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The Empowered City:
Design Action Teams
Introductions
• Share your name, organization, and the
reason why you are attending today’s session.
Remaking Cities Congress, 2013
Dublin Hidden Rooms, 2014
The workshop goals are:
• To provide participants opportunities to practice using critical
frameworks for analyzing public...
Learning Objectives
• Participants will understand a brief history of public participation,
and how the design assistance ...
Dublin Today
• Most apartments in Dublin were built in the
last 20 years (55K out of 65K) with 35K
completed between 2001 ...
What’s the dialogue about the future
of urban living in Dublin?
Intro to Dublin– Educating the
Trainers
• What is the Soul of the Community?
• 15 Years from now, if we return to Dublin, ...
Cities and Public Participation
Who is the public?
The public is any individual or
group of individuals,
organizations, or political entities
(Stakeholder...
What is Public Participation?
• ‘Public participation’ means to
involve those who are affected
by a decision in the decisi...
Cities have the capability of providing
something for everybody, only because, and
only when, they are created by everybod...
Historical Context – Civil Society-led
democratic moment
• Urban Renewal Era (2
million displaced)
• Civil Rights Movement...
Designer Democracy
Beginnings…
• 1963 – first urban studio program
• 1964 – first Community Design
Center program. (Archit...
Today: Citizen-Led Change
• Local democratic wave during last 25 years
• Decentralization - Neighborhood Council Systems a...
Democratic Expectation
• National League of Cities survey of U.S. Cities (2010) -
81 percent use public engagement process...
The Business Case for Public
Participation
2011 Fierce, Inc customer survey of more than
1,400 corporate executives, emplo...
2013 Millenial Workplace Survey
(IdeaPaint)
• Almost a third of respondents, 32 percent, did
not believe their company was...
Stakeholder Identification
• The public issue bell curve
– Successful p2 includes identifying ALL of the
stakeholders on t...
The problem with generic/sterile
processes
• Applying one-size-fits-all to unique local
traditions/culture
• Inappropriate...
Three Key Components of Good p2
• Values-Based. Everyone enters a process with their
own values & perspectives, which shap...
P2 Frameworks…
P2 Analysis Tools
Exercise: Using the tool…
• Who is the public here? Where do the
following fit on the spectrum?
The engagement ‘gap’
What
Government/Organizations
Want
What the Public Wants
Example – NYC World Trade Center
• Listening to the City brought
more than 4,300 people together
on July 2, 2002
• Key pro...
The difference between PR & P2
Public Relations
• Sponsors decide on a course of
action and then attempt to sell
it to the...
Analysis Exercise: Case Study
Inform/Consult = Insult
General Rule-of-thumb Guide for a
Process
1) Gain Commitment (“sponsors” or decision
makers, understand outcome/decision)
...
Meeting/Event Toolbox
• Goals & Outcomes
• Process context (“This meeting
or event is a part of a larger
process and here’...
Exercise: Create a Flying Object
Things to Remember
• There is no one-size-fits-all approach. Everything must
be customized to the context you are working ...
Questions?
Communications for Public
Participation
Generational Change in the
workplace/society
Framework for P2
Goals/Expectations
• Gain an understanding of Communications in
a public participation context
• Share some exercises and ...
What is Public Participation?
• ‘Public participation’ means to
involve those who are affected
by a decision in the decisi...
P2 is Centrally about Facilitative (vs.
strategic) Communications
IAP2 Core Values for the Practice of Public Participatio...
Exercise: Telephone Tree
• Rules:
– Rule 1: You must WHISPER the statement.
– Rule 2: You can only share it ONCE.
Actual Message
• “The life-saving medication for Mariana is located
in the second drawer in the kitchen cabinet and
she sh...
Example: A ‘deadly’ mistake
Example– DHS Threat Advisory
System
• a "comprehensive and
effective means to
disseminate information
regarding the risk o...
Parody
Process Communication
• It’s imprecise.
• Ongoing.
• Irreversible.
• Contextual.
• Iterative.
• Multi-faceted.
Most Importantly…
• Remember: Most of the people who need the
information AREN’T THERE. How will they get
it?
– Formal Com...
Principles for Authentic
Communication
• Truthful – is honest & accurate
• Fundamental – gets to the heart of the
matter
•...
Who’s a good communicator? Why?
Learning Styles
• Visual Learning
• Auditory Learning
• Experiential/Kinesthetic learning – people are
more likely to chan...
Communications Process
• Determine your intended audience
– Identify their needs/concerns
– Identify what info they will n...
