Teaching intonation


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Teaching intonation

  2. 2. Your learning experience? • THINK ABOUT YOUR PREVIOUS ENGLISH LEARNING EXPERIENCE • What percentage of instructional time was devoted to pronunciation? • How would you rate the quality of your teachers’ pronunciation of English (good, fair, poor)? • Which techniques for teaching pronunciation did your teachers use? • What type of feedback did you recieve regarding your pronunciation? • What else contributed to your learning the pronunciation of English? (at and outside school)
  3. 3. WHY TEACHING PRONUNCIATION • English is the major lingua franca globally. • More and more people need to use English for social, educational, and professional reasons in all kinds of contexts, locally and internationally. • It is essential that people who use English to communicate have a high level of intelligibility. (Celce-Murcia et al, 1996)
  4. 4. HOW: APPROACHES TO PRONUNCIATION TEACHING • INTUITIVE-IMITATIVE: pronunciation is acquired as a result of exposure and interaction in an environment where the target language is spoken. • ANALYTIC-LINGUISTIC : pronunciation is learned through instruction in order to raise awareness
  5. 5. LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS AND PRONUNCIATION ∼ Grammar translation ∼ Direct method ∼ Audiolingual method ∼ Silent way ∼ Community language learning ∼ Total physical response ∼ Communicative approach
  6. 6. • Teaching pronunciation within the communicative framework means guiding learners to experience speech as transfer of a message from one person to another. Doing this helps learners to think about their pronunciation as communication, rather than as a classroom exercise, and to focus on their listener’s perception rather than on their own production. (Celce-Murcia et al., 2001)
  7. 7. Aims • TO PROMOTE INTELLIGIBILITY (a high amount of understandable utterances) • TO ENSURE COMPREHENSIBILITY (meaning of the message is clearly understood) (Jenkins, 2002)
  8. 8. WHAT ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION TO TEACH? • PHONETICS vs PHONOLOGY • SEGMENTAL vs SUPRASEGMENTAL • LINGUA FRANCA CORE LANGUAGE: the pronunciation features that can cause interference in international communication contexts. (Jenkins 2000)
  9. 9. Lingua franca core • Vowel quantity: the distinction between long and short vowels is more important than exact vowel quality. • Phonetic realisations of consonants: some such approximations may lead to unintelligibility. • Consonant cluster simplification: consonant deletion to simplify a cluster affects intelligibility considerably. • Prominence and weak forms: teaching should focus on achieving correct prominence on stressed syllables, rather than on weak forms or schwa. • Tone groups: failing to use tone groups to divide the stream of speech into manageable, meaningful chunks has a serious effect on intelligibility for all listeners. • Nuclear/contrastive stress: putting prominence on the wrong word in an utterance, will direct the listener’s attention to the wrong place, leading to confusion.
  10. 10. • What really works? Pronunciation teaching works better if the focus is on larger chunks of speech, such as words, phrases and sentences. • Pronunciation lessons work best if they involve the students in actually speaking, rather than in just learning facts or rules of pronunciation. • Learning pronunciation requires an enormous amount of practice, especially at early stages.
  11. 11. Good teaching principles? * Setting realistic goals * Integrating pronunciation to listening and speaking skills practice * Being student-centred * Helping learners become self-reliant
  12. 12. TEACHING STRATEGIES • DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS: phonemic charts, minimal pairs, transcriptions, kinesthetic activities. • LISTENING DISCRIMINATION: listening for meaning, listening for pronunciation. • CONTROLLED PRACTICE: drills, repetition, shadow reading, reading aloud, role plays. • COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE: discussions, speeches, conversations, problem solving.
  13. 13. ASSESSING PRONUNCIATION • Diagnostic evaluation: identifying students’ pronunciation needs. • Ongoing feedback: growing awareness on progress and focus on improvement. • Self-monitoring. • Peer feedback. • Teacher’s feedback. Celce-Murcia et al, 2001
  14. 14. LEARNING STRATEGIES • COGNITIVE: memory strategies, practising naturalistically, formally practising the sounds and rhythm, analysing patterns. • METACOGNITIVE: setting goals, planning, self- monitoring, looking for opportunities to speak/ listen to English outside classroom. • SOCIO- AFECTIVE: asking for help, cooperating, peer-assessment, lowering anxiety.
  15. 15. Learners’ characteristics that may affect the process of learning : • Personality traits, self consciosness, self image (identity) • Overdemanding attitude • Physiological problems: articulators • Cognitive skills: memory, a “good ear”
  16. 16. Key points in pronunciation teaching * Perception and Production * Practice and patience * Relaxing atmosphere, confidence building, awareness raising * Focus on communication
  17. 17. YOUR TASK! A- Choose a textbook and analize the pronunciation activities presented in terms of purpose and interaction. B- Design a lesson integrating pronunciation into language teaching.
  18. 18. Bibliography • Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin (1996) TEACHING PRONUNCIATION. A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:CUP • Celce-Murcia, Marianne (2001) TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE. United Kingdom:Heinle- Heinle.