Presentation 08 - Human Circulation

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  • Influenced by nerves (vagus nerve – acetylcholine, epinephrine), hormones, and body temp.
  • Nerves, muscle, hormone control
  • Negative feedback mechanismErythropoietin produced in liver (low O2) stimulates marrow cells
  • Presentation 08 - Human Circulation

    1. 1. Human Circulation<br />A closer look<br />
    2. 2. Contents<br />Cardiac cycle<br />Maintenance of heartbeat<br />Principles governing blood circulation<br />Cardiovascular disease<br />Lymphatic system<br />Blood composition and function<br />
    3. 3. Cardiac cycle complete sequence of pumping and filling<br />
    4. 4.
    5. 5. Electrical activity of the heart<br />1 - Sinoatrial node (Pacemaker)2 - Atrioventricular node3 - Atrioventricular Bundle <br />(Bundle of His)4 - Left & Right Bundle branches5 - Bundle Branches <br />6 - Purkinje fibers<br />AV valves<br />SL valves<br />
    6. 6. Cardiac output<br /><ul><li>Total volume of blood pumped by the left ventricle per minute
    7. 7. Heart rate (HR)  # beats per minute
    8. 8. Stroke volume (SV) mL
    9. 9. Product gives the cardiac output (Q)
    10. 10. Average adult</li></ul> Q = HR x SV<br /> =70 beats/min x 75 mL/beat<br /> = 5.25 L/min<br />Maximum HR = 200-your age<br />Training heart rate is 75% MHR<br /> e.g. 200-15 = 185 * 0.75 = 139 beats/min<br />20 minutes, 3x a week<br />
    11. 11. Pulse<br />Stretching of arteries as an effect of heartbeat<br />Pressure waves moving the artery walls when blood moves into aorta<br />Usually accurate measure of heart rate<br />Normal resting pulse is 60-100 bpm<br />Common pulse points<br />1. Temporal artery<br />3. Carotid artery<br />4. Brachial artery<br />5. Radial artery<br />
    12. 12. Blood vessel structure<br />
    13. 13. Physical principles governing blood circulation<br />Blood flow velocity<br />Aorta (30 cm/s)<br />Capillaries (0.026 cm/s)<br />Law of continuity<br />Volume of flow per second must be constant through the entire pipe<br />Total cross-sectional area of the capillaries determines flow rate<br />Blood flow slows down in capillary beds<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Osmotic pressure – amount of pressure required to prevent diffusion of water<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Blood pressure<br /><ul><li>Force exerted by blood on walls of vessels
    18. 18. Determined by cardiac output and peripheral resistance by arterioles
    19. 19. Arterial pressure measured by a sphygmomanometer
    20. 20. Systolic/Diastolic (mmHg)
    21. 21. Factors
    22. 22. Heart rate
    23. 23. Blood volume
    24. 24. Resistance of vessels
    25. 25. Viscosity</li></li></ul><li>Blood composition and function<br />
    26. 26.
    27. 27.
    28. 28.
    29. 29. Lymphatic System<br />Functions<br />Returns excess body fluid to blood<br />Transports fats from intestines to blood<br />Defense<br />Anatomy<br />Lymph nodes scattered throughout body (thymus, spleen)<br />Vessels<br />
    30. 30. Cardiovascular disease<br />Cardiovascular disease (>50% of all deaths)<br />Heart attack- death of cardiac tissue due to coronary blockage<br />Stroke- death of nervous tissue in brain due to arterial blockage <br />Atherosclerosis: arterial plaques deposit<br />Arteriosclerosis: plaque hardening by calcium deposits<br />Hypertension: high blood pressure<br />Hypercholesterolemia: LDL, HDL<br />

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