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Feng Li

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Project kick-off meeting
Beijing - April 2016

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Feng Li

  1. 1. Feng Li 李 锋 Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences (RCEES) Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS) April 5, 2016 Environmental Impacts of China’s Fast Urbanization and Eco-Transformation
  2. 2. Main Contents  Environmental Impacts of China’s Fast Urbanization 2000-2010  Sustainable Development ability for Mega、Large、 Medium and small cities in China  Spatial differences of environmental change of urban agglomeration  Eco-transformation and conclusions
  3. 3. Urbanization in the world Since 2008 more than half of the world population lives in cities. It will reach to 61% in 2030, 70% in 2050 and 80% in 2060.
  4. 4. What is urbanization?  Population urbanization  Land urbanization  Economic urbanization  Social urbanization  Infrastructure urbanization
  5. 5. Urbanization  Urban areas are expanding faster than urban populations.  Asia is home to 60 percent of the world’s population.  Urban ecological footprints are much larger than their physical areas.  Important urban ecosystem services are often being neglected.  The soil carbon losses associated with expanding impervious surface cover have the potential to reduce soil carbon pools by 66% (Seto, et al, 2012)  Decision-makers often only follow narrow economic reasoning.
  6. 6. Ecosystem services refers to a wide range of condition and processes through natural ecosystem and species,that are part of them,help sustain and fufill human life (Daily, 1997). Service-disservices, Beneficial-Detrimental effects
  7. 7. Urban ecosystem services (UES)  Micro climate regulation: reduce heat island effect, increase humidity …  Cleaning environment: air, sewage, rainfall…  Noise reduction  Water retention  Soil conservation  Carbon sequestration  Nutrition cycle  Pollination  Biodiversity conservation  Recreation, education and culture……
  8. 8. How to understand UES?  Ecosystem services (the benefits human populations derive, directly or indirectly, from ecosystem functions) in urban areas, provided by natural ecosystems. ----Ecology in cities.  Services provided by urban ecosystems, including ecological, economic and social functions. ----Ecology of cities.  Services and human well-being for people in urban areas. ----Ecology for cities
  9. 9. Fast Urbanization in China 28% 39% 18% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 1978年 1993年 2003年 2015 52.3%
  10. 10. Space increase due to urbanization 10 Increase Space occupation Population Residential area Space increase New functional land Traffic land
  11. 11. Characteristics of China’s Urbanization  Rapid growth  High density  Large scale  Less cultural & natural identity  Great social & economic progress  Significant environmental & ecological impacts
  12. 12. Environmental Impacts of China’s Urbanization: A Comparative Study across 286 Cities (2000–2010)  Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Chinese Cities (2000–2010)  Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Cities with Different Population Sizes  Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Cities with Different Geographic Locations  Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Cities with Different Environmental Investments Bohai Bay Aggl. Yangtze River Delta Aggl. Pearl River Delta Aggl. Wuhan Aggl. Chang-Zhu-Tan Aggl. Cheng-Yu Aggl. Northeast China North China East China South China Southwest China Northwest China Central China
  13. 13. Measurement Indicators Per Capita Urban Green Space Area Gross Domestic Product Built-up Area Total Population Per Capita Income for Urban Residents Per Capita Local Financial Revenue Per Capita Industrial Area Per Capita Residential Area Per Capita Road Area Population Density Urban Population Industrial Exhaust Gas Emissions Urban Sewage Discharge Domestic Garbage Discharge Exhaust Gas Emissions per 10,000 RMB of Industrial Output Urban Sewage Discharge per 10,000 RMB of GDP Per Capita Arable Land Area Per Capita Peri-urban Open Space Area Water Consumption per 10,000 RMB of GDP Energy Consumption per 10,000 RMB of GDP Per Capita Domestic Garbage Discharge Per Capita Industrial Output Urban Size Environmental Pollution Urbanization Environmental Impacts
