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Niki Christodoulou: C.A.R.E Based Reflective Development not Just a Case Study

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C.A.R.E Based Reflective Development not Just a Case Study

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Niki Christodoulou: C.A.R.E Based Reflective Development not Just a Case Study

  1. 1. C.A.R.E. based Reflective Development – Not just a case study Dr Niki Christodoulou Department of Languages and Literature University of Nicosia, Cyprus christodoulou.n@unic.ac.cy ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference | Madrid | 11-13 April 2019 #eaquals19madrid
  2. 2. The facts 265 million (Shapiro, 2016) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 2
  3. 3. The facts 68.8 million (Shapiro, 2016) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 3
  4. 4. Reality A shortage of quality teachers (Shapiro, 2016) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 4
  5. 5. The UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goal #4 – Quality Education The need to increase the supply of qualified teachers by 2030 through teacher training ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 5
  6. 6. Quality education Requires quality teachers ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 6
  7. 7. A juxtaposition The need for more qualified teachers vs. A shortage of quality teachers ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 7
  8. 8. Buzzwords Teacher training Teacher development ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 8
  9. 9. Are they in opposition? Training vs development ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 9
  10. 10. Training - A part of development ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.o rg 10
  11. 11. My take Training is more specific. Focuses on specific knowledge or skills to improve performance in current roles. ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 11
  12. 12. My take Development is more expansive. Focuses on employee growth rather than on an immediate job role. ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 12
  13. 13. Unpacking the terms Development Reflective development C.A.R.E. based reflective development ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 13
  14. 14. What is development? A multifaceted term ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 14
  15. 15. Todaro’s development Creating conditions conducive to the growth of peoples’ self-esteem through institutions which promote human dignity and respect (Todaro & Smith, 2015) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 15
  16. 16. In teaching Development is an unclear concept! (Evans, 2011) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 16
  17. 17. Teacher development (TD) • specific developments through in-service or staff seminars OR • advances in teachers’ sense of purpose, instructional skills and abilities to work with colleagues (Evans, 2011) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 17
  18. 18. Since the 1990s  ‘How little systematic attention has been devoted to understanding teacher development’ ‘teacher development must be conceptualized much more than it has been.’ (Fullan and Hargreaves, 1992:1) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 18
  19. 19. Reflective development ? ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 19
  20. 20. Reflection Reflective Practice (RP) A multifaceted concept Little consensus (Beauchamp, 2015) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 20
  21. 21. Niki’s book Reflective Development through the CARE Model Empowering Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
  22. 22. My stance on TD • all about self-esteem • all about a sense of purpose • needs to be more than it has been My local context ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 22
  23. 23. EFL Teachers • perceived as subject specialists with little or no received pedagogical knowledge • not highly regarded as researchers even within the TEFL field itself • treated as ‘second-class citizens’ (Pennington, 1992) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 23
  24. 24. My local context • Practices of marginalization • The ‘critical’ as ‘judgmental’ • Disempowerment ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 24
  25. 25. Negative emotions Anger Depression Anxiety Fear Loss of voice Teacher Silence (Fook, 2003) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 25
  26. 26. The wider context • A culture of teacher silence in most institutions • Teachers not talking about their practice in a sustained or serious way (Brookfield, 1995) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 26
  27. 27. The motivation behind the study An emotion Using reflection as a tool to investigate ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 27
  28. 28. A multi-method Action inquiry Qualitative investigation Zeroing in on the research
  29. 29. A) Implementing RP 1) reshaped relationships with ‘self’ 2) positive connections with peers ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 29
  30. 30. B) The C.A.R.E. Model 1) The elements that make it unique 2) The elements as solutions for meaningful change a) individual level b) collective level ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 30
  31. 31. • Reflective Journals • Reflective Inquiry Group Meetings • Dialogue Sessions (based on video- recordings) • Online Chats • Semi-structured interviews • Surveys The Methods
  32. 32. Collaborative Appreciative Reflective/Reflexive Enquiry The C.A.R.E. Model
  33. 33. How? Daily/weekly reflective interactions • Verbal • Written • Online ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 33
  34. 34. How? • Dyads • Groups ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 34
  35. 35. Why? To unearth teachers’ • beliefs • emotions • values • prior experiences • present experiences ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 35
  36. 36. In the study Spotlight was turned on the ‘self’  (Not narcissistically ) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 36
  37. 37. Teacher personality A missing variable in almost all reflective discussions in teacher education. (Akbari, 2007) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 37
