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Direct imaging of extrasolar planets (Part I) Jean-Luc Beuzit

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Brave new worlds
May 29-June 03, 2016 – Lake Como School of Advanced Studies

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Direct imaging of extrasolar planets (Part I) Jean-Luc Beuzit

  1. 1. Direct imaging of extrasolar planets (Part I) Jean-Luc Beuzit CNRS/IPAG, Grenoble, France Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016
  2. 2. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Outline l Direct imaging of extrasolar planets l Motivation and challenges l How to build the perfect imaging instrument ? l SPHERE, a dedicated ground based instrument l Concept, observing modes and strategy l Actual on-sky performance l First science results l Perspective from the ground l Perspective from space l Conclusions
  3. 3. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Outline l Direct imaging of extrasolar planets l Motivation and challenges l How to build the perfect imaging instrument ? l SPHERE, a dedicated ground based instrument l Concept, observing modes and strategy l Actual on-sky performance l First science results l Perspective from the ground l Perspective from space l Conclusions
  4. 4. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Hunting techniques
  5. 5. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 http://exoplanet.eu/ Hunting techniques
  6. 6. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Direct detection of planetary photons I/ Orbital & Physical properties > Giant planets at wide orbits (>10 AU) > Luminosity, a , e, i, ω, T0 (?) Hd95086 b (5 Mjup at 56AU, Contrast = 104, ΔL = 9.6mag) NaCo/VLT L-band Rameau et al. 13ab Why imaging?
  7. 7. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Direct detection of planetary photons I/ Orbital & Physical properties > Giant planets at wide orbits (>10 AU) > Luminosity, a , e, i, ω, T0 II/ Atmosphere > Non-strongly irradiated EGPs > Low-gravity, clouds, non-LTE... Janson et al. 10; Skemer et al. 12 Konopacky et al. 13; Bonnefoy et al. 13, 14 Why imaging?
  8. 8. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Direct detection of planetary photons I/ Orbital & Physical properties > Giant planets at wide orbits (>10 AU) > Luminosity, a , e, i, ω, T0 II/ Atmosphere > Non-strongly irradiated EGPs > Low-gravity, clouds, non-LTE... Janson et al. 10; Skemer et al. 12 Konopacky et al. 13; Bonnefoy et al. 13, 14 III/ Architecture > Dynmical Stability & Evolution > Planet – disk connection Mouillet et al. 97; Kalas et al. 04, 08; Buenzli et al. 10; Rameau et al. 12; Grady et al. 12; Lagrange et al. 12; Bpic Fomalhaut HD142527 The Moth SAO206463 Why imaging?
  9. 9. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 What we would like…
  10. 10. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 107-8 109-10 Yes, but challenging!
  11. 11. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 High contrast and high spatial resolution 50 cm
  12. 12. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 HST JWST l Need for large telescopes limited by diffraction l On the ground with adaptive optics l In space HST JWST VLT Hubble = 40 - 137mas VLT = 15 - 40 mas E-ELT = 3 - 9 mas E-ELT 𝑅 = 𝜆 𝐷 V - H HST JWST High spatial resolution
  13. 13. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Effects of atmospheric turbulence λ/D λ/r0 In space On the ground Spatial resolution limited by diffraction effects Spatial resolution limited by turbulence
  14. 14. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Adaptive optics
  15. 15. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Deformable Mirror WaveFront Sensor Reconstruction & Control Atmospheric turbulence Turbulent wavefront Incoming Plane Wave Correctedwavefront Imaging Camera Object Uncorrected Image Corrected Image Adaptive optics
  16. 16. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 caméra d’imagerie Analyseur de surface d’onde (Shack-Hartmann) miroir déformable Adaptive optics off Wavefront sensor Science detector Wavefront sensor Science detector Adaptive optics on Adaptive optics at work
  17. 17. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Host star is much brighter that planets/disks (106 to 109) Solution : remove photons from the star Initialy proposed by Bernard Lyot to observe the Sun corona (tested in 1930 at Pic du Midi) Applied to stellar astronomy for more than 20 years Coronagraphy
  18. 18. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Principle of high contrast imaging Highest contrast observations require multiple correction stages to correct for • Atmospheric turbulence • Diffraction Pattern • Quasi-static instrumental aberrations XAO visible coronagraph infrared coronagraph Diff. Pol. IFS SDI XAO, S~90% Coronagraph Diff. Methods
