Presentation 07 - Animal Transport and Circulation

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Presentation 07 - Animal Transport and Circulation

  1. 2. <ul><li>Functions of a transport/circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrate circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aided by gastrovascular cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vascular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertebrate circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reptiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pathway of blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of heartbeat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principles governing blood circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood composition and function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Transports materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients from digested food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory gases: CO 2 and O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste materials: toxins and nitrogenous wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune functions </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat transport </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Gastrovascular cavity in simple invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidarians (e.g. Hydra ) and flatworms (e.g. planarians) </li></ul><ul><li>No system required </li></ul><ul><li>Single opening: exchange of materials with the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Central cavity for digestion and distribution of substances throughout the body </li></ul><ul><li>Body walls two cell layers thick  materials undergo diffusion </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Water vascular system in echinoderms </li></ul><ul><li>multi-purpose: locomotion, food and waste transport, respiration </li></ul><ul><li>movement of muscles pump water into canals </li></ul><ul><li>closed system of canals connecting tube feet </li></ul><ul><li>madreporite  ring canal  radial and lateral canal  tube feet  ampullae </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Open circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda, Phylum Mollusca (with one exception) </li></ul><ul><li>hemolymph </li></ul><ul><li>heart(s)  sinuses  ostia  heart(s) </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion from sinuses to organs </li></ul><ul><li>often serve a support purpose </li></ul><ul><li>disadvantage: loss of pressure in sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>insects: well-developed respiratory systems, O 2 not transported through the blood </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Closed circulatory system or cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>cephalopods, annelids, vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>presence of blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rapid flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may direct blood to specific tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood cells and large molecules remain within vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can support higher levels of metabolic activity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries and capillary beds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>FISHES </li></ul><ul><li>Single-circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Fish heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-chambered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>atrium and ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>African lungfish heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-chambered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 atria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LA: O 2 -rich blood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RA: O 2 -poor blood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spiral fold </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>partially divided ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmocutaneous and systemic circulation are partly separated </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibian heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 atria: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LA: O 2 -rich blood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RA: O 2 -poor blood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>advantage: oxygen-rich blood reaches the body’s organs faster </li></ul><ul><li>disadvantage: some mixing of O 2 -rich and poor blood occurs </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>Reptilian heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-chambers (crocodilians have 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 atria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 ventricle (2 in crocodiles and alligators) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>partially divided, decreases mixing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Birds and Mammals </li></ul><ul><li>4 chambered heart: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 atria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>full separation of pulmonary and systemic circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gas exchange is maximized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pulmonary and systemic circuits operate at different pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic  high nutrient and O 2 demands in tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous vessels  great deal of resistance, so requires high pressure </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>R side of heart: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pulmonary circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>L side of heart: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>systemic circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>one way valves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>atrioventricular valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semilunar valves </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>right atrium receives O 2 -poor blood from superior and inferior venae cavae </li></ul><ul><li>from right atrium into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve </li></ul><ul><li>pumped into the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary semilunar valve to lungs </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 -rich blood from lungs is returned to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins </li></ul><ul><li>enters the left ventricle via the mitral or bicuspid valve </li></ul><ul><li>exits the left ventricle into the aorta via the aortic semilunar valve </li></ul><ul><li>circulated to body tissues </li></ul>

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