Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

5 Our Cosmic Origins

501 views

Published on

Big Questions in Science series, (5 of 9). Class taught at AUC (University of Amsterdam) during the 2012-2013 fall semester.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

5 Our Cosmic Origins

  1. 1. Big Questions in Science
  2. 2. : moving clocks run slower Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 2
  3. 3. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 3
  4. 4. Big Bang theory:• What it says• Predictions and tests• The first three minutes• Brief history of the universe Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 4
  5. 5. The Earth, as seen from theBig Questions in Science, fallregular planet. Not special at all! Moon, looks like a 2012. SdH, AUC 5
  6. 6. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-07-21/shuttle-landing-marks-nasa-shift-to-commercial-space-efforts.htmlBig Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 6
  7. 7. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 8
  8. 8.  Manned missions to Moon, Mars Unmanned:  Curiosity on Mars (August 2012)  Juno will arrive Jupiter 2016  Beyond Pluto Telescopes and Observatories  Hubble Telescope (Endeavour)  International Space Station Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 9
  9. 9. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 10
  10. 10. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 11
  11. 11.  The universe began at a specific time in the past, and it has been expanding ever since. Space itself expands:  Raisin-bread analogy  Expanding balloon Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 12
  12. 12.  Universal expansion: Hubble’s Law Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Abundance of light elements Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 13
  13. 13.  Mount Wilson telescope Hubble found distantgalaxies, measured distance. Redshift: colors wereshifted towards red. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 14
  14. 14. Hubble Space TelescopeBig Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 15
  15. 15. http://www.lon-capa.org/~mmp/applist/doppler/d.htmBig Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 16
  16. 16.  Waves “pile up” in the direction of the motion. Frequencies appear higher (shorter wavelengths). Same effect for stars and galaxies. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 17
  17. 17. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 18
  18. 18.  Method can be used to detect exoplanets Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 19
  19. 19.  Edwin Hubble 1929 Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 20
  20. 20.  Universal expansion: Hubble’s Law Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Abundance of light elements Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 21
  21. 21. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 22
  22. 22. Penzias and Wilson, 1965 Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 23
  23. 23. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 24
  24. 24.  Universal expansion: Hubble’s Law Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Abundance of light elements Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 25
  25. 25. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 26
  26. 26.  Stars consist mostly of hydrogen http://www.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/2045/lectures/lec_1.html Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 27
  27. 27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cosmological_Composition_%E2%80%93_Pie_Chart.svg Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 28
  28. 28. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 29
  29. 29. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 30 http://ut-images.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/crabnebulawallpaper.jpg
  30. 30.  Universal expansion: Hubble’s Law Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Abundance of light elements Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 31
  31. 31. Key concepts at each scale:• Time and space• Density• Temperature• Complexity• Radiation vs. matter• Forces Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 32
  32. 32. A Brief Cosmic History Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 33
  33. 33.  Gravity Electromagnetic Weak nuclear Strong nuclear Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 34
  34. 34. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Graphical-timeline-from-Big-Bang-to-Heat-Deathhttp://russherman.com/Talks/FirstThreeMinutes_CollegeDay.pdf The First Three Minutes Matter Era Ratiation Era Mix protons, neutrons, electrons and their anti-particles. Production and annihilation in balance. Number proton anti-proton pairs same as photons, same baryons and anti-baryons, small excess 1 in . Quarks too energetic to bind W, Z indistinguishable from photons Plasma: Electron excess equals proton excess (charge neutrality). Photons scatter off electrons, matter and radiation are a single fluid, radiation provides pressure. 4000 K hydrogen forms, deuterium and helium. Helium abundance of 25 % as observed. Universe grows factor of between and s from cm to 10 m Explains smoothness. Radiation and leptons. Muon-antimuon pairs annihilate, protons and neutrons transmute via weak interactions. Temperature below rest energy of the proton; proton anti-proton pairs annihilate. Only small primordial excess of protons remains. Hot soup Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 35
  35. 35. http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/060713/darkmatter.shtml Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 36
  36. 36. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 37
  37. 37. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 38
  38. 38. http://mossdreams.blogspot.com/2011/01/endless-doppelgangers-in-multiverse.html http://journalofcosmology.com/Multiverse9.html Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 39
  39. 39.  Physics and religion two separate modes of enquiry.  Physics aims at mathematical explanation of the mechanisms. Realm of observation.  Religion looks for meaning and causes on a different level. Generically no logical contradictions possible. There may be overlaps. Rabbi Dr. Tzvi Marx: “Every traditionally raised Jewish child knows (…) that the Bible is not a a a a scientific book.” Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 40

×