Exercise Two: Fishbowl
Communications
• What is Dublin’s Design Action Team
Initiative?
– Who should be involved?
– Who is...
Communicating the Public Voice
• Process
Documentation
• Graphic Facilitation
• Word Clouds
• Formal Surveys
• Full Data f...
Press
• Be Proactive, make special accommodations
• Have a clear message – it’s your job to tell them what’s important,
so...
Public Participation Techniques
Framework Tool
Feb 2014 Survey on IAP2 Spectrum
“Artificial” polarization
Framework Tool
Jim Fishkin & Deliberative Polling
• Deliberative Polling® is an attempt to use television and public
opinion research in ...
Disproves Polarization
General Rule-of-thumb Guide for a
Process
1) Gain Commitment (“sponsors” or decision
makers, understand outcome/decision)
...
Framework Tool
Common Problems
• You design an initiative with little input
• Little info about the subject shared to inform people
• Hol...
Goals for Every Session
• Design Format for everyone to
participate/contribute, break down the room,
create partners not p...
Changing the Conversation:
Appreciative Inquiry
• From problem-focused to asset-focused,
building asset-based strategy, im...
Example: Basic Visioning Exercise
• Dublin is…
• In 15 years, Dublin will be…
• Headline exercise
Framework Tool
Open Space Meeting
Format
World Café Meetings
• The World Café defines itself as “a conversational
process based on a set of integrated design princ...
World Café Format
World Cafe
Room Set-up
Exercise: World Café Simulation
• Volunteer Facilitators
• Question?
“Dotmocracy”
Summary
• Select the appropriate technique for the
goals/needs at hand.
• Keep it simple/Don’t overdesign.
• Use everyone’...
Dublin: Design Action Team Training Workshop, Public Participation Overview
Dublin: Design Action Team Training Workshop, Public Participation Overview
Dublin: Design Action Team Training Workshop, Public Participation Overview
Dublin: Design Action Team Training Workshop, Public Participation Overview
Dublin: Design Action Team Training Workshop, Public Participation Overview
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Dublin: Design Action Team Training Workshop, Public Participation Overview

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Part one of the Design Action Team Training Workshop content, and overview to public participation.

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Dublin: Design Action Team Training Workshop, Public Participation Overview

  1. 1. The Empowered City: Design Action Teams
  2. 2. Introductions • Share your name, organization, and the reason why you are attending today’s session.
  3. 3. Remaking Cities Congress, 2013
  4. 4. Dublin Hidden Rooms, 2014
  5. 5. The workshop goals are: • To provide participants opportunities to practice using critical frameworks for analyzing public participation challenges in their community, as well as cultural contexts. Participants will learn to identify appropriate process design and public participation approaches for contextual varieties; • To give participants experience using several different techniques and methods to engage and involve a group, as well as the skills to know when those techniques are appropriate and how best to utilize them; • To provide participants with an understanding of the difference between a generic process and an authentic community process, and the core elements that differentiate them; • To provide participants with an understanding of how to structure local processes and organize them for effective civic leadership and capacity-building;
  6. 6. Learning Objectives • Participants will understand a brief history of public participation, and how the design assistance process has evolved; • Participants will understand the core elements of the design assistance philosophy and approach to communities; • Participants will learn how to apply this framework to the design and structure of a public process; • Participants will learn how to apply a range of successful community engagement techniques in different community settings; • Participants will learn how to apply a range of successful community process techniques and meeting formats to different settings; • Participants will learn how to produce the framework for a future project in Dublin.
  7. 7. Dublin Today • Most apartments in Dublin were built in the last 20 years (55K out of 65K) with 35K completed between 2001 and 2008. The rise in national population from 2002 to 2006 showed that the annual growth rate of 2% was the highest since records began. • Should we be concerned about improving quality and livability for the benefit of residents, for the reputation of apartment living generally and for the overall quality of the built environment? • Objective: motivate residents around long term regeneration, high-quality neighborhood, and durable community
  8. 8. What’s the dialogue about the future of urban living in Dublin?
  9. 9. Intro to Dublin– Educating the Trainers • What is the Soul of the Community? • 15 Years from now, if we return to Dublin, what do you hope we would find?
  10. 10. Cities and Public Participation
  11. 11. Who is the public? The public is any individual or group of individuals, organizations, or political entities (Stakeholders) with an interest in the outcome of a decision because they may be, or perceive they may be, impacted directly or indirectly by it.
  12. 12. What is Public Participation? • ‘Public participation’ means to involve those who are affected by a decision in the decision- making process. It promotes sustainable decisions by providing participants with the information they need to be involved in a meaningful way, and it communicates to participants how their input affects the decision. • “What is the purpose? Why should I be involved? How will my involvement matter?”