  14. 14. Measurement Indicators Per Capita Urban Green Space Area Gross Domestic Product Built-up Area Total Population Per Capita Income for Urban Residents Per Capita Local Financial Revenue Per Capita Industrial Area Per Capita Residential Area Per Capita Road Area Population Density Urban Population Industrial Exhaust Gas Emissions Urban Sewage Discharge Domestic Garbage Discharge Exhaust Gas Emissions per 10,000 RMB of Industrial Output Urban Sewage Discharge per 10,000 RMB of GDP Per Capita Arable Land Area Per Capita Peri-urban Open Space Area Water Consumption per 10,000 RMB of GDP Energy Consumption per 10,000 RMB of GDP Per Capita Domestic Garbage Discharge Per Capita Industrial Output Urban Economy Pollution Intensity Urbanization Environmental Impacts
  15. 15. Measurement Indicators Per Capita Urban Green Space Area Gross Domestic Product Built-up Area Total Population Per Capita Income for Urban Residents Per Capita Local Financial Revenue Per Capita Industrial Area Per Capita Residential Area Per Capita Road Area Population Density Urban Population Industrial Exhaust Gas Emissions Urban Sewage Discharge Domestic Garbage Discharge Exhaust Gas Emissions per 10,000 RMB of Industrial Output Urban Sewage Discharge per 10,000 RMB of GDP Per Capita Arable Land Area Per Capita Peri-urban Open Space Area Water Consumption per 10,000 RMB of GDP Energy Consumption per 10,000 RMB of GDP Per Capita Domestic Garbage Discharge Per Capita Industrial Output Urban Land Area Land Use Change Urbanization Environmental Impacts
  16. 16. Measurement Indicators Per Capita Urban Green Space Area Gross Domestic Product Built-up Area Total Population Per Capita Income for Urban Residents Per Capita Local Financial Revenue Per Capita Industrial Area Per Capita Residential Area Per Capita Road Area Population Density Urban Population Industrial Exhaust Gas Emissions Urban Sewage Discharge Domestic Garbage Discharge Exhaust Gas Emissions per 10,000 RMB of Industrial Output Urban Sewage Discharge per 10,000 RMB of GDP Per Capita Arable Land Area Per Capita Peri-urban Open Space Area Water Consumption per 10,000 RMB of GDP Energy Consumption per 10,000 RMB of GDP Per Capita Domestic Garbage Discharge Per Capita Industrial Output Urban Population Resource Consumption Urbanization Environmental Impacts
  17. 17. Data Standardization & Indicator Synthesis where S is the value of the Synthetic Indicator that ranges between [0,1], the sub-indicators are equally weighted.
  18. 18. Environmental impact of different types of urbanization Tao Y., Li F. et al., Environmental Management, 2015
  19. 19. Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Chinese Cities (2000–2010)  Economic growth tripled during that period for local government and industrial sectors as did per capita income for urban residents.  The expansion of the built-up area that included residential land, industrial land, and land for roads increased by about 40%, and road per capita area almost doubled.  Urban sewage discharge and domestic garbage discharge in the 286 Chinese cities decreased slightly during this period; however, industrial exhaust gas emissions (including SO2 and soot emissions) remained high.  The intensity of pollutant discharge and of water and energy consumption per unit of economic output decreased by one-third to two-thirds over these ten years, primarily because of the rapid growth in GDP and industrial output.
  20. 20. Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Chinese Cities (2000–2010)  The indicator values for urban size, urban economy, urban land area, and urban population in mega and large cities were greater than those of small and medium-sized cities.  Industrial exhaust gas emissions, urban sewage discharge, and domestic garbage discharge in mega and large cities were 1.3 to 1.9, 1.5 to 2.3, and 1.1 to 1.5 times greater, respectively, than discharges from small and medium-sized cities, and this increased the severity of air, water, and soil pollution in the larger cities.  Per capita urban green space area was greater in mega and large cities, while per capita arable land area and per capita peri-urban open space area were about 50 to 80% less and 30 to 60% less, respectively, than those of small and medium-sized cities.
  21. 21. Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Chinese Cities (2000–2010)  The indicator values for urban size, urban economy, urban land area, and urban population for cities in east China were greater than those for cities in central and west China.  Industrial exhaust gas emissions and urban sewage discharge were greater in east China, while domestic garbage discharge to the environ without proper treatment for east China was less than that for central and west China.  Per capita urban green space area was greater in east China, while per capita arable land area was about 20 to 30% less and per capita peri-urban open space area was about 30 to 40% less than central and west China.
