SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 17
Download to read offline
Cell Proliferation in the Digestive Tract of Styela clava
(Urochordata: Ascidiacea) as Revealed by
Au torad iography with Tri tiated Thymidi ne
                                THOMAS H. ERMAK'
                                Scripps l n s t i t u t i o n of Oceanography, La Jolla, Californiu 92037

        ABSTRACT         The DNA-synthesizing cells i n the digestive tract of Styela clava
        were labeled with tritiated thymidine and detected at increasing time intervals
        with autoradiography. Most of the epithelia consist of renewing cell populations.
        These are the dorsal tubercle, dorsal lamina, branchial bars, zone 1 of the endo-
        style, stigmata, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and rectum. Expanding popula-
        tions are the branchid tentacles, unspeciafized pharyngeal cells, and pyloric
        tubules. In the renewing populations, cell proliferation occurs in restricted ger-
        minal zones of pseudostratified cells. I n the postbranchial digestive tract, these
        germinal zones usually occur at the bases of folds or grooves. Germinal cell nu-
        clei migrate into the cell apex and undergo mitosis there. With time, germinal
        cells migrate as a band of labeled cells over the underlying connective tissue
        into non-proliferating mature zones of ciliated, secretory, or absorptive cells.
        Aging mature cells are presumably extruded into the gut lumen, maintaining
        the system i n a steady state. Transit times are about ten days for the stigmata;
        two and a half weeks for the dorsal tubercle, esophageal mucous population,
        stomach crest population, and stomach groove population; five weeks for the
        intestine and rectum; and several months for zone 1 of the endostyle and esoph-
        ageal band population.


   To date, most of the work on gut cell                     midine and detected with autoradiography.
proliferation employing tritiated thymidine                  The fate of the DNA synthesizing cells was
and autoradiography has been confined                        followed by taking samples of the digestive
to the renewing epithelia of mammals                         tract at increasing time intervals after the
(Leblond and Messier, '58; Messier, '60;                     administration of tritiated thymidine.
Leblond et al., '64). Comparable work has
been done on relatively few non-mamma-                                   General orientation
lian vertebrates and invertebrates (Davis                       The digestive tract of ascidians (shown
and Burnett, '64; Anderson; '65; Holland,                    schematically in fig. 1A) is composed of a
'64). The sparsity of such information on                    branchial basket, the food collecting and
ascidians is especially unfortunate because                  respiratory apparatus, and a postbranchial
of their vertebrate affinities. Previous work                region, which functions in digestion and
on ascidian gut cell kinetics is limited to a                absorption of nutrients. The postbranchial
cell formation test (as defined by Leblond                   region is made of an esophagus, stomach,
et al., '59) for Halocynthia sp. (Mochan                     intestine, and rectum. The pyloric gland,
et al., '71). However, from anatomical evi-                  a diverticulum of the gut, is given off the
dence alone, the replacement of gut epi-                     main course of the digestive tract at the
thelial cells has been proposed in several                   junction of the stomach and intestine. Sea
ascidians (Aros and Viragh, '69; Fouque,                     water enters the branchial basket through
'53; Relini-Orsi, '68; Thomas, '70).                         the branchial siphon, passes through the
   Therefore, the purpose of the present                     stigmata (gill slits) in the branchial walls,
investigation is to elucidate cell prolifera-                and leaves through the atrial siphon. The
tion patterns in the digestive tract of the                  major portion of the branchial basket is
ascidian Styela claua, a large solitary as-                  concerned with the secretion and move-
cidian found in bays along the California                    ment of a mucous net across the branchial
coast. DNA synthesizing cells about to en-                      1 Present address: Department of Physiology, Univer-
ter mitosis were labeled with tritiated thy-                 sity of California, San Francisco, California 94143.

J. ExP. ZOOL., 1 9 4 ; 44-66,                                                                                  449
3
   8
X V N X S ‘ H SVNOHL       OSP
CELL PROLIFERATION I N ASCIDIAN GUT                             451
walls and with the creation of water cur-        the lumenal edges of the pseudostratified
rents to bring in plankton and suspended         regions.
organic matter. The mucous net is se-               For more complete descriptions of the
creted by the endostyle and moves along          mechanism of feeding in ascidians and the
the branchial bars by ciliary action. Water      morphology of the digestive tract in Styela,
currents are produced by numerous cili-          the reader is asked to refer to McGinitie
 ated stigmata in the branchial walls. Par-      ('39), Berrill ('50), Morton ('60), Fouque
ticulate matter is trapped by the mucous         (5) and Relini-Orsi ('68).
                                                  '3,
net and moves toward the anterior part
                                                         MATERIALS A N D METHODS
of the basket. Here, the mucous passes
down the dorsal lamina to the esophageal             Styela c l a m is a club-shaped ascidian
opening. Below the branchial siphon, the          native to Korea and Japan and lives on
branchial tentacles exclude larger sus-           docks, pilings, and boats in protected Cali-
pended particles, but allow smaller parti-        fornia bays (Abbott and Johnson, '72; Ab-
cles to enter the branchial basket. The          bott, '75). Individuals up to 5 cm in length
dorsal tubercle, which projects into the          are relatively clean, showing the brown
branchial basket, plays a role in chemore-       wrinkled test, but larger ones usually have
ception (Carlisle, '53).                          a coating of bryozoans, algae, and other
   The postbranchial digestive tract lies         ascidians. Seventy specimens of S. clava
on the left side of the branchial basket.        were collected from the docks at Quivira
The esophagus joins the basket half way          Basin of Mission Bay, San Diego, California,
down the dorsal side. A t the entrance to         and injected with 5 microcuries of tritiated
the esophagus, the mucous net forms a            thymidine (New England Nuclear Corp.)
food cord, passes through the stomach and        per gram fresh weight. Individuals ranged
becomes compacted in the intestine. Mu-          in weight from one to four grams. The
cous secretions are added in the esopha-         tritiated thymidine (specific activity 6.7
gus; enzymes are secreted mainly in the          curies per millimore) was diluted 1: 1 with
stomach; and absorption occurs chiefly in        two times concentrated sea water and in-
the intestine (van Weel, '40; Morton, '60).      jected intra-atrially. The animals were
   The internal lining of the digestive tract    maintained at 18"C-2OoC until the time
of Styela is extensively folded, a feature       of sacrifice. Ten individuals were sacrificed
characteristic of solitary ascidian species.     by fixation in Bouin's fluid at each of the
Each region of the digestive tract is cov-       following time intervals: 1 hour, 3 days,
ered by the atrial epithelium (an epidermal      10 days, 15 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 60
specialization) on the outside and lined by      days after injection.
the digestive epithelium on the inside. In          The digestive tract was dissected from
between the epithelia occur blood spaces         the body after at least one day's fixation
and connective tissue. In the branchial          and the various organs dehydrated in alco-
region, smooth muscles pass below the            hol and embedded in paraffin. Sections
branchial bars, and in the postbranchial         were cut at 7 microns and covered with
region, the pyloric tubules run below the        Kodak Nuclear Track Emulsion type NBT-2
digestive epithelium.                            by the dipping method. Autoradiograms
   Much of the digestive tract is lined by       were exposed for periods from two weeks
simple columnar epithelia, the majority          to two months and developed in Kodak D-19
of which are either ciliated, secretory, or      developer (3 minutes) at 68°F. All slides
absorptive in nature. In several restricted      were stained through the emulsion with
zones throughout the digestive tract, the        hematoxylin.
epithelia are modified into basophilic zones        The following structures or organs were
of pseudostratified columnar cells (fig. 2D).    examined: branchial tentacles, dorsal tu-
These zones are most obvious at the bases        bercle, endostyle, dorsal lamina, branchial
of the folds in the esophagus and stomach        bars, stigmata, esophagus, stomach, intes-
and in the intestinal groove. These regions      tine, rectum, and pyloric gland. T h o struc-
have been cited as regions of intense cell       tures in the branchial basket were not
proliferation (Fouque, '53; Relini-Orsi, '68),   studied: the penpharyngeal band, which
since mitotic figures frequently occur along     is continuous with the dorsal lamina, and
452                                 THOMAS H . ERMAK

the retropharyngeal band, whose mucous          consisting of lateral and axial cells. A lat-
cells and band cells are considered in the      eral cell compartment lies on each side of
esophagus.                                      the axial cell compartment and partly on
                  RESULTS                       top of zone 2 (fig. 2A). At one hour after
                                                injection, only lateral cells are labeled
             Branchial tentacles                (fig. 4). Although only a few cells are la-
   A t one hour after injection, no localized   beled, this is one of the more heavily la-
region of cell proliferation is observed in     beled zones of the endostyle. By 20 days
cross sections of the tentacles, two or three   after injections, no migration of cells is
nuclei being labeled per section. No changes    detected. After 60 days, however, several
are observed after longer time intervals.       axial cells near the lateral cells are now
                                                labeled (fig. 5), indicating that the lateral
               Dorsal tubercle                  cells had sunk into the basal portion of
   The dorsal tubercle is a knob-shaped         zone 1 and differentiate into axial cells.
protuberance with a deep horseshoe-shaped          Although zones 2 through 9 all have la-
groove running along its surface (fig. 1C).     beled cells at one hour after injection, they
The exact shape of the groove, however,         show no migration or loss of labeled cells
varies among individuals. The groove is         at increasing time intervals. Zones 2 and
lined by the heavily ciliated funnel epithe-    4 are the lightest labeled populations while
lium while the surface is lined by the non-     zone 3 is the heaviest labeled population
ciliated lip epithelium (fig. 1D). Pseudo-      in the endostyle, including zone 1 (see
stratified regions occur at the base and at     DI sc u s s ION).
the top of the groove. Beneath the funnel
epithelium is a band of acidophilic mate-             Branchial bars and dorsal lamina
rial which appears to be supportive in             The dorsal lamina and the ventral (en-
function.                                       dostylar) surface of each longitudinal bar
   At one hour after injection, many pseu-      are covered by ciliated mucous cells while
dostratified cells are labeled, but no cells    the transverse bars and the dorsal surface
on the sides of the grooves or on the sur-      of each longitudinal bar are covered by a
face of the dorsal tubercle are labeled (fig.   relatively unspecialized epithelium. The
3). By 20 days after injection, cells have      transverse bars are an integral part of the
migrated onto the sides of the grooves          branchial wall. The longitudinal bars, how-
and onto the surface of the dorsal tubercle.    ever, are only connected to the rest of the
                                                branchial wall at the junction with the
                 Endostyle                      transverse bars. As looked at from the in-
   The endostyle consists of a deep furrow      side of the branchial basket, each longi-
running along the ventral surface of the        tudinal bar bridges over the underlying
branchial basket (fig. 1B). Most early ac-      row of stigmata; either end of the bridge
counts recognize eight cell populations.        is connected to a transverse bar.
However, recent ultrastructural examina-           At one hour after injection, many cili-
tions of zone 5 on the endostyle of several     ated cells on the dorsal lamina and on the
ascidians (Godeaux and Firket, '66, '69)        ventral surface of the longitudinal bars are
have shown that this zone consists of two          Fig. 2 A. A cross section through the endostyle
separate regions, making nine cell popula-      showing the nine cell populations. B. A cross sec-
tions in all. By the system of Barrington       tion through the esophagus. C . The ventral (left)
('57), zones 6 through 8 are now zones 7        and dorsal (right) internal surfaces of the stomach
                                                and descending part of the intestine showing the
through 9 (fig. 2A). The nine cell popula-      twisting longitudinal folds o n the ventral surface
tions in the endostyle of Styela clava are      and the straight folds o n the dorsal surface of the
roughly arranged in alternating glandu-         stomach. D. A cross section through a pseudostrati-
lar and ciliated regions. Zone 1 has long       fied region. E. A cross section through the stomach.
                                                F. A cross section through the intestine in correct
cilia which reach the top of the endostylar     position in relation to the stomach in E. cb, band
furrow. Zones 3, 5, 6, and 9, on the other      cells; c m , mucous cells; r, raphe; b, bulb; ty,
hand, have short cilia, while zones 2, 4,       typhosole; f, folds; ig, intestinal groove; cc, simple
                                                columnar cells; mf, mitotic figure; tc, transitional
and 7 are glandular.                            cells; pc, pseudostratified columnar cells; gp,
   Sokolska ('31) and Levi and Porte ('64)      groove population; cp, crest population; pt, py-
distinguish two compartments in zone 1          loric tubules.
CELL PROLIFERATION I N ASCIDIAN GUT   453
454                                   THOMAS H . ERMAK