  13. 13. Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody -- Jane Jacobs The civil rights movement taught us to listen, and to hear those whose voices had gone unheard for generations. R/UDAT has taught us how to turn the aspirations of citizens, and their descriptions of urban value, into action.- - David Lewis/Peter Batchelor Behind all the current buzz about collaboration is a discipline. And with all due respect to the ancient arts of governing and diplomacy, the more recent art of collaboration does represent something new - - maybe Copernican. If it contained a silicon chip, we’d all be excited. -- John Gardner 1990s 1960s Brief History of a Movement 1980s
  14. 14. Historical Context – Civil Society-led democratic moment • Urban Renewal Era (2 million displaced) • Civil Rights Movement • Jane Jacobs • “Advocacy Planning” • School integration • “Ladders of Participation”
  15. 15. Designer Democracy Beginnings… • 1963 – first urban studio program • 1964 – first Community Design Center program. (Architects Renewal Committee in Harlem) • 1967 – first R/UDAT project • UDA’s Pontiac, Michigan school integration process • 1968- Neighborhood Design Center forms in Baltimore, MD Today… • more than 70% of schools of architecture now have studio programs • Over 5 dozen Community Design Centers in US alone • Hundreds of DAT projects, national/state/local programs • “Charrette” norms in business • Adaptation all over the world
  16. 16. Today: Citizen-Led Change • Local democratic wave during last 25 years • Decentralization - Neighborhood Council Systems and Neighborhood Associations • Empowerment – over 100 Neighborhood College and Citizen Academy programs • Community-led change - visioning, funding of projects, implementation • It has it’s own language/jargon: Citistat, textizen, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, tactical urbanism, etc
  17. 17. Democratic Expectation • National League of Cities survey of U.S. Cities (2010) - 81 percent use public engagement processes "often" (60 percent) or "sometimes" (21 percent) • American Planning Association (2012) – “More than 50 percent want to personally be involved in community planning efforts, including more than half of Democrats, Republicans, and independents as well as majorities of urban, suburban, and rural respondents.”
  18. 18. The Business Case for Public Participation 2011 Fierce, Inc customer survey of more than 1,400 corporate executives, employees, and educators across diverse market sectors finds: • Eighty-six percent of respondents blame lack of collaboration or ineffective communication for workplace failures; • Ninety percent of respondents believed that decision makers should seek out other opinions before making a final decision; approximately 40 percent felt that leaders and decision makers consistently failed to do so. • Nearly 100 percent (99.1) prefer a workplace in which people identify and discuss issues truthfully and effectively, yet less than half said their organization’s tendency is to do so.
  19. 19. 2013 Millenial Workplace Survey (IdeaPaint) • Almost a third of respondents, 32 percent, did not believe their company was innovative. Here are the top reasons why: – 49% believe poor management is dragging their company down. – 45% state that the lack or misuse of technology solution is to blame. – Close to 38% feel that outdated collaboration processes hinder their company’s innovation.
  20. 20. Stakeholder Identification • The public issue bell curve – Successful p2 includes identifying ALL of the stakeholders on the bell and involving them.
  21. 21. The problem with generic/sterile processes • Applying one-size-fits-all to unique local traditions/culture • Inappropriate match for public expectations • Pre-determined outcomes • Not ‘local’, does not instill civic pride • The democratic vernacular: every place is a unique combination of tradition, culture and experience.
  22. 22. Three Key Components of Good p2 • Values-Based. Everyone enters a process with their own values & perspectives, which shape the way they perceive the problem or opportunity and possible solutions or actions. (Community, Cultural, Process) • Decision/Outcome-oriented. What is the purpose/rationale for the process? How will the public play a part in determining it? • Goal-driven. Each p2 process is defined by what role the public will play in the outcome, and corresponds to the level of participation that defines the public’s role and the formulation of the public participation goal that will drive the process
  23. 23. P2 Frameworks…
  24. 24. P2 Analysis Tools
  25. 25. Exercise: Using the tool… • Who is the public here? Where do the following fit on the spectrum?
  26. 26. The engagement ‘gap’ What Government/Organizations Want What the Public Wants
  27. 27. Example – NYC World Trade Center • Listening to the City brought more than 4,300 people together on July 2, 2002 • Key problem: Sponsoring agencies (Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and the Port Authority)wanted feedback on designs, and public wanted input on design. (Consult vs. Collaborate) Outcome: Public rejected all of existing designs and sent the entire initiative back to the drawing board.