  22. 22. Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Chinese Cities (2000–2010)  Per capita income for urban residents, local government, and industrial sectors in cities with larger investments in environmental protection and ecological progress were 1.8 to 2.5 times greater than those of other cities.  The intensity of pollutant discharge and of water and energy consumption per unit of economic output were about 10 to 30% less in cities that had large investments in ecological progress, 30 to 40% less in cities with large investments in environmental protection, and 40 to 70% less in cities with large investments in both attributes compared to the other cities.  However, these three types of cities had about 30 to 40% greater industrial exhaust gas emissions and urban sewage discharge than the other cities.
  23. 23. Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Chinese Cities (2000–2010) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Urbanization Ecological stress and Environmental Pollution Resources Consumption and Pollution Intensity 2000 2005 2010 Mega cities Big cities Medium cities Small cities 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Urbanization Ecological stress and Environmental Pollution Resources Consumption and Pollution Intensity Tao Y., Li F. et al., Environmental Management, 2015
  24. 24. Environmental Impacts of Urbanization in Chinese Cities (2000–2010) Tao Y., Li F. et al., Environmental Management, 2015 East China Central China West China Environmental Protection and Sanitation cities Garden and Eco-cities Both Neither 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Urbanization Ecological stress and Environmental Pollution Resources Consumption and Pollution Intensity Urbanization Ecological stress and Environmental Pollution Resources Consumption and Pollution Intensity
  25. 25. Comprehensive Evaluation of China’s Sustainable Development, 277 Cities (2000-2010) An Evaluation Indicator System for Cities with Different Scales
  26. 26. Evaluation of Sustainability Indices for Economic, Social, and Environmental Factors, and Composite Sustainability Index The larger the city scale, the higher the levels of economic development and social progress and the better the comprehensive sustainability capacity, but the worse the level of environment protection. Level Value of S Qualitative Evaluation I S ≥ 0.75 Excellent II 0.5 ≤ S < 0.75 Good III 0.25 ≤ S < 0.5 Moderate IV S < 0.25 Bad Economic Development Social Progress Environmental Protection Sustainability Capacity Megalopolises 0.38 (Moderate) 0.34 (Moderate) 0.12 (Bad) 0.29 (Moderate) Large Cities 0.23 (Bad) 0.23 (Bad) 0.14 (Bad) 0.20 (Bad) Small or Medium-sized 0.19 (Bad) 0.18 (Bad) 0.16 (Bad) 0.17 (Bad)
  27. 27. Evaluation of Sustainability Indices for Economic, Social, and Environmental Factors, and Composite Sustainability Index Proportion of Improvement Megalopolises Large Cities Small or Medium-sized Economic Development 276.5% 310.0% 500.0% Social Progress 37.9% 76.5% 69.2% Environmental Protection 66.7% 41.7% 35.7% Sustainability Capacity 37.1% 31.3% 93.5%
  28. 28. 中国城市群生态环境空间分异规律研究 Differences of spatial change of urban agglomeration  Measurement Indicators Waste Gas Emissions Waste Water Discharge Solid Waste Emissions Environmental Investment  Geographic Divisions Seven Geographic Regions Twenty-two Metropolitan Regions  Analytical Methods Spatial Statistics: Global and Local Moran’s I Multiple Comparison Correlation Analysis  Results Spatial Distributions of Hotspot Cities Spatial Variations Across Seven Geographic Regions Spatial Variations Across Twenty-two Metropolitan Regions Correlations Between Environmental Consequences and Measures Energy Usage Freshwater Usage Built-up Area Expansion Urban Green Area Increment 1 Northeast China North China East China South China Southwest China Northwest China Central China 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 71 8 1 92 0 2 1 2 2 1. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei 2. Yangtze River Delta 3. Pearl River Delta 4. Central & South Liaoning 5. Shandong Peninsula 6. Chengdu-Chongqing 7. Wuhan 8. Changsha-Zhuzhou- Xiangtan 9. Poyang Lake 10. West Taiwan Straits 11. Central Henan 12. Central Shaanxi 13. Harbin-Changchun 14. Taiyuan 15. Yangtze-Huai Rivers 16. Beibu Gulf 17. Central Guizhou 18. Central Yunnan 19. Huhhot-Baotou-Ordos- Yulin 20. Ningxia-Yellow River 21. Lanzhou-Xining 22. Urumchi-Changji-Shihezi Metropolitan Regions
  29. 29. Differences of spatial change of urban agglomeration 中国城市群生态环境空间分异规律研究 Northwest ChinaNortheast China Southwest ChinaNorth China East China South China Central China 7 10 Top Ten Metropolitan Regions 1. Pearl River Delta 2. Yangtze River Delta 3. Shandong Peninsula 4. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei 5. Central Henan 6. Urumchi-Changji-Shihezi 7. Central & South Liaoning 8. Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan 9. Wuhan 10. Chengdu-Chongqing Low High Global Moran’s I = 0.30, p < 0.05 Energy use能源消耗强度 ( d ) 10 1 3 8 4 6 2 5 9 Top Ten Metropolitan Regions 1. Yangtze River Delta 2. Central Henan 3. Pearl River Delta 4. Shandong Peninsula 5. Central Shaanxi 6. Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan 7. Taiyuan 8. Central & South Liaoning 9. Urumchi-Changji-Shihezi 10. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Low High Global Moran’s I = 0.30, p < 0.05 工业SO2和烟尘排放强度 ( a ) 20.8% 44.2% 10.4% 11.7% 5.2%7.8% 7.7% 48.7% 10.3% 9.0% 10.3% 7.7%6.4% 4 2 1 7 3 8 5 6 9 针对所有生态环境指标,全局莫兰指数值均显著为正,表明总体上各环境指标呈现聚类分布的特征;局部莫 兰指数的计算结果表明,热点城市(即指标值显著高于周边其他城市)均主要分布于华东地区和城市群区域。 热点城市在七大地理区域的分布比例 热点城市在七大地理区域的分布比例 Industrial sueage 工业废水与 城镇污水排放强度 Water 水资源消耗强度 Living garbage 生活垃圾排放强度 Land 土地资源占用强度
  30. 30. Differences of spatial change of urban agglomeration 中国城市群生态环境空间分异规律研究 总体来说,华东地区单位土地面积的污染排放、资源消耗和环保投入均要高于其他地区; 华北、华南和华中地区处于中间水平;东北、西北和西南地区相对较低。 NC EC SC CC NE NW SW NC EC SC CC NE NW SW NC EC SC CC NE NW SW NC EC SC CC NE NW SW High ( a ) WasteGasEmissions High Low NC EC SC CC NE NW SW NC EC SC CC NE NW SW NC EC SC CC NE NW SW NC EC SC CC NE NW SW WasteWaterDischarge High Low SolidWasteEmissions Low EnvironmentalInvestment High Low EnergyUsage High Low FreshwaterUsage High Low Built-upAreaExpansion High Low UrbanGreenAreaIncrement High Low ( d ) ( b ) ( c ) ( g ) ( e ) ( f ) ( h ) NC: North China EC: East China SC: South China CC: Central China NE: Northeast China NW: Northwest China SW: Southwest China a a ab b b b c a a a bb b c a ab ababcbc cd a b ab ab b b c a abab bc c cd a b b bc c cc a b b b bc c d a b b b bcb Comparison among different urban agglomeration region
  31. 31. Spatial Variations Across Twenty-two Metropolitan Regions 22个城市群生态环境空间分布规律 Urban Green Area Increment Environmental Investment Built-up Area Expansion Freshwater Usage Energy Usage Solid Waste Emissions Waste Water Discharge Waste Gas Emissions PearlRiverDelta YangtzeRiverDelta CentralHenan ShandongPeninsula Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Wuhan Urumchi-Changji-Shihezi Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Central&SouthLiaoning CentralShaanxi Yangtze-HuaiRivers Chengdu-Chongqing PoyangLake Harbin-Changchun Lanzhou-Xining Taiyuan CentralGuizhou WestTaiwanStraits Ningxia-YellowRiver BeibuGulf CentralYunnan Huhhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin Non-MetropolitanRegions Low High 1、珠三角 2、长三角 3、河南中部 4、山东半岛 5、长株潭 6、武汉 7、乌鲁木齐-昌吉-石河子 8、京津冀 9、辽中南 10、陕西中部 11、长江-淮河流域 12、成渝 13、鄱阳湖流域 14、哈尔滨-长春 15、兰州-西宁 16、太原 17、贵州中部 18、福建沿海地区 19、宁夏黄河流域 20、广西北部湾 21、云南中部 22、呼和浩特-包头-鄂尔 多斯-榆林 对照:非城市化区域
  32. 32. Urban sprawl: Beijing City 北京,急剧膨胀的特大城 市。随着经济的高速发展与人 口增长,城市扩张迅速、水资源 过度开发、环境污染严重、交通 拥挤、地下水位下降等生态环境 问题凸现,严重制约北京及周边 地区社会经济持续发展。 1975 1988 1992 1998 2002 2020 ?