labeled, but few unspecialized cells are          fold (fig. 2B). Pseudostratified regions oc-
labeled. On the longitudinal bars most la-        cur at the base of each fold and on each
beled cells occur close to the junction with      side of the band cell population.
the transverse bars. On the dorsal lamina,           At one hour after injection, only those
no distinct region of cell proliferation oc-      nuclei which occur in a basal position in
curs, the labeled nuclei being scattered          the pseudostratified region are labeled.
along the entire epithelium.                      Mitotic figures along the lumenal edge of
   A t increasing time intervals, there is a      the pseudostratified region and mucous
loss of labeled cells from both the longitud-     cells and band cells on the sides of the
inal bars and the dorsal lamina. Although         folds are not yet labeled.
the ciliated epithelia appear to be renewed,          A t three days after injection, nuclei are
no definite patterns of cell migration could      labeled at all levels in the pseudostratified
be determined. There appears to be a gen-         layer (fig. 8). Mitotic figures are also some-
eral movement of cells towards the tip of         times labeled, but no mucous cells or band
the dorsal lamina and away from the at-           cells are labeled. The labeling of mitotic
tached parts of the longitudinal bars             figures by three days is a result of the mi-
towards the free parts. Cell migration pat-       gration of interphase nuclei from the basal
terns are difficult to ascertain because          to the apical portion of the cell in prepara-
there appears to be no clear separation           tion for mitosis. After mitosis, the daugh-
into germinal and mature compartments.            ter nuclei migrate back to the basal por-
A t a l times after injection, the unspecial-
     l                                            tion of the cell.
ized epithelium on the branchial bars has             By 10 to 20 days after injection mucous
scattered positive reactions.                     cells but no band cells are now labeled.
                                                  As shown in figure 9, there is quite a bit
             Stigmatic e p i t h e l i u m        of variability in migration rate both be-
   Each stigma is lined by heavily ciliated       tween animals and between folds in the
cells which beat outward when producing           same animal.
water currents. Small pseudostratified re-           By 60 days, mucous cells are no longer
gions of basophilic cells occur at the an-        labeled, presumably because they are ex-
terior and posterior end of each stigma.          truded into the gut lumen; however, the
A t one hour after injection, only pseudo-        band cells are now labeled (compare figs.
stratified cells are labeled (fig. 6). Labeled    10 and 11). The band cells only originate
nuclei are not observed in sections of every      from the pseudostratified region on the
pseudostratified region, but usually a few        side of the ventral groove. This pseudostra-
nuclei are labeled. No cells on the sides of      tified region is unique in that i t produces
the stigmatic walls are labeled. At ten days      both mucous cells and band cells; mucous
after injection, cells on the side walls are      cell production occurs on the opposite side
now labeled (fig. 7) indicating that cells        of the pseudostratified region from band
from the anterior end of each stigma have         cell production.
migrated posteriorly, and that the cells at
the posterior end have migrated anteriorly.                       Stomach
The two bands of labeled cells have met              The stomach has 25 to 30 longitudinal
each other on the side wall, leaving behind       folds on its dorsal and lateral surfaces.
lightly labeled cells in the pseudostratified
regions. A t 20 days after injection, the cells      Fig. 3 An autoradiogram of the lip and funnel
lining the stigmata are no longer labeled.        epithelia of the dorsal tubercle one hour after in-
                                                  jection. X 315.
Thus, all those cells labeled at the time of         Fig. 4 An autoradiogram of zone 1 of the en-
injection as well as their immediate prog-        dostyle 20 days (same as 1 hour) after injection.
eny have been lost from the cell population.      Only lateral cells are labeled. X 600.
                                                     Fig. . An autoradiogram of zone 1 of the en-
                                                           5
                Esophagus                         dostyle 60 days after injection. Axial cells are now
                                                  labeled. X 600.
  The esophagus has five folds and is lined          Fig. 6 An autoradiogram of several stigmata
by two populations of cells. Mucous cells         one hour after injection showing labeled pseudo-
occur on every fold except the base of the        stratified cells. X 600.
                                                     Fig. 7 An autoradiogram of several stigmata
ventral fold where band cells occur. The          ten days after injection showing labeled ciliated
band cells are restricted to one side of the      cells on the side walls. X 600.
CELL PROLIFERATION IN ASCIDIAN GUT   4 55
456                                  THOMAS H . ERMAK

The ventral surface is covered by a raphe           By ten days after injection, mature cells
which expands into a large bulb halfway          on the sides of the grooves are now labeled.
down the length of the stomach (fig. 2C)         Both chief and zymogen cells are labeled,
and continues as the typhosole in the in-        and several pseudostratified cells are still
testine. The stomach folds are covered by        labeled (fig. 14). Animals killed 15 days
two cell populations: the groove population      after injection have several folds where the
which occurs at the base of each fold, and       entire groove height is labeled (fig. 15).
the crest population, which occurs on the        At this time, the originally small band of
top of each fold (fig. 2E). At the anterior      closely clustered germinal cells has ex-
and posterior ends of the stomach, the           panded into a long band of labeled mature
raphe, bulb, and crests, which are all cov-      cells intermingled with unlabeled mature
ered by ciliated mucous cells, are continu-      cells.
ous with each other and with the mucous             After 20 days, the entire groove height
cells in the esophagus, Chief and zymogen        is labeled, but no pseudostratified cells are
cells (terminology, Burighel and Milanesi,       labeled any longer. By 30 days, few cells in
'73) cover the stomach grooves. The chief        the groove population are still labeled.
cells, however, are much more numerous           Thus, most of the DNA synthesizing cells
than the zymogen cells, and are absorptive       labeled at the time of injection as well as
in function. Pseudostratified regions occur      several generations of their progeny have
at the base of each groove, at the side of       been lost from the epithelium, evidently
each crest, and at the side of the raphe         through cell extrusion at the junction of
and bulb. Mitotic figures occur along the        the groove population with the crest popu-
lumenal edge of the pseudostratified re-         lation on the tops of the folds.
gions, but they are most numerous in the            Crest population. At one hour after
groove population.                               injection, cells on the sides of the stomach
    The folds on the dorsal surface of the       crests are labeled (fig. 16). No mucous
stomach are the longest, while the ones          cells on the tops of the crests, however,
directly adjacent to the ventral raphe are       are labeled. Labeled nuclei do not occur in
the shortest. The dorsal folds are straight      sections of every crest, since the population
(fig. 2C); the ventral folds, however, twist     is small. The crest cells also have fewer
 around the raphe and bulb. The anterior         grains above their nuclei than the cells in
ends intersect the raphe while the poste-        the groove population.
rior ends intersect the bulb, suggesting            By ten days after injection, the two
that the stomach folds generate hom the          bands of labeled cells on each side of the
ventral surface. As the folds move away          crests have migrated toward each other
from the ventral surface, they lengthen          (fig. 17), and by 15 and 20 days, the two
 and become higher.                              bands have met each other on the tops of
    Groove population. At one hour after         the crests. By 30 days, the crests are gen-
injection, only nuclei at the base of each       erally unlabeled. Evidently, the mucous
pseudostratified region are labeled (fig. 12).   cells are extruded into the gut lumen at
 By three days after injection, nuclei at all    the tip of each stomach fold. Thus, two
levels in the pseudostratified region are        separate renewing cell populations occur
labeled (fig. 13). No mature cells are yet
labeled, but several mitotic figures are la-
beled. As in the esophagus, nuclei from the         Fig. 8 An autoradiogram of two esophageal
 basal portion of each pseudostratified re-      folds three days after injection. Only cells at the
                                                 base of the folds are labeled. X 200.
gion had migrated toward the lumenal                Fig. 9 An autoradiogram of some esophageal
 edges of the cells in preparation for mito-     folds 20 days after injection. Cells on the tops of
 sis. Two labeled nuclei immediately adja-       the folds are now labeled. X 200.
                                                    Fig. 10 An autoradiogram of a pseudostrati-
 cent to each other in the intermediate levels   fied region (left) and some adjacent band cells
 of the pseudostratified region are some-        (right) one hour after injection. Only pseudostrati-
 times observed, indicating that they are        fied cells are labeled. X 420.
 the two daughter nuclei of a recently di-          Fig. 11 An autoradiogram of a pseudostrati-
                                                 fied region (left) and some adjacent band cells 60
vided labeled cell. By three days, there has     days after injection. Pseudostratified cells are no
 been a slight migration of labeled cells        longer labeled but a few band cells are now la-
 towards the mature zone.                        beled. X 420.
CELL PROLIFERATION IN ASCIDIAN GUT   457
458                                 THOMAS H. ERMAK

on each fold, each renewed by its own ger-      terns in the rectum are similar to those
minal cells.                                    observed in the intestine. The major dif-
   The stomach raphe and bulb are basic-        ference is in the size of the germinal and
ally large crest populations which are re-      mature zones, with fewer cells proliferat-
newed on the same order of time. However,       ing in the germinal zone of the rectum
these populations are much larger in size.      than in the germinal zone of the intestine.
Many cells are labeled on the bulb at one
hour, and migration (in microns per day)                        Pyloric gland
is rapid. By 15 to 20 days after injection,        The pyloric gland is composed of numer-
the two large bands of mucous cells have        ous tubules which are exceedingly numer-
met each other on the top of the raphe and      ous at the level of the mid-intestine and
bulb, as on the crests.                         are solidly packed close to the intestinal
                                                epithelium (fig. 2F). Although the tubules
                  lntes tine                    are also fairly abundant in the stomach
   The intestine (fig. 2F) is a long tube       wall, they are not packed close together
with a typhosole on one side and a deep         next to the gut epithelium as in the intes-
groove running along the length of the          tine. A few pyloric tubules even occur in
other side. The intestinal groove is lined      the esophagus and intestine. Although the
by pseudostratified cells while the rest of     tubules occur associated with the mature
the intestinal wall is lined by absorptive      cells of the digestive tract, they are not
and secretory cells.                            closely associated with the germinal zones,
   At one hour and three days after injec-      especially in the intestine. The fact that
tion, labeling is much like in the groove       the pyloric tubules occur directly adjacent
population of the stomach with only pseu-       to the absorptive cells in the intestine but
dostratified cells in the intestinal groove     not the germinal cells suggests that this
labeled (fig. 18). Cells migrate at a differ-   organ might be involved with the process
ent rate, however. After ten days, cells are    of nutrient absorption and assimilation.
labeled up to the top of the intestinal         At all times after injection, few cells are
groove and frequently onto the side walls       labeled in the pyloric tubules.
of the intestine. Both absorptive and se-                         DISCUSSION
cretory cells are labeled. By 15 days, the
leading edge of labeled cells has migrated          The classification of cell populations (as
around the side walls almost to the begin-      used by Messier and Leblond, '60; Camer-
ning of the typhosole.                          on, '70) in the digestive tract of Styelu
   After 20 days, labeled cells have mi-        c l a m is given in table 1. Static populations,
grated up the sides of the typhosole (fig.      which undergo no cell proliferation, do not
19). The band of labeled cells is clearly       occur in the digestive tract nor in the rest
defined, unlike in the shorter mature zones     of the body (Ermak, '75). Expanding popu-
in the esophagus and stomach. In front of       lations have a slow rate of cell prolifera-
the band of labeled cells, no cells are la-     tion and no detectable cell turnover within
beled. Behind it, cells are usually only        the life span of the animal (about 12-18
lightly labeled. By 30 days, the leading           Fig. 12 An autoradiogram of the stomach
edges have met each other at the top of the     grooves one hour after an exposure to tritiated
typhosole in a few animals. In others, the      thymidine. Cells are labeled at the base of each
leading edges have almost met each other.       groove. x 150.
                                                   Fig. 13 A n autoradiogram of a germinal zone
                    Rec turn                    from a stomach groove three days after injection
                                                of tritiated thymidine. Nuclei at various levels
   The rectum is the terminal part of the       within the pseudostratified region and a mitotic
digestive tract and is characterized by the     figure (arrow) are labeled. X 600.
lack of a groove of pseudostratified cells         Fig. 14 An autoradiogram of some stomach
                                                grooves ten days after injection of tritiated thymi-
and by a typhosole which has transformed        dine. Labeled cells now occupy approximately half
into a thin flap. A region of basophilic        of the groove height. X 150.
cells runs along the dorsal surface of the         Fig. 15 A n autoradiogram of the groove pop-
                                                ulation 15 days after an exposure to tritiated thy-
rectum in a position corresponding to the       midine. Labeled cells now occur along the entire
pseudostratified region of the intestine.       groove height. Few cells at the base of the groove
   Cell proliferation and cell migration pat-   remain labeled. X 150.
CELL PROLIFERATION I N ASCIDIAN GUT   459
460                                   THOMAS H . ERMAK

