STR01 - Introduction To Research


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STR01 - Introduction To Research

  1. 1. Introduction to Research
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By type of data sought </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Research? <ul><li>Research is a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles . </li></ul><ul><li>(Grinnel, 1993) </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Research? <ul><li>Research is the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events . </li></ul><ul><li>(Kumar, 1996) </li></ul>
  5. 5. In short… <ul><li>Research is a process by which people discover or create new knowledge about the world in which they live. </li></ul><ul><li>(Intel Corporation, 2008) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Aims of Research <ul><li>To obtain solutions to problems through the discovery of cause-and-effect relationships (or systematic relationships) between variables </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aims of Research <ul><li>To be able to develop generalizations, principles or theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences </li></ul>
  8. 8. Aims of Research <ul><li>To obtain some observable experiences or gather empirical evidences as a means to verify knowledge </li></ul>
  9. 9. Aims of Research <ul><li>To establish new methodologies or processes that may be used to improve the quality of life or the environment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Significance of Research <ul><li>“ More than a set of skills, research is a way of thinking : examining critically the various aspects of your profession; understanding and formulating guiding principles that govern a particular procedure; and developing and testing new theories for the enhancement of your profession. It is a habit of questioning about what you do, and empirical examination to find answers, with a view to instituting changes for a more effective professional service.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Ranjit Kumar, 1996 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Significance of Research <ul><li>“ It is a habit of questioning about what you do, and empirical examination to find answers , with a view to instituting changes …” </li></ul>Research generates new knowledge.
  12. 12. Characteristics of Research <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity and absence of bias </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Research <ul><li>Based on application of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic or Pure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Basic Research <ul><li>Research problem deals with fundamental or problems of facts </li></ul><ul><li>New knowledge or verifies theories </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge for its own sake </li></ul>
  15. 15. Applied Research <ul><li>Problems deals with the “means” </li></ul><ul><li>Find solutions to human problems </li></ul><ul><li>Practical use </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>“ If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Sir Isaac Newton </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Research <ul><li>Based on approach under which the study is conducted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive/Observational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Defines characteristics of an organism or a system and makes comparisons with others without manipulating factors or conditions </li></ul><ul><li>No manipulation of independent variables </li></ul>
  19. 19. Experimental Research <ul><li>Alteration of factor/s and variable/s in a controlled manner or under controlled conditions to test an organism’s response to the factors applied </li></ul><ul><li>Involves cause and effect </li></ul>
  20. 20. Technical Research <ul><li>Development of a technique or procedure using established knowledge as a basis for coming up with the methodology </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Research <ul><li>Based on the type of information sought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. TeleMed: The Mechanization and Control of a Microscope for Remote Conferencing Christian O. Sanchez, Ernest Baello III, Lorenzo Lorilla, Patrick Estorninos <ul><li>TeleMed is a system that aims to control a microscope from a computer, for use in pathology and other fields of medicine. To achieve this system, a trinocular microscope was acquired and stepper motors were connected to its knobs using motor belts. Software was created to run these motors through a specially designed interface board. Based on the signals sent by the software, the corresponding motors were made to operate the knobs of the microscope, thereby enabling the user to move the stage (x and y movement), adjust the focus and change the objective, all through mouse and keyboard control. Another program was also created and installed in a remote computer. This software enables off-site control of the microscope by sending signals through a computer network. Both pieces of software were designed to run under the Windows 95 environment. They exhibit user-friendly visual controls and online help documentation to guide the user through the program. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Comparative Evaluation of the Antibacterial properties of Chili Pepper Fruit Varieties on Human Dental Microflora Joan C. de Guzman, Mark-Lawrence T. Tirao, Rosemary Gutierrez <ul><li>Chili pepper growth and use span the globe. The unique pungent nature is due chiefly to its component capsaicin. Herbalists postulate that capsaicin sterilizes tooth cavities white soothing a toothache. To investigae on this observation, a comparative evaluation was done on the antibacterial action of three Capsicum fruit varieties namely Capsicum frutescens , Capsicum annuum “de Arbo” and Capsicum annuum var. longgum on toothache-causing bacteria which include Lactobacillus acidophilus , Bacillus subtilis and an isolate from an individual with dental caries. Steam distillation was employed to extract the essential oil which contains the substance capsaicin. The paper disc diffusion method was used for the microbiological assays of extracts in their pure and diluted forms. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also determined. Results revealed that among the three capsicum varieties, C. frutescens is the most effective inhibitor of bacterial growth for L. acidophilus and B. subtilis and C. annuum var longgum is the most effective against a bacterial isolate, hypothesized to be Neisseria sp. The MIC of the plant extracts was found to be at 25% in all of the three bacterial test organisms, while MBS was determined to be 100%. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Problem 1 <ul><li>A complaint received by the Pontiac Division of General Motors: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;This is the second time I have written you, and I don't blame you for not answering me, because I kind of sounded crazy, but it is a fact that we have a tradition in our family of ice cream for dessert after dinner each night. But the kind of ice cream varies so, every night, after we've eaten, the whole family votes on which kind of ice cream we should have and I drive down to the store to get it. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Problem 1 (con’t) <ul><li>&quot;It's also a fact that I recently purchased a new Pontiac and since then my trips to the store have created a problem. You see, every time I buy vanilla ice cream, when I start back from the store my car won't start. If I get any other kind of ice cream, the car starts just fine. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I want you to know I'm serious about this question, no matter how silly it sounds: 'What is there about a Pontiac that makes it not start when I get vanilla ice cream, and easy to start whenever I get any other kind?” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Problem 1 (con’t) <ul><li>The Pontiac President was understandably skeptical about the letter, but sent an engineer to check it out anyway. The latter was surprised to be greeted by a successful, obviously well-educated man in a fine neighborhood. He had arranged to meet the man just after dinner time so the two hopped into the car and drove to the ice cream store. It was vanilla ice cream that night and, sure enough, after they came back to the car, it wouldn't start. </li></ul><ul><li>The engineer returned for three more nights. The first night, the man got chocolate. The car started. The second night, he got strawberry. The car started. The third night he ordered vanilla. </li></ul><ul><li>The car failed to start. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Film Showing Activity: The Medicine Man (W, 230-5, ASTB AVR) <ul><li>  What is the research activity being conducted in the movie? (2 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>How did the way the research was conducted in the movie fit with the definition given in class? (2 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>How were the basic characteristics of research shown (not shown) in the movie? Could it have been improved? How? (9 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>What good practices in conducting a research were shown in the movie? (3 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the not so good and/or bad practices shown in movie? (2 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>What impact does the film have on you as a researcher? (3 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>Classify the research based on objectives. Justify your answer. (2 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>Classify the research based on the condition/approach of the study. Justify your answer. (2 pts) </li></ul>