  33. 33. International city National capital Famous cultural city Livable city 北 京 两 轴 两 带 多 中 心 空 间 发 展 战 略
  34. 34. Eco-transformation for Beijing 1、Water 水体:生态缺水 2、Energy 能源:交通优化 3、Green space 绿地:生态屏障 4、Population 人口:承载力 5、Landscape 景观:安全格局
  35. 35. Modeling and scenario analysis of East Beijing land use in future 20 years BAU: Business as usual SLC: Strict land control policy EMO: Ecosystem services oriented Yang Wenrui, Li Feng, 2011, Ecological Complexity Cellular Automata model based on ANN
  36. 36. Case study: Yangzhou city Location: southeastern PR China, south of the Yangtze River. The urban area accounts for 1872 km2 (42.7% of the total) and the urban population is 217 million (62.2% of the total). The built-up urban area totaled 654 km2 (14.9% of the total), with a population of 105 million (30.0% of the total).
  37. 37. Effects of urban land use on carbon stocks in urban centers and peri-urban areas Although the rate of carbon density loss in urban centers was higher than that in peri- urban areas, carbon stock loss in peri-urban areas was much greater than that in urban centers. The carbon stored in peri-urban areas was much more sensitive to human disturbance than that in urban centers of Changzhou city.
  38. 38. Maps of change in terrestrial carbon stocks (Mg C ha-1) from 1986 to 2011 due to continued urbanization processes in Changzhou city
  39. 39. Terrestrial carbon stocks across a gradient of urbanization plotted in four directions from the city center to the fringe, 1986-2011. Tao Y., Li F. et al., Ecological Modelling, 2015 West-East North-South
  40. 40. WHAT’S WRONG ? 2016/5/17 INDUSTRIALIZATION inappropriately transforms Fossil energy to Money, CO2 & Heat URBANIZATION inappropriately transforms Green land to Grey land GLOBALIZATION inappropriately transforms Rich richer & Poor poorer MODERNIZATION inappropriately transforms Eco-culture into Ego-culture
  41. 41. The Eco-essence of Urban Environmental Problems  Blocking & Exhaustion of Material Metabolism  Fragmentation & Agglomeration in System Structure and Function  Short-sighted & Feedback Lacking in Dealing With the Relationship Between Parts & Whole
  42. 42. 水 文化 体制知识 序 量 空 时 构 还原 消费调控 流通生产 生矿 土 能 人 水 文化 体制知识 序 量 空 时 构 还原 消费调控 流通生产 生矿 土 能 人 City: A kind of Social- Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem (SENCE) Ma shijun, Wangrusong, 1984 人 Economic Subsystem Scientific contexts Social subsystemNatural Subsystem Fire Culture Insti- tution Popu- lation Order Quantity Space Time Pattern Soil Water Metal Wood ConsumptionService TransformationProduction Circulation
  43. 43. Ecological Transformation for Urban Environmental Problems Engineering Type Regulation Strategies Regulation Goals Core Technology Development Tendency Pollution Control Minimize Pollutants Comprehensive Control Point & Non-point Pollutant Source Control From Single to Complex Pollutants Control Cleaner Production Process Optimization Energy saving & Emission Reduction Eco-Design of Products, Process & Environment From End of Pipe to Life Cycle Management Ecological Industry Industrial Symbiosis Horizontal & Vertical Integration Eco-Industrial transition, Integration & Incubation From Isolated Plant Production to Industrial Park Integration Ecopolis Management Regional Integration System Optimization Comprehensive Ecological Planning, Engineering & Management From Enterprises, Communities to Regional Ecosystems Ecological Civilization Cultural Upgrading Regulation & Incentives Philosophical Rethinking, Institutional Reform & Technological Renovation From Physical, Biological, Psychological to Intelligent
  44. 44. National Ministries’ Ecopolis Projects  National Environmental Model City: 76  National Eco-civilization Demonstration City: 23  National Eco-demonstration District: 495  National Eco-Industrial Park: 33  National Comprehensive Demonstration  District for Sustainability: 58