months, Johnson, '71). Although zone 3 of believed that the undifferentiated cells re-
the endostyle appears to be an expanding place only the zymogen cells which are
population, longer termed studies would then lost from the epithelium. He consid-
be required to decide whether i t is expand- ered that the chief cells represent a sepa-
ing or only slowly renewed.                  rate cell-type not derived from the zymogen
   Renewing populations have a high rate cell population. My results clarify these
of cell proliferation, usually demonstrate points. Two separate cell populations (the
cell migration, and have turnover times groove and crest populations) occur in the
within the life span of the animal. Renew- stomach of Styela clava, each renewed by
ing populations are divided into two cate- its own germinal cells. The chief and zymo-
gories based upon their turnover times. gen cells in the groove population, how-
Type I populations have turnover times of ever, differentiate from the same germinal
less than 60 days (usually between 1 and cells at the groove bases.
5 weeks) whereas type I1 populations have       In a typical renewing population in the
turnover times of more than 60 days (prob- postbranchial digestive tract, DNA is syn-
ably up to several months). The reason thesized in pseudostratified cells whose
why type I1 cell populations have such long nuclei lie close to the basal portion of the
renewal times in comparison to the other cell. As each cell enters mitosis the nucleus
renewing populations is not presently un- migrates toward the lumenal edge of the
derstood. The renewal of the two popula- cell. Labeled mitotic figures appear as soon
tions in the esophagus is of particular in- as five hours after labeling (Ennak, unpub-
terest since both mucous cells (type I) lished results). After cell division, the two
and band cells (type 11) originate from the daughter nuclei move back into the region
same stem cell compartment. The patterns of interphase nuclei. The process of nu-
of cell migration and loss in the major re- clear migration in preparation for mitosis,
newing populations (dorsal lamina and interkmetic migration, is responsible for
branchial bars excepted) are shown sche- the dispersal of labeled nuclei throughout
matically in figure 20.                      the various levels of the pseudostratified
   From the limited work on cell popula- region by three days after injection. Inter-
tion kinetics of invertebrates, it seems kinetic migration of nuclei also occurs in
safe to assume that renewing gut cell pop- many other epithelia such as the epithelium
ulations are rarely found. Cell renewal of the neural tube (Watterson, '65), the
occurs in the ascidian branchial wall and mouse intestinal epithelium (Kataoka, '70),
also in the gill of the freshwater mussel    and the mammalian oviduct epithelium
(Tomasovic and Mix, '74). In addition to (Wrenn and Wessells, '70). The exact
the ascidian gut, only part of the crayfish mechanism by which nuclear migration
gut (the hepatopancreas) is known to con- is achieved is not known, but it might in-
tain renewing cell populations (Davis and volve microfilaments (Hinds and Ruffett,
Burnett, '64). More commonly, the gut '71; Wessells et al., '71).
cell populations of invertebrates are of the    Cell division is responsible for the in-
expanding type; such populations occur crease in the number of nuclei labeled with
in sea urchins (Holland, '64) and probably tritiated thymidine at increasing time in-
sea stars (Anderson, '65) and oysters (Mix,
'71).                                          Fig. 16 An autoradiogram of a stomach crest
   My results for Styela clava have con- three days after administration of tritiated thymi-
                                             dine. Cells are labeled on the sides of the crest.
b e d earlier reports of stem cell popula- x 600.
tions in the digestive tract of ascidians      Fig. 17 An autoradiogram of a stomach crest
(Fouque, '53; Relini-Orsi, '68; Thomas, ten days after administration of tritiated thymi-
'70; Aros and Viragh, '69). In Styela pli- dine. Columnar cells on the top of the crest are now
cata, Fouque ('53) suggested from static labeled.18 600. autoradiogram of the intestinal
                                               Fig.
                                                     X
                                                         An
light microscope evidence that the cells at groove one hour after injection of tritiated thymi-
the base of the grooves in the stomach dine. Nuclei are labeled at the base of the groove.
migrate up the folds, becoming at first X 160.
chief and zymogen cells and then differ- intestine 20 An autoradiogram of one half of the
                                               Fig. 19
                                                          days after administration of tritiated
entiating into ciliated mucous cells on the thymidine. Cells are labeled up to the base of the
crests. In Ciona intestinalis, Thomas ('70) typhosole. X 150.
CELL PROLIFERATION IN ASCIDIAN GUT   461
462                                         THOMAS H . ERMAK


            A




         Fig. 20 Schematic diagrams of cell renewal in the digestive tract of Styela cluua showing
      directions of cell migration (small arrows) a n d regions of cell loss (large arrows). Black regions
      indicate germinal zones. Diagrams not to scale. A, lip epithelium (shaded) a n d funnel epithe-
      lium of the dorsal tubercle; B, zone I of the endostyle; C, stigmatic cells; D, ciliated band cells
      (shaded) a n d ciliated mucuous cells of the esophagus, E, crest population (shaded) a n d groove
      population of the stomach; F, intestinal epithelium.


tervals after injection. After a DNA syn-                eventually move out of the germinal zone,
thesizing cell has divided, the daughter                 pass through the transitional zone, and
cells may differentiate or divide again.                 then migrate through the mature zone in
Those cells in the germinal zone which lie               a linear fashion. Those cells initially la-
close to the transitional zone are more                  beled and their immediate progeny move
likely to differentiate into mature cells                through the epithelium as a band of heav-
while those cells which lie far away from                ily labeled cells. In front of the band, no
the transitional zone are more likely to di-             cells are labeled. Behind it, cells are only
vide a few more times. In any case, all                  lightly labeled or not labeled at all. Those
those cells initially labeled with tritiated             cells which are lightly labeled are descend-
thymidine and/or their labeled progeny                   ants through many generations from those
CELL PROLIFERATION IN ASCIDIAN GUT                                   463
                                                TABLE 1

               Classification of the cell populutions in the digestive tract of Styela clava
                                   according to proliferative behuvior
             Type of cell population                        Example (with transit time)

       Expanding populations                  Branchial tentacles
                                              Unciliated pharyngeal cells
                                              Zones 2, 3,4, , 6 , 7, 8, and 9 of endostyle
                                                            5
                                              Pyloric gland
       Renewing populations
         A. Type I                            Funnel epithelium of dorsal tubercle (2.5 weeks)
           (renewal in less than 60 days)     Lip epithelium of dorsal tubercle (2.5 weeks)
                                              Dorsal lamina and branchial bars (several weeks)
                                              Stigmatic cells (1.5 weeks)
                                              Mucous cells of esophagus (2.5 weeks)
                                              Crest population of stomach (2.5 weeks)
                                              Groove population of stomach (2.5 weeks)
                                              Intestinal epithelium (5 weeks)
                                              Rectal epithelium (5 weeks)
         B. Type I1                           Zone 1 of endostyle (several months)
            (renewal in more than 60 days)    Band cells of esophagus (several months)



cells which were initially labeled with               and intestine, however, are dramatically
tritiated thymidine and have had their                different. Cells in the intestine migrate
DNA diluted with unlabeled precursors.                faster yet are renewed slower than cells in
Assuming a chromosomal number of 32                   the stomach. It is reasonable to assume
(Minouchi, '36) for Styela, the progeny of            that the stomach is under more demands
labeled cells would have only one labeled             for cell turnover than the intestine. Morton
chromosome after six cell divisions (Cron-            ('60) claims that the stomach is the pri-
kite et al., 'Sl), if a labeled cell remained         mary site of digestion in ascidians while
in the germinal zone long enough to divide            Yonge ('25) and van Wee1 ('40) state that
six times, that is. In any case, the band of          the intestine is the primary site of absorp-
labeled cells is finally lost from the cell           tion. Presumably the stomach provides a
population, presumably through extrusion              more formidable environment of digestive
of cells into the lumen of the gut.                   enzymes.
   Although most of the cell proliferation               The renewing populations in the ascidian
in the germinal compartments is for the               postbranchial digestive tract are quite sim-
replacement of mature cells lost from the             ilar to the renewing populations in the
cell populations, some proliferation pro-             stomach and intestine of mammals. The
vides for the growth of the digestive tract,          renewal of the mucous cells in the esoph-
especially in small individuals. As animals           agus and stomach of Styela is similar to
grow larger, the stigmata multiply, the               the renewal of the surface epithelium in
folds in the esophagus and stomach grow               the mammalian stomach (Messier, '60).
longer, and the intestine grows wider.                The renewal of the band cells in the esoph-
   There also appears to be some mecha-               agus of Styela is similar to the renewal of
nism of regulating cell proliferation and             the parietal cells in the mammalian stom-
maturation in the ascidian digestive tract            ach (Raggins et al., '68; Kataoka, '70) and
such as that proposed in the rat intestine            the Paneth cells in the mammalian intes-
(Galjaard et al., '72; Rijke et al., '74).            tine (Cheng et al., '69; Cheng, '74b). The
Transit times are the same for the mucous             band cells, parietal cells, and Paneth cells
cells in the esophagus and stomach, al-               are all renewed at a much slower rate than
though the sizes of the cell populations              most of the other cells lining the digestive
(esophageal fold; stomach crest, raphe and            tract. They also originate from germinal
bulb) and the actual migration rates (in              cells which also give rise to the rapidly re-
microns per days) are different. Migration            newed cells of the digestive tract.
rates are proportional to the sizes of the               The renewal of the groove population
germinal and mature compartments. Tran-               in the stomach and the renewal of the in-
sit times for the chief cells in the stomach          testinal epithelium of Styela is most like
464                                         THOMAS H. ERMAK