  19. 19. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Perspective: back in time l A relatively recent technique: on general instruments l 90’s: first attempts Bpic: Smith & Terrile, 1984 Mouillet et al., 1997 Planetary coronagraph No AO 10’’ 1’’ Coronagraph: Lyot AO: ADONIS on ESO-3.6m Reference differential imaging
  20. 20. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Perspective: back in time l A relatively recent technique: on general instruments l 90’s: first tries l 2000’s: larger investment, strong learning curve: l More powerful AO system on 8-m telescopes. AO and coronagraphy associated but not yet optimized l Huge efforts on observing procedures (reference, ADI, SDI), and data processing l Large observing programs
  21. 21. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 l A relatively recent technique: on general instruments l 90’s: first tries l 2000’s: larger investment, strong learning curve Bpic: Smith & Terrile, 1984 Mouillet et al., 1997 Planetary coronagraph No AO 10’’ 1’’ Coronagraph: Lyot AO: ADONIS on ESO-3.6m Reference differential imaging Coronagraph: Lyot AO: NAOS on ESO-8m Reference differential imaging (matching parallactic angles) Lagrange et al., 2008 Perspective: back in time
  22. 22. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 l A relatively recent technique: on general instruments l 90’s: first tries l 2000’s: larger investment, strong learning curve l Now: first dedicated instruments for l High contrast (XAO, coronagraphy, high stability, various differential imaging modes) l Large surveys: survey observation tools, keep « good » sensitivity High resolution PSF Saturated PSF Coronagraphic image ~ 3-20 λ/D Perspective: back in time
  23. 23. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Performance – Key numbers Lagrange et al., 08, 10 Marois et al 08 Thalmann et al 09
  24. 24. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 High Contrast Imaging instruments today Instrumen t DM WFS Features Speed Res. WFE Speckle Calib Status FLAO DSM, 672 Act PYRWFS 3 / 6 l/D mod - ~30 Hz, 0 dB, 900 Hz framrate ~120 nm rms (sky) ADI In operation MagAO DSM, 585 Act PYRWFS Vibr. Ctrl, Vis Cam 1 kHz framerate ~100-120 nm rms (lab) SDI, ADI In operation P3K Piezo, 241+3388 Act SF-SHS, quad-cell Woofer/ Tweeter. CALSYS, VVC ~70 Hz, 0 db, 2 kHz framerate ~150 nm rms (sky) SD, SDI In operation SCExAO Bimorph 188 + MEMS 1k PYRWFS no mod CLOWFS PIAA, Vis Cam 1 kHz Tbd SDI, ADI Partly in operation, upgr. path GPI Piezo ~100 + ~1500 MEMS SF-SHS, quad-cell Woofer/ Tweeter. CALSYS 1 kHz framerate 24 nm in- band SDI, ADI 1st light early 2014 SPHERE Piezo 1377 Act SF-SHS, 6px subap Vibr. Ctrl, Vis Cam ~ 100 Hz, 0 dB, < 1.38 kHz frame ~100 nm rms (lab) SD, SDI, PDI, ADI 1st light May ‘14
  25. 25. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Outline l Direct imaging of extrasolar planets l Motivation and challenges l How to build the perfect imaging instrument ? l SPHERE, a dedicated ground based instrument l Concept, observing modes and strategy l Actual on-sky performance l First science results l Perspective from the ground l Perspective from space l Conclusions
  26. 26. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch) A Planet Finder Instrument for the VLT Jean-Luc Beuzit (PI), Markus Feldt (Co-PI), David Mouillet (PS), Pascal Puget (PM), Kjetil Dohlen (SE), F. Wildi (AIT), T. Fusco (AO), M. Kasper (ESO responsible) and numerous participants from 12 European institutes ! IPAG, MPIA, LAM, ONERA, LESIA, INAF, Geneva Observatory, Lagrange, ASTRON, ETH-Z, UvA, ESO Co-Is: F. Ménard (IPAG, Grenoble), T. Henning (MPIA, Heidelberg), C. Moutou (LAM, Marseille), A. Boccaletti (LESIA, Paris), S. Udry (Observatoire de Genève), M. Turatto (INAF, Padova), H.M. Schmid (ETH, Zurich), F. Vakili (Lagrange, Nice), C. Dominik (UvA, Amsterdam)
  27. 27. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Common Path Fore optics Extreme AO NIR Coronagraph Vis Coronagraph ZIMPOL IFS IRDIS High frequency AO correction (41x41 act.) High stability : image / pupil control Visible – NIR Refraction correction FoV = 12.5’’ 40x40 SH-WFS in visible 1.2 KHz, RON < 1e- Pupil apodisation, Focal masks: Lyot, A4Q, ALC. IR-TT sensor for fine entering Coronagraphic imaging: Dual polarimetry, direct BB + NB. λ = 0.5 – 0.9 µm, λ/2D @ 0.6 µm, FoV = 3.5” 0.95 – 1.35/1.65 µm λ/2D @ 0.95 µm, Spectral resolution: R = 54 / 33 FoV = 1.77” 0.95 – 2.32 µm; λ/2D @ 0.95 µm Differential imaging: 2 wavelengths, R~30, FoV = 12.5’’ Long Slit spectro: R~50 & 400 Differential polarization Nasmyth platform, static bench, Temperature control, cleanliness control Active vibration control Beam control (DM, TT, PTT, derotation) Pola control Calibration Concept overview
  28. 28. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Implementation CPI IRDIS IFS ZIMPOL ITTM PTTM DM DTTP DTTS WFS De-rotator VIS ADC NIR ADC Focus 1 Focus 2 Focus 3 Focus 4 NIR corono VIS corono HWP2 HWP1 Polar Cal
  29. 29. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 From first thoughts… … to the real system