  45. 45. Different Scales of Ecopolis Studies in China  Eco-province: 15 provinces, such as Hainan, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, Jiangsu, Fujian, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Guangxi, Shanxi…  Eco-prefecture: 50, such as Yangzhou, Guangzhou, Changsha, Shaoxing, Chengde, Rizhao…  Eco-city and eco-county: 58 experimental cities/ counties/districts for sustainability, 51 eco-agricultural counties, 495 ecological demonstration regions...  Eco-villages, Eco-farms and Eco-factories…  Large scale eco-town: Tianjin-Singapore, Caofeidian, Dongtan,
  46. 46. 水 文化 体制知识 序 量 空 时 构 还原 消费调控 流通生产 生矿 土 能 人 水 文化 体制知识 序 量 空 时 构 还原 消费调控 流通生产 生矿 土 能 人 Eco-city Development Water Land Biodiversity Ecosystem Energy Traffic Wastes Greening Eco -landscape Eco -industry Eco -society Human Environment Resource based Industry Knowledge based Industry Education & cultural town Demonstration base for eco-products Pilot base for high-tech Eco-industry incubation base Consultation network Social Development Eco-culture Population & employment Eco-town development Community settlement Social welfare Policy and regulation Behavior & values Education & propaganda People participation Eco-food Eco-tourism Eco-building Eco-vehicles Green chemicals Nature Services Yangzhou Eco-city Strategic Planning Key: Water Services, Industrial Transition, Culture Conservation
  47. 47. Conclusions  The results of the study show high environmental impacts during the process of rapid urbanization in China from 2000 to 2010.  It is expected that the growth of economy, population, and urban built-up land area will still push the increase of environmental pressure in the near future.  China needs timely technology innovation to reduce emissions intensity and should further focus on restructuring its economy in order to continue urban growth while ensuring environmental protection.  larger and denser cities, and wealthier cities in the eastern part of China, where imbalance emerges between the economy and the environmental aspect, are capable of investing sufficient money in environmental protection and ecological progress in order to improve environmental quality.
  48. 48. Conclusions  Small and medium-sized cities and those in less developed regions of China should concentrate more on decreasing their pollutant discharge and resource consumption per unit of economic output.  Eco-civilization renaissance plans for next decade of years should be worked out to restore and readjust the relationship between man and nature through rethinking, reform and renovation of cognition, institution, material metabolism and cultural life of cities in China.  In March, 2014, China unveiled the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020) in an effort to steer the country's urbanization onto a human- centered and environmentally friendly path. The Plan provides strategic and fundamental guidance for the healthy development of urbanization across the country during the seven-year period.  Ecological infrastructure and engineering.
  49. 49. Policy Implications  Policy measures to mitigate losses in carbon stocks from urban land use and cover change for Changzhou and other fast-growing cities in China.  Impervious surfaces in existing urbanized areas such as parking lots, public squares and pavements can be replaced by vegetated surfaces.  Legislation and management should be implemented to protect green open spaces and forest land and preserve soil carbon stocks in rapidly urbanizing peri-urban areas.  Public participation, and government regulation will play a crucial role in evaluating and protecting urban and regional ecosystem services.
  50. 50. City is the solution for human future if we could  Rethink & change our production mode, life style & value system  Reform & integrate our institution, governance & maintenance  Renovate & upgrade our philosophy, science & technology
  51. 51. Better city, better life Cities have a large potential to generate innovations and governance tools and therefore can-and must- take the lead in sustainable development. Thank you for your attention! Feng Li (lifeng@rcees.ac.cn)

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