the renewal of the intestinal villi of mam-              Cheng, H. 1974 Origin, differentiation and re-
mals (Leblond and Messier, '58; Messier                    newal of the four main epithelial cell types in
                                                           the mouse small intestine. 11. Mucous cells. Am.
and Leblond, '60; Cheng and Leblond,                       J. Anat., 141 : 481-502.
'74a,b; Cheng, '74a). In mammals, cell                               1974 Origin, differentiation and renewal
proliferation occurs only in the crypts of                 of the four main epithelial cell types in the mouse
Lieberkiihn. Crypt cells migrate up the                    small intestine. IV. Paneth cells. Am. J. Anat.,
                                                           1 4 1 : 521-536.
villi, differentiate into chief and goblet               Cheng, H., and C. P. Leblond 1974 Origin, dif-
cells, and are finally extruded at the villus              ferentiation and renewal of the four main epi-
tips. Cell migration in mammals, however,                  thelial cell types in the mouse small intestine.
is out of pits and up fingerlike projections.              I. Columnar cell. Am. J. Anat., 141 : 461-480.
                                                                     1974 Origin, differentiation and renew-
Migration in Styela, on the other hand, is                 al of the four main epithelial cell types in the
linear and up longitudinal folds. Perhaps                  mouse small intestine. V. Unitarian theory of
the most conspicuous difference between                    the origin of the four epithelial cell types. Am.
ascidian and mammalian gut renewal is                      J. Anat., 141 ; 537-562.
                                                         Cheng, H., J. Merzel and C. P. Leblond 1969
in transit time. The time for a labeled cell               Renewal of Paneth cells in the small intestine of
to reach the villus tip is about one and                   the mouse. Am. J. Anat., 126: 507-524.
one-half days in the rat (Messier and Le-                Cronkite, E. P., S. W. Greenhouse, G. Brecher,
blond, 'SO), about three days in the mouse                 V. P. Bond 1961 Implication of chromosome
                                                           structure and replication on hazard of tritiated
(Leblond and Messier, '58), and about five                 thymidine and the interpretation of data on cell
to six days in man (MacDonald et al., '64).                proliferation. Nature, 189: 153-154.
In Styela, transit times are about two and               Davis, L. E., and A . L. Burnett 1964 A study of
a half weeks in the stomach and about                      growth and cell differentiation i n the hepato-
five weeks in the intestine. Cell renewal                  pancreas of the crayfish. Devel. Biol., 10: 122-
                                                            153.
times in the intestine of Styela, however,               Ermak, T. H. 1975 Cell Proliferation in the As-
are comparable to those in the newt intes-                 cidian Styela clava: An Autoradiographic and
tine (O'Steen and Walker, '60) where re-                   Electron Microscopic Investigation Emphasizing
newal is on the order of a month.                          Cell Renewal i n the Digestive Tract of This and
                                                           Fourteen Other Species of Ascidians. Ph.D. dis-
              ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                              sertation, Univ. Calif., San Diego.
                                                         Fouque, G. 1953 Contribution ~3 1'Ctude de la
   I am indebted to Dr. Nicholas D. Holland                glande pylorique des ascidiaces. Ann. Inst.
for his advice, support, and criticism. I                  Oceanogr. (Paris), 28: 18CL317.
thank Emily Reid for the final drawings                  Galjaard, H., W. Van der Meer-Fieggen and J.
of figures 1 and 2.                                        Giesen 1972 Feedback control by functional
                                                           villus cells on cell proliferation and maturation
               LITERATURE CITED                            in intestinal epithelium. Exp. Cell Res., 73: 197-
                                                           207.
Abbott, D. P. 1975 Phylum chordata: Introduc-            Godeaux, J., and H. Firket 1966 Ultrastructure
  tion and Urochordata. In: Light's Manual. R. I.          de l'endostyle de Molgula manhattensis Kay (As-
  Smith and J. T. Carlton, eds. Univ. Calif. Press,        cidie stolidobranche). Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci.
  Berkeley, pp. 6384355.                                   (Paris), 262: 48EL490.
Abbott, D. P., and J. V. Johnson 1972 The as-                       1969 Etude au microscope electronique
  cidians Styela burnharti, s. plicatu, s. clava,          de l'endostyle d'une ascidie stolidobranche M o l -
  and S. montereyensis in California waters. Bull.
                                                           gula manhattensis Kay. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool.
  S. Cal. Acad. Sci., 71 : 95-105.                         Biol. Animale, 10: 163-187.
Anderson, J. M. 1965 Studies on visceral regen-
 eration in sea stars. 11. Regeneration of pyloric       Hinds, J. W., and T. L. Ruffett 1971 Cell pro-
  caeca in Asteriidae with notes on the source of          liferation in the neural tube: an electron micro-
  cells in regenerating organs. Biol. Bull., 128;          scopic and Golgi analysis in the mouse cerebral
  1-23.                                                    vesicle. Z. Zellfrsch. Mikr. Anat., 1 1 5 : 226-264.
Aros, B., and S. Viragh 1969 Fine structure of           Holland, N. D. 1964 Cell Proliferation in Post-
  the pharynx and endostyle of an ascidian (Ciona          embryonic Specimens of the Purple Sea Urchin
  intestinalis). Acta. Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung., 20:         (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus): an Autoradio-
  281-297.                                                 graphic Study Employing Tritiated Thymidine.
Berrill, N. J. 1950 The Tunicata. Ray Society,             Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford Univ.
  London.                                                Johnson, J. V. 1971 The annual growth and
Burighel, P., and C. Milanesi 1973 Fine struc-             reproductive cycle of Styela sp. in the Marina
  ture of the gastric epithelium of the ascidian           del Rey, Venice, California. M. S. thesis, Dept.,
  Botryllus schlosseri. Vacuolated and zymogen             Zool., Univ. Nebraska.
  cells. Z. Zellforsch. Microscop. Anat., 1 4 5 : 541-   Kataoka, K. 1970 The fine structure of the pro-
  555.                                                     liferative cells of the mouse intestine a s revealed
Cameron, I. L. 1970 Cell renewal in the organs             by electron microscopic autoradiography with
  and tissues of the non-growing adult mouse.              H3-thymidine. Z. Zellforsch. Mikr. Anat., 103:
  Texas Rep. Biol. Med., 28: 203-248.                      170-178.
CELL PROLIFERATION I N ASCIDIAN GUT                                      465
Leblond, C. P., R. C. Greulich and J. P. M. Pereira     OSteen, W. K., and B. E. Walker 1960 Radio-
  1964 Relationship of cell formation and cell            autographic studies of regeneration. Anat. Rec.,
  migration in the renewal of stratified squamous         137: 501-509.
  epithelium. Adv. Biol. Skin, 5: 39-67.                Ragins, H.,F. Winlze, S. M. Liv and M. Dittbren-
Leblond, C. P., and B. Messier 1958 Renewal               ner 1968 The origin and survival of gastric
  of chief cells and goblet cells in the small intes-     parietal cells in the mouse. Anat. Rec., 162:
  tine as shown by radioautography after injection        99-1 10.
  of thymidine.Hs into mice. Anat. Rec., 132:           Relini-Orsi, L. 1968 Prime osservazioni morfo-
  247-259.                                                logiche ed istochimiche sull' apparato digerente
Leblond, C. P., B. Messier and B. Kopriwa 1959            di Styela plicuta. Les. Boll. Mus. Inst. Biol.
  Thymidine-Hs as a tool for the investigation of         Univ. Genova, 36: 157-184.
  the renewal of cell populations. Lab. Invest., 8:     Rijke, R. P. C., W. Van der Meer-Fieggen and H.
  296308.                                                 Galjaard 1974 Effect of villus length on cell
Levi, C., and A. Porte 1964 Ultrastructure de             proliferation and migration i n small intestinal
  l'endostyle de l'ascidie Microcosmus claudicans         epithelium. Cell Tiss. Kinet., 7: 577-586.
  Savigny. 2. Zellforsch. Mikr. Anat., 62: 293-         Sokolska, J. 1931 Contribution l'histologie de
  309.                                                    l'endostyle des Ascidies. Folia Morfol., 3: 1-34.
MacDonald, W. C., J. S . Trier and N. B. Everett        Thomas, N. W. 1970 Morphology of cell types
  1964 Cell proliferation and migration in the            from the gastric epithelium of Ciona intestinalis.
  stomach, duodenum, and rectum of man: radio-            J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K., 50: 737-746.
  autographic studies. Gastroenterol., 46: 405-         Tomasovic, S. P.,and M. C. Mix 1974 Cell re-
  41 7.                                                   newal in the gill of the fresh-water mussel, Mar-
McGinitie, G. E. 1939 The method of feeding               garitifera margaritifera: an autoradiographic
  of tunicates. Biol. Bull., 77: 44-47.                   study using high specific activity tritiated thy-
Messier, B. 1960 Radioautographic evidence for            midine. J. Cell Sci., 14: 561-569.
  the renewal of the mucous cells in the gastric        Watterson, R. L. 1965 Structure and mitotic be-
  mucosa of the rat. Anat. Rec., 136: 242.                havior of the early neural tube. In: Organogene-
Messier, B., and C. P. Leblond 1960 Cell pro-             sis. R. L. Dehaan and H . Ursprung, eds. Holt,
  liferation and migration as revealed by radio-          Rinehart, and Winston, New York, pp. 129-159.
  autography after injection of thymidine-Ha into       Weel, P. B. van 1940 Beitrage zur Ernahrungs-
  male rats and mice. Am. J. Anat., 106: 247-265.         biologie der Ascidien. Pub. Sta. Zool. Napoli,
Minouchi, 0. 1936 Notiz iiber die chromosomen             18: 5 C 7 9 .
  von Tethyum plicatum Les. (Ascidia). Z . Zell-        Wessells, N. K., B. S. Spooner, J. F. Ash, M. 0.
  forsch. Microscop. Anat., 23: 790-794.                  Bradley, M. A. Luduena, E. L. Taylor, J. T.
Mix, M. C. 1971 Cell renewal systems in the               Wrenn and K. M. Yamada 1971 Microfila-
  gut of the oyster Crassostrea gigus (Mollusca:          ments in cellular and developmental processes.
  Bivalva). Veliger, 14: 202-203.                         Science, 171 ; 1 3 S 1 4 3 .
Mochan, 0. T., N. L. Liebson and L. T. Frolova          Wrenn, J. T., and N. K. Wessells 1970 Cyto-
  1971 On localization of proliferative process in        chalasin B: Effects upon microfllaments involved
  the guts of some species of invertebrates (In           in morphogenesis of estrogen-induced glands of
  Russian). Sci. Comm. Inst. Mar. Biol. Far East.         oviduct. Roc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 66: 904-908.
  Sci. Cent. Akad. Nauk. S. S. S. R., 2: 152-157.       Yonge, C. M. 1925 Secretion, digestion, and
Morton, J. E. 1960 The functions of the gut in            assimilation in the gut of Ciona intestinalis.
  ciliary feeders. Biol. Rev., 35: 92-140.                Brit. J. Exp. Biol., 2: 373-388.

More Related Content

What's hot

Swim bladder general organization and circulation and function
Swim bladder general organization and circulation and functionSwim bladder general organization and circulation and function
Swim bladder general organization and circulation and functionramkumarlodhi3
 
Livefeed culture, Priyanka Chatterjee
Livefeed culture, Priyanka ChatterjeeLivefeed culture, Priyanka Chatterjee
Livefeed culture, Priyanka ChatterjeePriyanka Chatterjee
 
Nervous system of fishes
Nervous system of fishesNervous system of fishes
Nervous system of fishesMuneer A
 
Osmoregulation in Fishes and Birds
Osmoregulation in Fishes and Birds Osmoregulation in Fishes and Birds
Osmoregulation in Fishes and Birds PRANJAL SHARMA
 
Use of Artemia in Aquaculture in Bangladesh
Use of Artemia in Aquaculture in BangladeshUse of Artemia in Aquaculture in Bangladesh
Use of Artemia in Aquaculture in BangladeshNazmul Ahmed Oli
 
Sewage fed fish culture
Sewage fed fish cultureSewage fed fish culture
Sewage fed fish culturenithivv
 
Endocrine Organs and their physiological functions in fishes by B.pptx
Endocrine Organs and their physiological functions in fishes by B.pptxEndocrine Organs and their physiological functions in fishes by B.pptx
Endocrine Organs and their physiological functions in fishes by B.pptxB. BHASKAR
 
Alimentary canal and feeding adaptations in fishes by nusrit
Alimentary canal and feeding adaptations in fishes by nusritAlimentary canal and feeding adaptations in fishes by nusrit
Alimentary canal and feeding adaptations in fishes by nusritSYED ASSIM HAQ
 
INDUCED BREEDING OF INDIAN MAJOR CARP
INDUCED BREEDING OF INDIAN MAJOR CARPINDUCED BREEDING OF INDIAN MAJOR CARP
INDUCED BREEDING OF INDIAN MAJOR CARPPinakiBanerjee23
 
Digestive physiology of herbivorous fish
Digestive physiology of herbivorous fishDigestive physiology of herbivorous fish
Digestive physiology of herbivorous fishMahendra Pal
 

What's hot (20)

Swim bladder general organization and circulation and function
Swim bladder general organization and circulation and functionSwim bladder general organization and circulation and function
Swim bladder general organization and circulation and function
 
Aquaculture
Aquaculture   Aquaculture
Aquaculture
 
Livefeed culture, Priyanka Chatterjee
Livefeed culture, Priyanka ChatterjeeLivefeed culture, Priyanka Chatterjee
Livefeed culture, Priyanka Chatterjee
 
Nervous system of fishes
Nervous system of fishesNervous system of fishes
Nervous system of fishes
 
Feeding
FeedingFeeding
Feeding
 
Nps3 c
Nps3 cNps3 c
Nps3 c
 
Foli fish
Foli fishFoli fish
Foli fish
 
Shrimp Culture
Shrimp CultureShrimp Culture
Shrimp Culture
 
Osmoregulation in Fishes and Birds
Osmoregulation in Fishes and Birds Osmoregulation in Fishes and Birds
Osmoregulation in Fishes and Birds
 
Respiratory system
Respiratory systemRespiratory system
Respiratory system
 
Snakehead fish
Snakehead fishSnakehead fish
Snakehead fish
 
Use of Artemia in Aquaculture in Bangladesh
Use of Artemia in Aquaculture in BangladeshUse of Artemia in Aquaculture in Bangladesh
Use of Artemia in Aquaculture in Bangladesh
 
Sewage fed fish culture
Sewage fed fish cultureSewage fed fish culture
Sewage fed fish culture
 
Monoculture (aquaculture)
Monoculture (aquaculture)Monoculture (aquaculture)
Monoculture (aquaculture)
 
Endocrine Organs and their physiological functions in fishes by B.pptx
Endocrine Organs and their physiological functions in fishes by B.pptxEndocrine Organs and their physiological functions in fishes by B.pptx
Endocrine Organs and their physiological functions in fishes by B.pptx
 
Alimentary canal and feeding adaptations in fishes by nusrit
Alimentary canal and feeding adaptations in fishes by nusritAlimentary canal and feeding adaptations in fishes by nusrit
Alimentary canal and feeding adaptations in fishes by nusrit
 
FISH FEEDING HABITS.pptx
FISH FEEDING HABITS.pptxFISH FEEDING HABITS.pptx
FISH FEEDING HABITS.pptx
 
INDUCED BREEDING OF INDIAN MAJOR CARP
INDUCED BREEDING OF INDIAN MAJOR CARPINDUCED BREEDING OF INDIAN MAJOR CARP
INDUCED BREEDING OF INDIAN MAJOR CARP
 
Hatchery management
Hatchery managementHatchery management
Hatchery management
 
Digestive physiology of herbivorous fish
Digestive physiology of herbivorous fishDigestive physiology of herbivorous fish
Digestive physiology of herbivorous fish
 

Similar to Cell Proliferation in the Digestive Tract of Styela clava Revealed by Autoradiography

Ermak comparative cell proliferation j exp zool 1981
Ermak comparative cell proliferation j exp zool 1981Ermak comparative cell proliferation j exp zool 1981
Ermak comparative cell proliferation j exp zool 1981Thomas Ermak
 
2 nutrition in nematodes
2 nutrition in nematodes2 nutrition in nematodes
2 nutrition in nematodesIrwan Izzauddin
 
Phylum Ctenophora , Comb Jellies pptx
Phylum Ctenophora , Comb Jellies pptxPhylum Ctenophora , Comb Jellies pptx
Phylum Ctenophora , Comb Jellies pptxDr. Muhammad Moosa
 