  38. 38. Results • Increased confidence in themselves • Positivity • Empowerment to lead others ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 38
  39. 39. Results • A renewed belief in TEFL profession • New visions for EFL practice • Reframed beliefs and strategies in EFL teaching ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 39
  40. 40. Some data from the teachers Personal level ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 40
  41. 41. On personality I think RP has to do with someone’s personality. The way we teach or the way we do things has to do with our beliefs, our values, the way we perceive things. My personality has kept me focused in the research. (Isabel) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 41
  42. 42. On awareness of ‘self’ What we have been doing for the last few weeks has made me realize that I am in this research because I want to get to know me (to become a critically reflective teacher). (Anna) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 42
  43. 43. On being confident The RP research helped me overcome the difficulties. It was my development and obviously when you develop you move to another stage of development. So at the end of this research I am a little bit more confident and competent. (Nora) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 43
  44. 44. Some date from the teachers Collective level ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 44
  45. 45. Positive connections with peers Participation in this research has been an enjoyable process through which we have come to realize things about us both as educators and as people. And it gives us the opportunity to read and talk about concerns and everyday life as lecturers with our colleagues. (Claudia) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 45
  46. 46. On embracing what is good You empowered us to see what we do right by talking about it with colleagues and ‘borrowing’ colleagues’ opinions and ideas on practice for even better results. This is a result of our meetings, of the recorded sessions and the interviews as well as of the journals. (Anna) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 46
  47. 47. Reframed strategies in EFL teaching Participating in the study has helped me develop and work on strategies of teaching, be more creative... motivate students constantly and share things with my colleagues in the group. It is an ongoing life-long journey of knowledge. (Erica) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 47
  48. 48. B) The C.A.R.E. elements 1. Absence of judgment – the ‘acritical discourse’ (Brockbank and McGill, 2006) 2. Acceptance of ‘self’ and others 3. Radical listening (Kincheloe, 2008) 4. Dialogue 5. Reframing ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 48
  49. 49. C.A.R.E. emotional elements 1. Safety 2. Trust 3. Freedom 4. A radically loving and hopeful dynamic (Kincheloe, 2008) 5. Appreciation 6. Empowerment ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 49
  50. 50. Teacher empowerment The practice whereby administrators allocate power and encourage or assist teachers to use it in ways that benefits themselves and their professions. (Hoy & Miskel, 2012) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 50
  51. 51. In the study Empowered EFL teachers Less stress!  ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 51
  52. 52. How to implement C.A.R.E. Role of an understanding mentor or peer The personal connection The group connection ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 52
  53. 53. The radical listener The mentor or peer/mentor sets the tone and the mood. ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 53
  54. 54. In the C.A.R.E. process The intention is to understand! ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Riga, 27 – 29 April 2017 www.eaquals.org 54
  55. 55. In the C.A.R.E. process Understanding does not mean accepting everything! Understanding means learning how to respond to others, to events and situations ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 55
  56. 56. Focus on teachers’ core strengths Reflecting on teachers’ core strengths is key to professional growth and development.
  57. 57. EFL Teachers’ core strengths • respectful • humble • generous • ethical • persistent • willing • cooperative • appreciative ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 57
  58. 58. Appreciation – a two-way street My appreciation for teachers and vice-versa. ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 58
  59. 59. Of paramount importance Teachers’ well-being! ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 59
  60. 60. Of paramount importance Teachers’ emotions matter! ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 60
  61. 61. Positive workplaces Not just think positively but feel positively! ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 61
  62. 62. Teacher Development More than training opportunities Should involve C.A.R.E-ing about employees’ (teachers’) emotional well-being! ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 62
  63. 63. Teacher Development We want qualified teachers? Not enough! ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 63
  64. 64. Teacher Development We need quality teachers! ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 64
  65. 65. The filter of appreciation Quality teachers are appreciated teachers! ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 65
  66. 66. My stance Quality = Appreciation ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 66
  67. 67. The C.A.R.E. elements Can be replicated by staff and organizations who aim to create • mindful • co-educational • dialogical • appreciative interactions and relationships with others. ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 67
  68. 68. Reflective development An ongoing co-educational journey which takes place in an appreciative context of ‘connected knowing’ where dialogical and collaborative interactions with others can flourish. This reflective journey always starts with the ‘self’. (Christodoulou, 2016) ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference, Madrid, 11-13 April, 2019 www.eaquals.org 68
  69. 69. Thank you! christodoulou.n@unic.ac.cy dr.niki.christodoulou@gmail.com ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference | Madrid | 11-13 April 2019 #eaquals19madrid

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