  30. 30. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 41x41 actuator DM developed by CILAS Under FP6/Opticon contract Sub e- noise, 1.5 kHz E2V CCD dedicated development New components
  31. 31. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 From IPAG to UT3
  32. 32. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016
  33. 33. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 l PAE in December 2013 l Shipping in January-February 2014 l AIT in Paranal in March-April 2014 l First light on May 4th l Four commissioning runs between May and October 2014 l Science Verification in Dec. 2014 l Early GTO starting Feb. 2015 l Opening to general community April 2015 Almost two years at the telescope! From commissioning to regular operations May 2014 May 2015
  34. 34. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 SPHERE: sub-systems main properties ZIMPOL IRDIS IFS FoV Sq 3.5’’ (instantaneous) Up to 4’’ radius (mosaic) Sq 11’’ Sq 1.77’’ Spectral Range 0.5 – 0.9 µm 0.95 – 2.32 µm 0.95 – 1.35/1.65 µm Spectral information BB, NB BB, NB Slit spectro: 50/400 50 / 30 Linear Polarisation Simultaneous on same detector, x 2 arms, exchangeable Simultaneous dual beam, exchangeable x Coronography: no /4Q / Lyot Rotation at Nasmyth: Pupil-stab. (instrument fixed wrt tel.) Field-stab (slit spectro, long DIT…) No rotation: minimize crosstalk…) AO sensitivity for high contrast: R=9.5 for NIR; R=9 for R; R=7.8 for whole VIS Separation range where improved contrast: 2 - 20 λ/D, ie 30-300 mas in R, or 80 – 800 mas in H Mode switching: not VIS and NIR in same night
  35. 35. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 First performance on-sky IRDIS H-band unsaturated Seeing = 1.3”; SR = 62% ZIMPOL 780 nm unsaturated Seeing = 1.2”; sep. = 0.24”; Delta R ~ 5 mag.
  36. 36. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 PSF temporal stability IRDIS: 2 images separated by 20 min in time in H-band
  37. 37. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 High contrast in the correction area High resolution PSF Saturated PSF Coronagraphic image Image at 1.28 µm ~ 3-20 λ/D
  38. 38. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Role of AO spatial filter Images at 1.28 µm
  39. 39. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Down to very short separations ~ 4-20 λ/D Moderate contrast Δm~5, at 95 mas! Y band (1 µm) H band (1.6 µm) Ks band (2.2 µm) Apodised PSF Coronagraphic images
  40. 40. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 0.15’’ 0.34’’ Imaging in I band (0.8 µm) Hα (0.65 µm) Zimpol PSF V band (0.55 µm) Hα (0.65 µm) I band (0.82 µm) Even in the visible
  41. 41. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 AO sensitivity
  42. 42. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 AO sensitivity
  43. 43. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 AO sensitivity Snapshot of IRDIS K-band observation of a R=15.3 binary M dwarf
  44. 44. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 AO on extended objects Neptune (2.2’’) observed with IRDIS: open loop, H2, H3
  45. 45. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 HR7581 (IRDIFS mode) J band snapshot image IRDIS H2 band, simultaneously with IFS Y-J 0,00E+00 5,00E-14 1,00E-13 1,50E-13 2,00E-13 0,9 1,1 1,3 1,5 1,7 Flux Wavelength (μm) iota Sgr B IRDI-H2-H3 M1V M2.5V Very high SNR detection of Δm~9 companion at 0.24’’
  46. 46. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Δmag = 10.75; sep=0.69″ HD114174 (white dwarf companion)
  47. 47. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Dual band Imaging
  48. 48. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 IRDIS Comm-2/3 (July 2015) Contrast performance
  49. 49. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 1 Mjup @6 AU (10 Myr star at 30pc) Contrast performance IRDIS Comm-2/3 (July 2015)
  50. 50. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 IRDIS Long Slit Spectroscopy LRS R~50 MRS R~350 YJ H K Y J H wavelength Separationfromstar Star core under blocking mask Spectral information up to Ks, or up to R~350 Speckle subtraction down to >~ 105 contrast (on going analysis; A. Vigan)
  51. 51. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 Titan in NIR and visible Methane band at 1.59 µm Mistral deconvolved image Cassini synthetic data Thick polar haze Polarimetry allows to study limb
  52. 52. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 HST visible Schneider et al HST NIR Subaru H band Thalmann et al 11 NACO H band, 2003 ADONIS K band GPI H band polar, 2015 Perrin et alSPHERE H band, 2015 Milli et al NACO L band Milli et al 12
  53. 53. Brave new worlds - Lake Como - May 29 to June 03, 2016 1994 - ESO3.6m/Come-On+ SH WFS; 62 actuators; Sr < 10% Janson et al. 07 Ù GQ lup star (K7V; V=11.4; K=7.1; BD companion@0.73’’) Sr > 90% 2015 SPHERE/IRDIS SH WFS; 1200 actuators 2005 - VLT/NACO SH WFS; 185 actuators Sr = 40-50% Neuhäuser et al. 05 Sr = 80% Delorme et al., in prep Impressive evolution over 20 years

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