APznzaY_4mPmp24MDNFWO-ca6ph_KwNNZfAds17Nu5C_C-YKiVdh8XVT9cQKjlRoXJoJP1MrtKr8i...
APznzaY_4mPmp24MDNFWO-ca6ph_KwNNZfAds17Nu5C_C-YKiVdh8XVT9cQKjlRoXJoJP1MrtKr8i...APznzaY_4mPmp24MDNFWO-ca6ph_KwNNZfAds17Nu5C_C-YKiVdh8XVT9cQKjlRoXJoJP1MrtKr8i...
APznzaY_4mPmp24MDNFWO-ca6ph_KwNNZfAds17Nu5C_C-YKiVdh8XVT9cQKjlRoXJoJP1MrtKr8i...StarletMG
 
Biology and physiology of Pomacea Canaliculata
Biology and physiology of Pomacea CanaliculataBiology and physiology of Pomacea Canaliculata
Biology and physiology of Pomacea CanaliculataXavier Chang
 
Animal_Kingdom_ 2.pdf
Animal_Kingdom_ 2.pdfAnimal_Kingdom_ 2.pdf
Animal_Kingdom_ 2.pdfGayatriHande1
 
Histological Characteristics of Alimentary canal in Fish and Blood Of Carps
Histological Characteristics of Alimentary canal in Fish and Blood Of CarpsHistological Characteristics of Alimentary canal in Fish and Blood Of Carps
Histological Characteristics of Alimentary canal in Fish and Blood Of CarpsMosharrof Hossain Anik
 
Cell biology journal abstract and summary
Cell biology journal abstract and summary Cell biology journal abstract and summary
Cell biology journal abstract and summary Shaina Mavreen Villaroza
 
hepertology LIZARDS unit 6.docx
hepertology LIZARDS unit 6.docxhepertology LIZARDS unit 6.docx
hepertology LIZARDS unit 6.docxNtokozo Mhlambi
 
A New species of skin-feeding Caecilian
A New species of skin-feeding CaecilianA New species of skin-feeding Caecilian
A New species of skin-feeding Caecilianbiocenose_consultoria
 
Histological features of Gastrointestinal tract
Histological features of Gastrointestinal tractHistological features of Gastrointestinal tract
Histological features of Gastrointestinal tractrasulovadiana0301
 
Biology of mussels & Camps
Biology of mussels & CampsBiology of mussels & Camps
Biology of mussels & CampsNazmul Ahmed Oli
 
Stomach anatomy and histology
Stomach anatomy and histologyStomach anatomy and histology
Stomach anatomy and histologyAliLaith5230
 

Similar to Cell Proliferation in the Digestive Tract of Styela clava Revealed by Autoradiography (20)

Ermak comparative cell proliferation j exp zool 1981
Ermak comparative cell proliferation j exp zool 1981Ermak comparative cell proliferation j exp zool 1981
Ermak comparative cell proliferation j exp zool 1981
 
2 nutrition in nematodes
2 nutrition in nematodes2 nutrition in nematodes
2 nutrition in nematodes
 
Phylum Ctenophora , Comb Jellies pptx
Phylum Ctenophora , Comb Jellies pptxPhylum Ctenophora , Comb Jellies pptx
Phylum Ctenophora , Comb Jellies pptx
 
APznzaY_4mPmp24MDNFWO-ca6ph_KwNNZfAds17Nu5C_C-YKiVdh8XVT9cQKjlRoXJoJP1MrtKr8i...
APznzaY_4mPmp24MDNFWO-ca6ph_KwNNZfAds17Nu5C_C-YKiVdh8XVT9cQKjlRoXJoJP1MrtKr8i...APznzaY_4mPmp24MDNFWO-ca6ph_KwNNZfAds17Nu5C_C-YKiVdh8XVT9cQKjlRoXJoJP1MrtKr8i...
APznzaY_4mPmp24MDNFWO-ca6ph_KwNNZfAds17Nu5C_C-YKiVdh8XVT9cQKjlRoXJoJP1MrtKr8i...
 
Pterobranchia
PterobranchiaPterobranchia
Pterobranchia
 
Biology and physiology of Pomacea Canaliculata
Biology and physiology of Pomacea CanaliculataBiology and physiology of Pomacea Canaliculata
Biology and physiology of Pomacea Canaliculata
 
Animal_Kingdom_ 2.pdf
Animal_Kingdom_ 2.pdfAnimal_Kingdom_ 2.pdf
Animal_Kingdom_ 2.pdf
 
Histological Characteristics of Alimentary canal in Fish and Blood Of Carps
Histological Characteristics of Alimentary canal in Fish and Blood Of CarpsHistological Characteristics of Alimentary canal in Fish and Blood Of Carps
Histological Characteristics of Alimentary canal in Fish and Blood Of Carps
 
BHARAT GANDER
BHARAT GANDERBHARAT GANDER
BHARAT GANDER
 
Cell biology journal abstract and summary
Cell biology journal abstract and summary Cell biology journal abstract and summary
Cell biology journal abstract and summary
 
Phylum Coelenterata Clear Concept
Phylum Coelenterata Clear ConceptPhylum Coelenterata Clear Concept
Phylum Coelenterata Clear Concept
 
Ctenophores pp
Ctenophores ppCtenophores pp
Ctenophores pp
 
Ctenophores pp
Ctenophores ppCtenophores pp
Ctenophores pp
 
Porifera-good.ppt
Porifera-good.pptPorifera-good.ppt
Porifera-good.ppt
 
Human nutrition
Human nutritionHuman nutrition
Human nutrition
 
hepertology LIZARDS unit 6.docx
hepertology LIZARDS unit 6.docxhepertology LIZARDS unit 6.docx
hepertology LIZARDS unit 6.docx
 
A New species of skin-feeding Caecilian
A New species of skin-feeding CaecilianA New species of skin-feeding Caecilian
A New species of skin-feeding Caecilian
 
Histological features of Gastrointestinal tract
Histological features of Gastrointestinal tractHistological features of Gastrointestinal tract
Histological features of Gastrointestinal tract
 
Biology of mussels & Camps
Biology of mussels & CampsBiology of mussels & Camps
Biology of mussels & Camps
 
Stomach anatomy and histology
Stomach anatomy and histologyStomach anatomy and histology
Stomach anatomy and histology
 

More from Thomas Ermak

Ermak styela clava hematogenic tissues 1976
Ermak styela clava hematogenic tissues 1976Ermak styela clava hematogenic tissues 1976
Ermak styela clava hematogenic tissues 1976Thomas Ermak
 
Ermak styela clava renewal blood cells experientia 1975
Ermak styela clava renewal blood cells experientia 1975Ermak styela clava renewal blood cells experientia 1975
Ermak styela clava renewal blood cells experientia 1975Thomas Ermak
 
Ermak styela clava kinetics stomach j exp zool 1976
Ermak styela clava kinetics stomach j exp zool 1976Ermak styela clava kinetics stomach j exp zool 1976
Ermak styela clava kinetics stomach j exp zool 1976Thomas Ermak
 
Ermak styela clava renewal gonads tiss cell 1976
Ermak styela clava renewal gonads tiss cell 1976Ermak styela clava renewal gonads tiss cell 1976
Ermak styela clava renewal gonads tiss cell 1976Thomas Ermak
 
Ermak styela clava glycogen deposits 1977
Ermak styela clava glycogen deposits 1977Ermak styela clava glycogen deposits 1977
Ermak styela clava glycogen deposits 1977Thomas Ermak
 
Ermak renewing cells of ascidians 1982
Ermak renewing cells of ascidians 1982Ermak renewing cells of ascidians 1982
Ermak renewing cells of ascidians 1982Thomas Ermak
 

More from Thomas Ermak (6)

Ermak styela clava hematogenic tissues 1976
Ermak styela clava hematogenic tissues 1976Ermak styela clava hematogenic tissues 1976
Ermak styela clava hematogenic tissues 1976
 
Ermak styela clava renewal blood cells experientia 1975
Ermak styela clava renewal blood cells experientia 1975Ermak styela clava renewal blood cells experientia 1975
Ermak styela clava renewal blood cells experientia 1975
 
Ermak styela clava kinetics stomach j exp zool 1976
Ermak styela clava kinetics stomach j exp zool 1976Ermak styela clava kinetics stomach j exp zool 1976
Ermak styela clava kinetics stomach j exp zool 1976
 
Ermak styela clava renewal gonads tiss cell 1976
Ermak styela clava renewal gonads tiss cell 1976Ermak styela clava renewal gonads tiss cell 1976
Ermak styela clava renewal gonads tiss cell 1976
 
Ermak styela clava glycogen deposits 1977
Ermak styela clava glycogen deposits 1977Ermak styela clava glycogen deposits 1977
Ermak styela clava glycogen deposits 1977
 
Ermak renewing cells of ascidians 1982
Ermak renewing cells of ascidians 1982Ermak renewing cells of ascidians 1982
Ermak renewing cells of ascidians 1982
 

Recently uploaded

Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Jeffrey Haguewood
 
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#Karmanjay Verma
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Hiroshi SHIBATA
 
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024TopCSSGallery
 
4. Cobus Valentine- Cybersecurity Threats and Solutions for the Public Sector
4. Cobus Valentine- Cybersecurity Threats and Solutions for the Public Sector4. Cobus Valentine- Cybersecurity Threats and Solutions for the Public Sector
4. Cobus Valentine- Cybersecurity Threats and Solutions for the Public Sectoritnewsafrica
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfIngrid Airi González
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Nikki Chapple
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Kaya Weers
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...panagenda
 
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyesAssure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyesThousandEyes
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfNeo4j
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesKari Kakkonen
 
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPathCommunity
 
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfLandscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfAarwolf Industries LLC
 
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...itnewsafrica
 
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...Farhan Tariq
 
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdfSo einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdfpanagenda
 
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security ObservabilityGlenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observabilityitnewsafrica
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Nikki Chapple
 
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkReact Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkPixlogix Infotech
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
 
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
 
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
 
4. Cobus Valentine- Cybersecurity Threats and Solutions for the Public Sector
4. Cobus Valentine- Cybersecurity Threats and Solutions for the Public Sector4. Cobus Valentine- Cybersecurity Threats and Solutions for the Public Sector
4. Cobus Valentine- Cybersecurity Threats and Solutions for the Public Sector
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
 
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyesAssure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
 
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
 
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfLandscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
 
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
 
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
 
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdfSo einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
 
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security ObservabilityGlenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
 
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkReact Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
 

Cell Proliferation in the Digestive Tract of Styela clava Revealed by Autoradiography

