Gentile, D. A., Anderson, C. A., & Walsh, D. A. (2010). Television and video game exposure and the development of attention problems. Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-1508. • Sylwester, R. (1995). A celebration of neurons: An educator’s guide to the human brain. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. • Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions (1st ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. • Tambini, A., Ketz, N., & Davachi, L. (2010). Enhanced brain correlations during rest are related to memory for recent experiences. Neuron, Jan., 280-290. • Taras, M. (2003). To feedback or not to feedback in student self-assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(5), 549-565. • Taylor, D. (2009). Modern myths of learning: The creative right brain. Training Zone. Retrieved Feb 19, 2011 from http://donaldhtaylor.wordpress.com/writing/modern-myths-of-learning-the-creative- right-brain/ • Thompson, C. J. (2009).Educational Statistics Authentic Learning CAPSULES: Community action projects for students utilizing leadership and e-based statistics. Journal of Statistics Education, 17(1). • Thompson, D. (2006). Summit on educational games: Harnessing the power of video games for learning. Washington, D.C.: Federation of American Scientist. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.adobe.com/resources/elearning/pdfs/serious_games_wp.pdf • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Number of jobs, labor market experience, and earnings growth: Results from a national longitudinal survey news release, June 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2010 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/nlsoy_06272008.htm • U.S. Department of Education. (2001). The national commission of the high school senior year. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved November 16, 2010 from http://www.ecs.org/html/Document.asp?chouseid=2929 • U.S. Department of Education. (2001). The national commission of the high school senior year. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved January 12, 2010 from http://www.ecs.org/html/Document.asp?chouseid=2929 • UNC Center for Teaching and Learning. (1992). The guided discussion: Ground rules for in-class small group discussion, for your consideration… Suggestions and reflections on teaching and learning, CTL Number 12. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://cfe.unc.edu/pdfs/FYC12.pdf
  156. 156. Bibliography • Underwood, B. J., & Postman, L. (1960). Extra-experimental sources of interference in forgetting. Psychological Review, 67, 73-95. • Voss, J., Gonsalves, B., Federmeier, K., Tranel, D., & Cohen, Neal. (2010). Hippocampal brain-network coordination during volitional exploratory behavior enhances learning. Nature Neuroscience. doi: 10.1038/nn.2693. • Wagner, U., Gais, S., Haider, H., Verleger, R., & Born, J. (2004). Sleep inspires insight. Nature, 427, 352-355. • Weimer, M. (2002). Learner-centered teaching. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. • Weuve, J., Kang, J., Manson, J., Breteler, M., Ware, J., & Grodstein, F. (2008). Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women. Retrieved January 23, 2011 from http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/292/12/1454.abstract • Whitebread, D. (1997). ‘Developing children's problem-solving: The educational uses of adventure games', in McFarlane, A. (ed). Information Technology and Authentic Learning. London, England: Routledge. • Wiggins, G. (1990). The case for authentic assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(2). Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n= • Wiggins, G. Assessment as Feedback. New Horizons for Learning: Johns Hopkins University School of Education. Retrieved February14, 2011 http://education.jhu.edu/newhorizons/strategies/topics/Assessment%20Alternatives/wiggins.htm • Williams, M. (2005). A technology-based model for learning. Journal on Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics, 2(6). • Ying, Z., Vaynman, S., & Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2004). Exercise induces BDNF and synapses to specific hippocampal subfields. Journal of Neuroscientific Research, 76(3), 356-62. • Zadina, Janet. (2010). Neuroscience and learning. Oral presentation at San Jacinto Community College, Houston, Texas. • Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (2004). Building academic success on social and emotional learning: what does the research say? New York, New York: Teachers College Press. • Zull, J. (2002).The art of changing the brain. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus
  157. 157. Bibliography • Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Clevedon [England]: Multilingual Matters Ltd. • Horgan, J. (2009). The myth of mind control. Discover Presents the Brain, William C. Hostetter, NY. • Koenig, O., Reiss, L. P., & Kosslyn, S. M. (1990). The development of spatial relation representations: Evidence from studies of cerebral lateralization. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 119-130. • Lindsay, D., Hagan, L., Read, J., Wade, K., & Garry, M. (2004). True photographs and false memories. Psychological Science, 15, 149-154. • Marian, V., Spivey, M., & Hirsch, J. (2003). Shared and separate systems in bilingual language processing: Converging evidence from eyetracking and brain imaging. Brain and Language, 86, 70-82. Brain Energy Metabolism An Integrated Cellular Perspective Pierre J. Magistretti, Luc Pellerin, and Jean-Luc Martin http://www.acnp.org/g4/gn401000064/ch064.html • Water enhances mental function and is essential to survival • Published on October 15, 2010 by Joshua Gowin, Ph.D. in You, Illuminated • http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-illuminated/201010/why-your-brain-needs-water • Feeding the Brain for Academic Success: How Nutrition and Hydration Boost Learning Philippa Norman MD, MPHhttp://www.healthybrainforlife.com/articles/school-health-and-nutrition/feeding-the-brain-for-academic-success-how • The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks: Second Edition • By Michael A. Arbib 2003

×