  28. 28. The difference between PR & P2 Public Relations • Sponsors decide on a course of action and then attempt to sell it to the public. • people can feel manipulated and suspicious • often hinders them from thinking effectively about problems and challenges because it avoids exposing them to the full dialogue. • PR seeks “buy-in” Public Participation • Sponsors engage public on the front end in dialogue to help understand the pros and cons of different actions and seek input, consultation, involvement, collaboration • Builds common understanding of the issue and decision by hearing and understanding all viewpoints and information • P2 seeks meaningful involvement
  29. 29. Analysis Exercise: Case Study
  30. 30. Inform/Consult = Insult
  31. 31. General Rule-of-thumb Guide for a Process 1) Gain Commitment (“sponsors” or decision makers, understand outcome/decision) 2) Learn from Public (engage stakeholders, identify values, issue dynamics, scope of outcomes) 3) Determine Appropriate Level of P2 4) Process Design (P2 goals for each component, technique selection) 5) Planning for Implementation, Refinement, Execution, Evaluation
  32. 32. Meeting/Event Toolbox • Goals & Outcomes • Process context (“This meeting or event is a part of a larger process and here’s where we are in that process”) • Ground Rules • Agenda/Format matched to goal • Facilitator Toolbox
  33. 33. Exercise: Create a Flying Object
  34. 34. Things to Remember • There is no one-size-fits-all approach. Everything must be customized to the context you are working in, the goals and needs present, and the corresponding promise to the public. • Use a P2 Framework. All of your process choices are defined and driven by the desired outcomes and what you learn from your public in initial conversations. • P2 “Sniff Test”: Who’s at the Table, and more importantly, who isn’t that should be? What is the quality of the process? • Base your process in Values. Match it to expectations. • Keep it Clear and Simple.
  35. 35. Questions?
  36. 36. Communications for Public Participation
  37. 37. Generational Change in the workplace/society
  38. 38. Framework for P2
  39. 39. Goals/Expectations • Gain an understanding of Communications in a public participation context • Share some exercises and principles to aid Communications skills in public processes
  40. 40. What is Public Participation? • ‘Public participation’ means to involve those who are affected by a decision in the decision- making process. It promotes sustainable decisions by providing participants with the information they need to be involved in a meaningful way, and it communicates to participants how their input affects the decision. • “What is the purpose? Why should I be involved? How will my involvement matter?”
  41. 41. P2 is Centrally about Facilitative (vs. strategic) Communications IAP2 Core Values for the Practice of Public Participation • Public participation is based on the belief that those who are affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decision-making process. • Public participation includes the promise that the public’s contribution will influence the decision. • Public participation promotes sustainable decisions by recognizing and communicating the needs and interests of all participants, including decision makers. • Public participation seeks out and facilitates the involvement of those potentially affected by or interested in a decision. • Public participation seeks input from participants in designing how they participate. • Public participation provides participants with the information they need to participate in a meaningful way. • Public participation communicates to participants how their input affected the decision.
  42. 42. Exercise: Telephone Tree • Rules: – Rule 1: You must WHISPER the statement. – Rule 2: You can only share it ONCE.
  43. 43. Actual Message • “The life-saving medication for Mariana is located in the second drawer in the kitchen cabinet and she should receive 4 tablets and 3 glasses of water per day” • Lesson: Mistakes in clear communication are easy to make, and can be deadly to an initiative.
  44. 44. Example: A ‘deadly’ mistake
  45. 45. Example– DHS Threat Advisory System • a "comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to federal, state, and local authorities and to the American people.“
  46. 46. Parody
  47. 47. Process Communication • It’s imprecise. • Ongoing. • Irreversible. • Contextual. • Iterative. • Multi-faceted.
  48. 48. Most Importantly… • Remember: Most of the people who need the information AREN’T THERE. How will they get it? – Formal Communication/various mediums – Word of Mouth – Media Coverage
  49. 49. Principles for Authentic Communication • Truthful – is honest & accurate • Fundamental – gets to the heart of the matter • Comprehensive – tells the whole story • Consistent – matches words/actions • Clear – logical, simple, uses examples • Relevant – addresses public’s interests • Accessible – easily found • Timely – Is provided up stream in the process • Compassionate – responds to emotions/interests • Allows Feedback – creates opportunity for discussion
  50. 50. Who’s a good communicator? Why?
  51. 51. Learning Styles • Visual Learning • Auditory Learning • Experiential/Kinesthetic learning – people are more likely to change in response to a combination of experience and communication than communication alone. (Ex: misbehaving kids) • Up to 90 percent of what we communicate is non-verbal • Use multiple styles to reach everyone. Using multiple styles increases retention of info as well.