  • 1. Cell Proliferation in the Digestive Tract of Styela clava (Urochordata: Ascidiacea) as Revealed by Au torad iography with Tri tiated Thymidi ne THOMAS H. ERMAK' Scripps l n s t i t u t i o n of Oceanography, La Jolla, Californiu 92037 ABSTRACT The DNA-synthesizing cells i n the digestive tract of Styela clava were labeled with tritiated thymidine and detected at increasing time intervals with autoradiography. Most of the epithelia consist of renewing cell populations. These are the dorsal tubercle, dorsal lamina, branchial bars, zone 1 of the endo- style, stigmata, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and rectum. Expanding popula- tions are the branchid tentacles, unspeciafized pharyngeal cells, and pyloric tubules. In the renewing populations, cell proliferation occurs in restricted ger- minal zones of pseudostratified cells. I n the postbranchial digestive tract, these germinal zones usually occur at the bases of folds or grooves. Germinal cell nu- clei migrate into the cell apex and undergo mitosis there. With time, germinal cells migrate as a band of labeled cells over the underlying connective tissue into non-proliferating mature zones of ciliated, secretory, or absorptive cells. Aging mature cells are presumably extruded into the gut lumen, maintaining the system i n a steady state. Transit times are about ten days for the stigmata; two and a half weeks for the dorsal tubercle, esophageal mucous population, stomach crest population, and stomach groove population; five weeks for the intestine and rectum; and several months for zone 1 of the endostyle and esoph- ageal band population. To date, most of the work on gut cell midine and detected with autoradiography. proliferation employing tritiated thymidine The fate of the DNA synthesizing cells was and autoradiography has been confined followed by taking samples of the digestive to the renewing epithelia of mammals tract at increasing time intervals after the (Leblond and Messier, '58; Messier, '60; administration of tritiated thymidine. Leblond et al., '64). Comparable work has been done on relatively few non-mamma- General orientation lian vertebrates and invertebrates (Davis The digestive tract of ascidians (shown and Burnett, '64; Anderson; '65; Holland, schematically in fig. 1A) is composed of a '64). The sparsity of such information on branchial basket, the food collecting and ascidians is especially unfortunate because respiratory apparatus, and a postbranchial of their vertebrate affinities. Previous work region, which functions in digestion and on ascidian gut cell kinetics is limited to a absorption of nutrients. The postbranchial cell formation test (as defined by Leblond region is made of an esophagus, stomach, et al., '59) for Halocynthia sp. (Mochan intestine, and rectum. The pyloric gland, et al., '71). However, from anatomical evi- a diverticulum of the gut, is given off the dence alone, the replacement of gut epi- main course of the digestive tract at the thelial cells has been proposed in several junction of the stomach and intestine. Sea ascidians (Aros and Viragh, '69; Fouque, water enters the branchial basket through '53; Relini-Orsi, '68; Thomas, '70). the branchial siphon, passes through the Therefore, the purpose of the present stigmata (gill slits) in the branchial walls, investigation is to elucidate cell prolifera- and leaves through the atrial siphon. The tion patterns in the digestive tract of the major portion of the branchial basket is ascidian Styela claua, a large solitary as- concerned with the secretion and move- cidian found in bays along the California ment of a mucous net across the branchial coast. DNA synthesizing cells about to en- 1 Present address: Department of Physiology, Univer- ter mitosis were labeled with tritiated thy- sity of California, San Francisco, California 94143. J. ExP. ZOOL., 1 9 4 ; 44-66, 449
  • 2. 3 8 X V N X S ‘ H SVNOHL OSP
  • 3. CELL PROLIFERATION I N ASCIDIAN GUT 451 walls and with the creation of water cur- the lumenal edges of the pseudostratified rents to bring in plankton and suspended regions. organic matter. The mucous net is se- For more complete descriptions of the creted by the endostyle and moves along mechanism of feeding in ascidians and the the branchial bars by ciliary action. Water morphology of the digestive tract in Styela, currents are produced by numerous cili- the reader is asked to refer to McGinitie ated stigmata in the branchial walls. Par- ('39), Berrill ('50), Morton ('60), Fouque ticulate matter is trapped by the mucous (5) and Relini-Orsi ('68). '3, net and moves toward the anterior part MATERIALS A N D METHODS of the basket. Here, the mucous passes down the dorsal lamina to the esophageal Styela c l a m is a club-shaped ascidian opening. Below the branchial siphon, the native to Korea and Japan and lives on branchial tentacles exclude larger sus- docks, pilings, and boats in protected Cali- pended particles, but allow smaller parti- fornia bays (Abbott and Johnson, '72; Ab- cles to enter the branchial basket. The bott, '75). Individuals up to 5 cm in length dorsal tubercle, which projects into the are relatively clean, showing the brown branchial basket, plays a role in chemore- wrinkled test, but larger ones usually have ception (Carlisle, '53). a coating of bryozoans, algae, and other The postbranchial digestive tract lies ascidians. Seventy specimens of S. clava on the left side of the branchial basket. were collected from the docks at Quivira The esophagus joins the basket half way Basin of Mission Bay, San Diego, California, down the dorsal side. A t the entrance to and injected with 5 microcuries of tritiated the esophagus, the mucous net forms a thymidine (New England Nuclear Corp.) food cord, passes through the stomach and per gram fresh weight. Individuals ranged becomes compacted in the intestine. Mu- in weight from one to four grams. The cous secretions are added in the esopha- tritiated thymidine (specific activity 6.7 gus; enzymes are secreted mainly in the curies per millimore) was diluted 1: 1 with stomach; and absorption occurs chiefly in two times concentrated sea water and in- the intestine (van Weel, '40; Morton, '60). jected intra-atrially. The animals were The internal lining of the digestive tract maintained at 18"C-2OoC until the time of Styela is extensively folded, a feature of sacrifice. Ten individuals were sacrificed characteristic of solitary ascidian species. by fixation in Bouin's fluid at each of the Each region of the digestive tract is cov- following time intervals: 1 hour, 3 days, ered by the atrial epithelium (an epidermal 10 days, 15 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 60 specialization) on the outside and lined by days after injection. the digestive epithelium on the inside. In The digestive tract was dissected from between the epithelia occur blood spaces the body after at least one day's fixation and connective tissue. In the branchial and the various organs dehydrated in alco- region, smooth muscles pass below the hol and embedded in paraffin. Sections branchial bars, and in the postbranchial were cut at 7 microns and covered with region, the pyloric tubules run below the Kodak Nuclear Track Emulsion type NBT-2 digestive epithelium. by the dipping method. Autoradiograms Much of the digestive tract is lined by were exposed for periods from two weeks simple columnar epithelia, the majority to two months and developed in Kodak D-19 of which are either ciliated, secretory, or developer (3 minutes) at 68°F. All slides absorptive in nature. In several restricted were stained through the emulsion with zones throughout the digestive tract, the hematoxylin. epithelia are modified into basophilic zones The following structures or organs were of pseudostratified columnar cells (fig. 2D). examined: branchial tentacles, dorsal tu- These zones are most obvious at the bases bercle, endostyle, dorsal lamina, branchial of the folds in the esophagus and stomach bars, stigmata, esophagus, stomach, intes- and in the intestinal groove. These regions tine, rectum, and pyloric gland. T h o struc- have been cited as regions of intense cell tures in the branchial basket were not proliferation (Fouque, '53; Relini-Orsi, '68), studied: the penpharyngeal band, which since mitotic figures frequently occur along is continuous with the dorsal lamina, and
  • 4. 452 THOMAS H . ERMAK the retropharyngeal band, whose mucous consisting of lateral and axial cells. A lat- cells and band cells are considered in the eral cell compartment lies on each side of esophagus. the axial cell compartment and partly on RESULTS top of zone 2 (fig. 2A). At one hour after injection, only lateral cells are labeled Branchial tentacles (fig. 4). Although only a few cells are la- A t one hour after injection, no localized beled, this is one of the more heavily la- region of cell proliferation is observed in beled zones of the endostyle. By 20 days cross sections of the tentacles, two or three after injections, no migration of cells is nuclei being labeled per section. No changes detected. After 60 days, however, several are observed after longer time intervals. axial cells near the lateral cells are now labeled (fig. 5), indicating that the lateral Dorsal tubercle cells had sunk into the basal portion of The dorsal tubercle is a knob-shaped zone 1 and differentiate into axial cells. protuberance with a deep horseshoe-shaped Although zones 2 through 9 all have la- groove running along its surface (fig. 1C). beled cells at one hour after injection, they The exact shape of the groove, however, show no migration or loss of labeled cells varies among individuals. The groove is at increasing time intervals. Zones 2 and lined by the heavily ciliated funnel epithe- 4 are the lightest labeled populations while lium while the surface is lined by the non- zone 3 is the heaviest labeled population ciliated lip epithelium (fig. 1D). Pseudo- in the endostyle, including zone 1 (see stratified regions occur at the base and at DI sc u s s ION). the top of the groove. Beneath the funnel epithelium is a band of acidophilic mate- Branchial bars and dorsal lamina rial which appears to be supportive in The dorsal lamina and the ventral (en- function. dostylar) surface of each longitudinal bar At one hour after injection, many pseu- are covered by ciliated mucous cells while dostratified cells are labeled, but no cells the transverse bars and the dorsal surface on the sides of the grooves or on the sur- of each longitudinal bar are covered by a face of the dorsal tubercle are labeled (fig. relatively unspecialized epithelium. The 3). By 20 days after injection, cells have transverse bars are an integral part of the migrated onto the sides of the grooves branchial wall. The longitudinal bars, how- and onto the surface of the dorsal tubercle. ever, are only connected to the rest of the branchial wall at the junction with the Endostyle transverse bars. As looked at from the in- The endostyle consists of a deep furrow side of the branchial basket, each longi- running along the ventral surface of the tudinal bar bridges over the underlying branchial basket (fig. 1B). Most early ac- row of stigmata; either end of the bridge counts recognize eight cell populations. is connected to a transverse bar. However, recent ultrastructural examina- At one hour after injection, many cili- tions of zone 5 on the endostyle of several ated cells on the dorsal lamina and on the ascidians (Godeaux and Firket, '66, '69) ventral surface of the longitudinal bars are have shown that this zone consists of two Fig. 2 A. A cross section through the endostyle separate regions, making nine cell popula- showing the nine cell populations. B. A cross sec- tions in all. By the system of Barrington tion through the esophagus. C . The ventral (left) ('57), zones 6 through 8 are now zones 7 and dorsal (right) internal surfaces of the stomach and descending part of the intestine showing the through 9 (fig. 2A). The nine cell popula- twisting longitudinal folds o n the ventral surface tions in the endostyle of Styela clava are and the straight folds o n the dorsal surface of the roughly arranged in alternating glandu- stomach. D. A cross section through a pseudostrati- lar and ciliated regions. Zone 1 has long fied region. E. A cross section through the stomach. F. A cross section through the intestine in correct cilia which reach the top of the endostylar position in relation to the stomach in E. cb, band furrow. Zones 3, 5, 6, and 9, on the other cells; c m , mucous cells; r, raphe; b, bulb; ty, hand, have short cilia, while zones 2, 4, typhosole; f, folds; ig, intestinal groove; cc, simple columnar cells; mf, mitotic figure; tc, transitional and 7 are glandular. cells; pc, pseudostratified columnar cells; gp, Sokolska ('31) and Levi and Porte ('64) groove population; cp, crest population; pt, py- distinguish two compartments in zone 1 loric tubules.
  • 5. CELL PROLIFERATION I N ASCIDIAN GUT 453
  • 6. 454 THOMAS H . ERMAK labeled, but few unspecialized cells are fold (fig. 2B). Pseudostratified regions oc- labeled. On the longitudinal bars most la- cur at the base of each fold and on each beled cells occur close to the junction with side of the band cell population. the transverse bars. On the dorsal lamina, At one hour after injection, only those no distinct region of cell proliferation oc- nuclei which occur in a basal position in curs, the labeled nuclei being scattered the pseudostratified region are labeled. along the entire epithelium. Mitotic figures along the lumenal edge of A t increasing time intervals, there is a the pseudostratified region and mucous loss of labeled cells from both the longitud- cells and band cells on the sides of the inal bars and the dorsal lamina. Although folds are not yet labeled. the ciliated epithelia appear to be renewed, A t three days after injection, nuclei are no definite patterns of cell migration could labeled at all levels in the pseudostratified be determined. There appears to be a gen- layer (fig. 8). Mitotic figures are also some- eral movement of cells towards the tip of times labeled, but no mucous cells or band the dorsal lamina and away from the at- cells are labeled. The labeling of mitotic tached parts of the longitudinal bars figures by three days is a result of the mi- towards the free parts. Cell migration pat- gration of interphase nuclei from the basal terns are difficult to ascertain because to the apical portion of the cell in prepara- there appears to be no clear separation tion for mitosis. After mitosis, the daugh- into germinal and mature compartments. ter nuclei migrate back to the basal por- A t a l times after injection, the unspecial- l tion of the cell. ized epithelium on the branchial bars has By 10 to 20 days after injection mucous scattered positive reactions. cells but no band cells are now labeled. As shown in figure 9, there is quite a bit Stigmatic e p i t h e l i u m of variability in migration rate both be- Each stigma is lined by heavily ciliated tween animals and between folds in the cells which beat outward when producing same animal. water currents. Small pseudostratified re- By 60 days, mucous cells are no longer gions of basophilic cells occur at the an- labeled, presumably because they are ex- terior and posterior end of each stigma. truded into the gut lumen; however, the A t one hour after injection, only pseudo- band cells are now labeled (compare figs. stratified cells are labeled (fig. 6). Labeled 10 and 11). The band cells only originate nuclei are not observed in sections of every from the pseudostratified region on the pseudostratified region, but usually a few side of the ventral groove. This pseudostra- nuclei are labeled. No cells on the sides of tified region is unique in that i t produces the stigmatic walls are labeled. At ten days both mucous cells and band cells; mucous after injection, cells on the side walls are cell production occurs on the opposite side now labeled (fig. 7) indicating that cells of the pseudostratified region from band from the anterior end of each stigma have cell production. migrated posteriorly, and that the cells at the posterior end have migrated anteriorly. Stomach The two bands of labeled cells have met The stomach has 25 to 30 longitudinal each other on the side wall, leaving behind folds on its dorsal and lateral surfaces. lightly labeled cells in the pseudostratified regions. A t 20 days after injection, the cells Fig. 3 An autoradiogram of the lip and funnel lining the stigmata are no longer labeled. epithelia of the dorsal tubercle one hour after in- jection. X 315. Thus, all those cells labeled at the time of Fig. 4 An autoradiogram of zone 1 of the en- injection as well as their immediate prog- dostyle 20 days (same as 1 hour) after injection. eny have been lost from the cell population. Only lateral cells are labeled. X 600. Fig. . An autoradiogram of zone 1 of the en- 5 Esophagus dostyle 60 days after injection. Axial cells are now labeled. X 600. The esophagus has five folds and is lined Fig. 6 An autoradiogram of several stigmata by two populations of cells. Mucous cells one hour after injection showing labeled pseudo- occur on every fold except the base of the stratified cells. X 600. Fig. 7 An autoradiogram of several stigmata ventral fold where band cells occur. The ten days after injection showing labeled ciliated band cells are restricted to one side of the cells on the side walls. X 600.
  • 7. CELL PROLIFERATION IN ASCIDIAN GUT 4 55
  • 8. 456 THOMAS H . ERMAK The ventral surface is covered by a raphe By ten days after injection, mature cells which expands into a large bulb halfway on the sides of the grooves are now labeled. down the length of the stomach (fig. 2C) Both chief and zymogen cells are labeled, and continues as the typhosole in the in- and several pseudostratified cells are still testine. The stomach folds are covered by labeled (fig. 14). Animals killed 15 days two cell populations: the groove population after injection have several folds where the which occurs at the base of each fold, and entire groove height is labeled (fig. 15). the crest population, which occurs on the At this time, the originally small band of top of each fold (fig. 2E). At the anterior closely clustered germinal cells has ex- and posterior ends of the stomach, the panded into a long band of labeled mature raphe, bulb, and crests, which are all cov- cells intermingled with unlabeled mature ered by ciliated mucous cells, are continu- cells. ous with each other and with the mucous After 20 days, the entire groove height cells in the esophagus, Chief and zymogen is labeled, but no pseudostratified cells are cells (terminology, Burighel and Milanesi, labeled any longer. By 30 days, few cells in '73) cover the stomach grooves. The chief the groove population are still labeled. cells, however, are much more numerous Thus, most of the DNA synthesizing cells than the zymogen cells, and are absorptive labeled at the time of injection as well as in function. Pseudostratified regions occur several generations of their progeny have at the base of each groove, at the side of been lost from the epithelium, evidently each crest, and at the side of the raphe through cell extrusion at the junction of and bulb. Mitotic figures occur along the the groove population with the crest popu- lumenal edge of the pseudostratified re- lation on the tops of the folds. gions, but they are most numerous in the Crest population. At one hour after groove population. injection, cells on the sides of the stomach The folds on the dorsal surface of the crests are labeled (fig. 16). No mucous stomach are the longest, while the ones cells on the tops of the crests, however, directly adjacent to the ventral raphe are are labeled. Labeled nuclei do not occur in the shortest. The dorsal folds are straight sections of every crest, since the population (fig. 2C); the ventral folds, however, twist is small. The crest cells also have fewer around the raphe and bulb. The anterior grains above their nuclei than the cells in ends intersect the raphe while the poste- the groove population. rior ends intersect the bulb, suggesting By ten days after injection, the two that the stomach folds generate hom the bands of labeled cells on each side of the ventral surface. As the folds move away crests have migrated toward each other from the ventral surface, they lengthen (fig. 17), and by 15 and 20 days, the two and become higher. bands have met each other on the tops of Groove population. At one hour after the crests. By 30 days, the crests are gen- injection, only nuclei at the base of each erally unlabeled. Evidently, the mucous pseudostratified region are labeled (fig. 12). cells are extruded into the gut lumen at By three days after injection, nuclei at all the tip of each stomach fold. Thus, two levels in the pseudostratified region are separate renewing cell populations occur labeled (fig. 13). No mature cells are yet labeled, but several mitotic figures are la- beled. As in the esophagus, nuclei from the Fig. 8 An autoradiogram of two esophageal basal portion of each pseudostratified re- folds three days after injection. Only cells at the base of the folds are labeled. X 200. gion had migrated toward the lumenal Fig. 9 An autoradiogram of some esophageal edges of the cells in preparation for mito- folds 20 days after injection. Cells on the tops of sis. Two labeled nuclei immediately adja- the folds are now labeled. X 200. Fig. 10 An autoradiogram of a pseudostrati- cent to each other in the intermediate levels fied region (left) and some adjacent band cells of the pseudostratified region are some- (right) one hour after injection. Only pseudostrati- times observed, indicating that they are fied cells are labeled. X 420. the two daughter nuclei of a recently di- Fig. 11 An autoradiogram of a pseudostrati- fied region (left) and some adjacent band cells 60 vided labeled cell. By three days, there has days after injection. Pseudostratified cells are no been a slight migration of labeled cells longer labeled but a few band cells are now la- towards the mature zone. beled. X 420.
  • 9. CELL PROLIFERATION IN ASCIDIAN GUT 457
  • 10. 458 THOMAS H. ERMAK on each fold, each renewed by its own ger- terns in the rectum are similar to those minal cells. observed in the intestine. The major dif- The stomach raphe and bulb are basic- ference is in the size of the germinal and ally large crest populations which are re- mature zones, with fewer cells proliferat- newed on the same order of time. However, ing in the germinal zone of the rectum these populations are much larger in size. than in the germinal zone of the intestine. Many cells are labeled on the bulb at one hour, and migration (in microns per day) Pyloric gland is rapid. By 15 to 20 days after injection, The pyloric gland is composed of numer- the two large bands of mucous cells have ous tubules which are exceedingly numer- met each other on the top of the raphe and ous at the level of the mid-intestine and bulb, as on the crests. are solidly packed close to the intestinal epithelium (fig. 2F). Although the tubules lntes tine are also fairly abundant in the stomach The intestine (fig. 2F) is a long tube wall, they are not packed close together with a typhosole on one side and a deep next to the gut epithelium as in the intes- groove running along the length of the tine. A few pyloric tubules even occur in other side. The intestinal groove is lined the esophagus and intestine. Although the by pseudostratified cells while the rest of tubules occur associated with the mature the intestinal wall is lined by absorptive cells of the digestive tract, they are not and secretory cells. closely associated with the germinal zones, At one hour and three days after injec- especially in the intestine. The fact that tion, labeling is much like in the groove the pyloric tubules occur directly adjacent population of the stomach with only pseu- to the absorptive cells in the intestine but dostratified cells in the intestinal groove not the germinal cells suggests that this labeled (fig. 18). Cells migrate at a differ- organ might be involved with the process ent rate, however. After ten days, cells are of nutrient absorption and assimilation. labeled up to the top of the intestinal At all times after injection, few cells are groove and frequently onto the side walls labeled in the pyloric tubules. of the intestine. Both absorptive and se- DISCUSSION cretory cells are labeled. By 15 days, the leading edge of labeled cells has migrated The classification of cell populations (as around the side walls almost to the begin- used by Messier and Leblond, '60; Camer- ning of the typhosole. on, '70) in the digestive tract of Styelu After 20 days, labeled cells have mi- c l a m is given in table 1. Static populations, grated up the sides of the typhosole (fig. which undergo no cell proliferation, do not 19). The band of labeled cells is clearly occur in the digestive tract nor in the rest defined, unlike in the shorter mature zones of the body (Ermak, '75). Expanding popu- in the esophagus and stomach. In front of lations have a slow rate of cell prolifera- the band of labeled cells, no cells are la- tion and no detectable cell turnover within beled. Behind it, cells are usually only the life span of the animal (about 12-18 lightly labeled. By 30 days, the leading Fig. 12 An autoradiogram of the stomach edges have met each other at the top of the grooves one hour after an exposure to tritiated typhosole in a few animals. In others, the thymidine. Cells are labeled at the base of each leading edges have almost met each other. groove. x 150. Fig. 13 A n autoradiogram of a germinal zone Rec turn from a stomach groove three days after injection of tritiated thymidine. Nuclei at various levels The rectum is the terminal part of the within the pseudostratified region and a mitotic digestive tract and is characterized by the figure (arrow) are labeled. X 600. lack of a groove of pseudostratified cells Fig. 14 An autoradiogram of some stomach grooves ten days after injection of tritiated thymi- and by a typhosole which has transformed dine. Labeled cells now occupy approximately half into a thin flap. A region of basophilic of the groove height. X 150. cells runs along the dorsal surface of the Fig. 15 A n autoradiogram of the groove pop- ulation 15 days after an exposure to tritiated thy- rectum in a position corresponding to the midine. Labeled cells now occur along the entire pseudostratified region of the intestine. groove height. Few cells at the base of the groove Cell proliferation and cell migration pat- remain labeled. X 150.
  • 11. CELL PROLIFERATION I N ASCIDIAN GUT 459
  • 12. 460 THOMAS H . ERMAK months, Johnson, '71). Although zone 3 of believed that the undifferentiated cells re- the endostyle appears to be an expanding place only the zymogen cells which are population, longer termed studies would then lost from the epithelium. He consid- be required to decide whether i t is expand- ered that the chief cells represent a sepa- ing or only slowly renewed. rate cell-type not derived from the zymogen Renewing populations have a high rate cell population. My results clarify these of cell proliferation, usually demonstrate points. Two separate cell populations (the cell migration, and have turnover times groove and crest populations) occur in the within the life span of the animal. Renew- stomach of Styela clava, each renewed by ing populations are divided into two cate- its own germinal cells. The chief and zymo- gories based upon their turnover times. gen cells in the groove population, how- Type I populations have turnover times of ever, differentiate from the same germinal less than 60 days (usually between 1 and cells at the groove bases. 5 weeks) whereas type I1 populations have In a typical renewing population in the turnover times of more than 60 days (prob- postbranchial digestive tract, DNA is syn- ably up to several months). The reason thesized in pseudostratified cells whose why type I1 cell populations have such long nuclei lie close to the basal portion of the renewal times in comparison to the other cell. As each cell enters mitosis the nucleus renewing populations is not presently un- migrates toward the lumenal edge of the derstood. The renewal of the two popula- cell. Labeled mitotic figures appear as soon tions in the esophagus is of particular in- as five hours after labeling (Ennak, unpub- terest since both mucous cells (type I) lished results). After cell division, the two and band cells (type 11) originate from the daughter nuclei move back into the region same stem cell compartment. The patterns of interphase nuclei. The process of nu- of cell migration and loss in the major re- clear migration in preparation for mitosis, newing populations (dorsal lamina and interkmetic migration, is responsible for branchial bars excepted) are shown sche- the dispersal of labeled nuclei throughout matically in figure 20. the various levels of the pseudostratified From the limited work on cell popula- region by three days after injection. Inter- tion kinetics of invertebrates, it seems kinetic migration of nuclei also occurs in safe to assume that renewing gut cell pop- many other epithelia such as the epithelium ulations are rarely found. Cell renewal of the neural tube (Watterson, '65), the occurs in the ascidian branchial wall and mouse intestinal epithelium (Kataoka, '70), also in the gill of the freshwater mussel and the mammalian oviduct epithelium (Tomasovic and Mix, '74). In addition to (Wrenn and Wessells, '70). The exact the ascidian gut, only part of the crayfish mechanism by which nuclear migration gut (the hepatopancreas) is known to con- is achieved is not known, but it might in- tain renewing cell populations (Davis and volve microfilaments (Hinds and Ruffett, Burnett, '64). More commonly, the gut '71; Wessells et al., '71). cell populations of invertebrates are of the Cell division is responsible for the in- expanding type; such populations occur crease in the number of nuclei labeled with in sea urchins (Holland, '64) and probably tritiated thymidine at increasing time in- sea stars (Anderson, '65) and oysters (Mix, '71). Fig. 16 An autoradiogram of a stomach crest My results for Styela clava have con- three days after administration of tritiated thymi- dine. Cells are labeled on the sides of the crest. b e d earlier reports of stem cell popula- x 600. tions in the digestive tract of ascidians Fig. 17 An autoradiogram of a stomach crest (Fouque, '53; Relini-Orsi, '68; Thomas, ten days after administration of tritiated thymi- '70; Aros and Viragh, '69). In Styela pli- dine. Columnar cells on the top of the crest are now cata, Fouque ('53) suggested from static labeled.18 600. autoradiogram of the intestinal Fig. X An light microscope evidence that the cells at groove one hour after injection of tritiated thymi- the base of the grooves in the stomach dine. Nuclei are labeled at the base of the groove. migrate up the folds, becoming at first X 160. chief and zymogen cells and then differ- intestine 20 An autoradiogram of one half of the Fig. 19 days after administration of tritiated entiating into ciliated mucous cells on the thymidine. Cells are labeled up to the base of the crests. In Ciona intestinalis, Thomas ('70) typhosole. X 150.