  52. 52. Communications Process • Determine your intended audience – Identify their needs/concerns – Identify what info they will need to fully understand the project • Design your core message – Evaluate your message vs. Authentic Comm rules • Determine the best method(s) to deliver your message – Remember your audience (i.e. millennials vs. baby boomers, different languages, etc)
  53. 53. Exercise Two: Fishbowl Communications • What is Dublin’s Design Action Team Initiative? – Who should be involved? – Who is it for? – Why should we have public participation?
  54. 54. Communicating the Public Voice • Process Documentation • Graphic Facilitation • Word Clouds • Formal Surveys • Full Data from input • Drawings/Contests • Iconic quotes
  55. 55. Press • Be Proactive, make special accommodations • Have a clear message – it’s your job to tell them what’s important, so don’t let them decide on their own • Remember their orientation is not necessarily toward the public interest • Remember your audience – you aren’t addressing the reporter, you’re addressing your audience with your key message
  56. 56. Public Participation Techniques
  57. 57. Framework Tool
  58. 58. Feb 2014 Survey on IAP2 Spectrum
  59. 59. “Artificial” polarization
  60. 60. Framework Tool
  61. 61. Jim Fishkin & Deliberative Polling • Deliberative Polling® is an attempt to use television and public opinion research in a new and constructive way. A random, representative sample is first polled on the targeted issues. After this baseline poll, members of the sample are invited to gather at a single place for a weekend in order to discuss the issues. Carefully balanced briefing materials are sent to the participants and are also made publicly available. The participants engage in dialogue with competing experts and political leaders based on questions they develop in small group discussions with trained moderators. Parts of the weekend events are broadcast on television, either live or in taped and edited form. After the deliberations, the sample is again asked the original questions. The resulting changes in opinion represent the conclusions the public would reach, if people had opportunity to become more informed and more engaged by the issues.
  62. 62. Disproves Polarization
  63. 63. General Rule-of-thumb Guide for a Process 1) Gain Commitment (“sponsors” or decision makers, understand outcome/decision) 2) Learn from Public (engage stakeholders, identify values, issue dynamics, scope of outcomes) 3) Determine Appropriate Level of P2 4) Process Design (P2 goals for each component, technique selection) 5) Planning for Implementation, Refinement, Execution, Evaluation
  64. 64. Framework Tool
  65. 65. Common Problems • You design an initiative with little input • Little info about the subject shared to inform people • Hold a generic “meeting” • Facilitate the whole group from the front of the room, no matter the number, theater style, one conversation – Little interactivity, lack of full participation, lack of integration – kills the power of group work. The use of some simple formats can change that. • Focus on “problems” and challenges, and problem- solving without common values, assets
  66. 66. Goals for Every Session • Design Format for everyone to participate/contribute, break down the room, create partners not participants • All data is captured and integrated into a coherent whole • The meeting is part of an iterative process, with well-defined goals going in, and outcomes/next steps as a result
  67. 67. Changing the Conversation: Appreciative Inquiry • From problem-focused to asset-focused, building asset-based strategy, implementing from a place of strength. Focused on the strength/opportunity side of SWOT analysis • “What are we doing well, and how can we do more of it?”
  68. 68. Example: Basic Visioning Exercise • Dublin is… • In 15 years, Dublin will be… • Headline exercise
  69. 69. Framework Tool
  70. 70. Open Space Meeting
  71. 71. Format
  72. 72. World Café Meetings • The World Café defines itself as “a conversational process based on a set of integrated design principles that reveal a deeper living network pattern through which we co-evolve our collective future”. It is a methodology for hosting conversations about relevant questions and themes. The ideal is that there are multiple conversations that build off of each other to explore the issue deeply. Participants of World Cafes are encouraged to draw from their own lives, values, and personal experiences so the group can learn from and connect with each other based on these things. An overall goal is for participants to realize or create a shared purpose and goals. - Participedia
  73. 73. World Café Format
  74. 74. World Cafe
  75. 75. Room Set-up
  76. 76. Exercise: World Café Simulation • Volunteer Facilitators • Question?
  77. 77. “Dotmocracy”
  78. 78. Summary • Select the appropriate technique for the goals/needs at hand. • Keep it simple/Don’t overdesign. • Use everyone’s talents/contributions. • Integrate data. • Connect to outcomes. Demonstrate how the process influenced the outcomes. • One size doesn’t fit all. Mix your methods, combine them for more powerful results.

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