  • 13. CELL PROLIFERATION IN ASCIDIAN GUT 461
  • 14. 462 THOMAS H . ERMAK A Fig. 20 Schematic diagrams of cell renewal in the digestive tract of Styela cluua showing directions of cell migration (small arrows) a n d regions of cell loss (large arrows). Black regions indicate germinal zones. Diagrams not to scale. A, lip epithelium (shaded) a n d funnel epithe- lium of the dorsal tubercle; B, zone I of the endostyle; C, stigmatic cells; D, ciliated band cells (shaded) a n d ciliated mucuous cells of the esophagus, E, crest population (shaded) a n d groove population of the stomach; F, intestinal epithelium. tervals after injection. After a DNA syn- eventually move out of the germinal zone, thesizing cell has divided, the daughter pass through the transitional zone, and cells may differentiate or divide again. then migrate through the mature zone in Those cells in the germinal zone which lie a linear fashion. Those cells initially la- close to the transitional zone are more beled and their immediate progeny move likely to differentiate into mature cells through the epithelium as a band of heav- while those cells which lie far away from ily labeled cells. In front of the band, no the transitional zone are more likely to di- cells are labeled. Behind it, cells are only vide a few more times. In any case, all lightly labeled or not labeled at all. Those those cells initially labeled with tritiated cells which are lightly labeled are descend- thymidine and/or their labeled progeny ants through many generations from those
  • 15. CELL PROLIFERATION IN ASCIDIAN GUT 463 TABLE 1 Classification of the cell populutions in the digestive tract of Styela clava according to proliferative behuvior Type of cell population Example (with transit time) Expanding populations Branchial tentacles Unciliated pharyngeal cells Zones 2, 3,4, , 6 , 7, 8, and 9 of endostyle 5 Pyloric gland Renewing populations A. Type I Funnel epithelium of dorsal tubercle (2.5 weeks) (renewal in less than 60 days) Lip epithelium of dorsal tubercle (2.5 weeks) Dorsal lamina and branchial bars (several weeks) Stigmatic cells (1.5 weeks) Mucous cells of esophagus (2.5 weeks) Crest population of stomach (2.5 weeks) Groove population of stomach (2.5 weeks) Intestinal epithelium (5 weeks) Rectal epithelium (5 weeks) B. Type I1 Zone 1 of endostyle (several months) (renewal in more than 60 days) Band cells of esophagus (several months) cells which were initially labeled with and intestine, however, are dramatically tritiated thymidine and have had their different. Cells in the intestine migrate DNA diluted with unlabeled precursors. faster yet are renewed slower than cells in Assuming a chromosomal number of 32 the stomach. It is reasonable to assume (Minouchi, '36) for Styela, the progeny of that the stomach is under more demands labeled cells would have only one labeled for cell turnover than the intestine. Morton chromosome after six cell divisions (Cron- ('60) claims that the stomach is the pri- kite et al., 'Sl), if a labeled cell remained mary site of digestion in ascidians while in the germinal zone long enough to divide Yonge ('25) and van Wee1 ('40) state that six times, that is. In any case, the band of the intestine is the primary site of absorp- labeled cells is finally lost from the cell tion. Presumably the stomach provides a population, presumably through extrusion more formidable environment of digestive of cells into the lumen of the gut. enzymes. Although most of the cell proliferation The renewing populations in the ascidian in the germinal compartments is for the postbranchial digestive tract are quite sim- replacement of mature cells lost from the ilar to the renewing populations in the cell populations, some proliferation pro- stomach and intestine of mammals. The vides for the growth of the digestive tract, renewal of the mucous cells in the esoph- especially in small individuals. As animals agus and stomach of Styela is similar to grow larger, the stigmata multiply, the the renewal of the surface epithelium in folds in the esophagus and stomach grow the mammalian stomach (Messier, '60). longer, and the intestine grows wider. The renewal of the band cells in the esoph- There also appears to be some mecha- agus of Styela is similar to the renewal of nism of regulating cell proliferation and the parietal cells in the mammalian stom- maturation in the ascidian digestive tract ach (Raggins et al., '68; Kataoka, '70) and such as that proposed in the rat intestine the Paneth cells in the mammalian intes- (Galjaard et al., '72; Rijke et al., '74). tine (Cheng et al., '69; Cheng, '74b). The Transit times are the same for the mucous band cells, parietal cells, and Paneth cells cells in the esophagus and stomach, al- are all renewed at a much slower rate than though the sizes of the cell populations most of the other cells lining the digestive (esophageal fold; stomach crest, raphe and tract. They also originate from germinal bulb) and the actual migration rates (in cells which also give rise to the rapidly re- microns per days) are different. Migration newed cells of the digestive tract. rates are proportional to the sizes of the The renewal of the groove population germinal and mature compartments. Tran- in the stomach and the renewal of the in- sit times for the chief cells in the stomach testinal epithelium of Styela is most like
  • 16. 464 THOMAS H. ERMAK the renewal of the intestinal villi of mam- Cheng, H. 1974 Origin, differentiation and re- mals (Leblond and Messier, '58; Messier newal of the four main epithelial cell types in the mouse small intestine. 11. Mucous cells. Am. and Leblond, '60; Cheng and Leblond, J. Anat., 141 : 481-502. '74a,b; Cheng, '74a). In mammals, cell 1974 Origin, differentiation and renewal proliferation occurs only in the crypts of of the four main epithelial cell types in the mouse Lieberkiihn. Crypt cells migrate up the small intestine. IV. Paneth cells. Am. J. Anat., 1 4 1 : 521-536. villi, differentiate into chief and goblet Cheng, H., and C. P. Leblond 1974 Origin, dif- cells, and are finally extruded at the villus ferentiation and renewal of the four main epi- tips. Cell migration in mammals, however, thelial cell types in the mouse small intestine. is out of pits and up fingerlike projections. I. Columnar cell. Am. J. Anat., 141 : 461-480. 1974 Origin, differentiation and renew- Migration in Styela, on the other hand, is al of the four main epithelial cell types in the linear and up longitudinal folds. Perhaps mouse small intestine. V. Unitarian theory of the most conspicuous difference between the origin of the four epithelial cell types. Am. ascidian and mammalian gut renewal is J. Anat., 141 ; 537-562. Cheng, H., J. Merzel and C. P. Leblond 1969 in transit time. The time for a labeled cell Renewal of Paneth cells in the small intestine of to reach the villus tip is about one and the mouse. Am. J. Anat., 126: 507-524. one-half days in the rat (Messier and Le- Cronkite, E. P., S. W. Greenhouse, G. Brecher, blond, 'SO), about three days in the mouse V. P. Bond 1961 Implication of chromosome structure and replication on hazard of tritiated (Leblond and Messier, '58), and about five thymidine and the interpretation of data on cell to six days in man (MacDonald et al., '64). proliferation. Nature, 189: 153-154. In Styela, transit times are about two and Davis, L. E., and A . L. Burnett 1964 A study of a half weeks in the stomach and about growth and cell differentiation i n the hepato- five weeks in the intestine. Cell renewal pancreas of the crayfish. Devel. Biol., 10: 122- 153. times in the intestine of Styela, however, Ermak, T. H. 1975 Cell Proliferation in the As- are comparable to those in the newt intes- cidian Styela clava: An Autoradiographic and tine (O'Steen and Walker, '60) where re- Electron Microscopic Investigation Emphasizing newal is on the order of a month. Cell Renewal i n the Digestive Tract of This and Fourteen Other Species of Ascidians. Ph.D. dis- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS sertation, Univ. Calif., San Diego. Fouque, G. 1953 Contribution ~3 1'Ctude de la I am indebted to Dr. Nicholas D. Holland glande pylorique des ascidiaces. Ann. Inst. for his advice, support, and criticism. I Oceanogr. (Paris), 28: 18CL317. thank Emily Reid for the final drawings Galjaard, H., W. Van der Meer-Fieggen and J. of figures 1 and 2. Giesen 1972 Feedback control by functional villus cells on cell proliferation and maturation LITERATURE CITED in intestinal epithelium. Exp. Cell Res., 73: 197- 207. Abbott, D. P. 1975 Phylum chordata: Introduc- Godeaux, J., and H. Firket 1966 Ultrastructure tion and Urochordata. In: Light's Manual. R. I. de l'endostyle de Molgula manhattensis Kay (As- Smith and J. T. Carlton, eds. Univ. Calif. Press, cidie stolidobranche). Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Berkeley, pp. 6384355. (Paris), 262: 48EL490. Abbott, D. P., and J. V. Johnson 1972 The as- 1969 Etude au microscope electronique cidians Styela burnharti, s. plicatu, s. clava, de l'endostyle d'une ascidie stolidobranche M o l - and S. montereyensis in California waters. Bull. gula manhattensis Kay. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. S. Cal. Acad. Sci., 71 : 95-105. Biol. Animale, 10: 163-187. Anderson, J. M. 1965 Studies on visceral regen- eration in sea stars. 11. Regeneration of pyloric Hinds, J. W., and T. L. Ruffett 1971 Cell pro- caeca in Asteriidae with notes on the source of liferation in the neural tube: an electron micro- cells in regenerating organs. Biol. Bull., 128; scopic and Golgi analysis in the mouse cerebral 1-23. vesicle. Z. Zellfrsch. Mikr. Anat., 1 1 5 : 226-264. Aros, B., and S. Viragh 1969 Fine structure of Holland, N. D. 1964 Cell Proliferation in Post- the pharynx and endostyle of an ascidian (Ciona embryonic Specimens of the Purple Sea Urchin intestinalis). Acta. Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung., 20: (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus): an Autoradio- 281-297. graphic Study Employing Tritiated Thymidine. Berrill, N. J. 1950 The Tunicata. Ray Society, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford Univ. London. Johnson, J. V. 1971 The annual growth and Burighel, P., and C. Milanesi 1973 Fine struc- reproductive cycle of Styela sp. in the Marina ture of the gastric epithelium of the ascidian del Rey, Venice, California. M. S. thesis, Dept., Botryllus schlosseri. Vacuolated and zymogen Zool., Univ. Nebraska. cells. Z. Zellforsch. Microscop. Anat., 1 4 5 : 541- Kataoka, K. 1970 The fine structure of the pro- 555. liferative cells of the mouse intestine a s revealed Cameron, I. L. 1970 Cell renewal in the organs by electron microscopic autoradiography with and tissues of the non-growing adult mouse. H3-thymidine. Z. Zellforsch. Mikr. Anat., 103: Texas Rep. Biol. Med., 28: 203-248. 170-178.
  • 17. CELL PROLIFERATION I N ASCIDIAN GUT 465 Leblond, C. P., R. C. Greulich and J. P. M. Pereira OSteen, W. K., and B. E. Walker 1960 Radio- 1964 Relationship of cell formation and cell autographic studies of regeneration. Anat. Rec., migration in the renewal of stratified squamous 137: 501-509. epithelium. Adv. Biol. Skin, 5: 39-67. Ragins, H.,F. Winlze, S. M. Liv and M. Dittbren- Leblond, C. P., and B. Messier 1958 Renewal ner 1968 The origin and survival of gastric of chief cells and goblet cells in the small intes- parietal cells in the mouse. Anat. Rec., 162: tine as shown by radioautography after injection 99-1 10. of thymidine.Hs into mice. Anat. Rec., 132: Relini-Orsi, L. 1968 Prime osservazioni morfo- 247-259. logiche ed istochimiche sull' apparato digerente Leblond, C. P., B. Messier and B. Kopriwa 1959 di Styela plicuta. Les. Boll. Mus. Inst. Biol. Thymidine-Hs as a tool for the investigation of Univ. Genova, 36: 157-184. the renewal of cell populations. Lab. Invest., 8: Rijke, R. P. C., W. Van der Meer-Fieggen and H. 296308. Galjaard 1974 Effect of villus length on cell Levi, C., and A. Porte 1964 Ultrastructure de proliferation and migration i n small intestinal l'endostyle de l'ascidie Microcosmus claudicans epithelium. Cell Tiss. Kinet., 7: 577-586. Savigny. 2. Zellforsch. Mikr. Anat., 62: 293- Sokolska, J. 1931 Contribution l'histologie de 309. l'endostyle des Ascidies. Folia Morfol., 3: 1-34. MacDonald, W. C., J. S . Trier and N. B. Everett Thomas, N. W. 1970 Morphology of cell types 1964 Cell proliferation and migration in the from the gastric epithelium of Ciona intestinalis. stomach, duodenum, and rectum of man: radio- J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K., 50: 737-746. autographic studies. Gastroenterol., 46: 405- Tomasovic, S. P.,and M. C. Mix 1974 Cell re- 41 7. newal in the gill of the fresh-water mussel, Mar- McGinitie, G. E. 1939 The method of feeding garitifera margaritifera: an autoradiographic of tunicates. Biol. Bull., 77: 44-47. study using high specific activity tritiated thy- Messier, B. 1960 Radioautographic evidence for midine. J. Cell Sci., 14: 561-569. the renewal of the mucous cells in the gastric Watterson, R. L. 1965 Structure and mitotic be- mucosa of the rat. Anat. Rec., 136: 242. havior of the early neural tube. In: Organogene- Messier, B., and C. P. Leblond 1960 Cell pro- sis. R. L. Dehaan and H . Ursprung, eds. Holt, liferation and migration as revealed by radio- Rinehart, and Winston, New York, pp. 129-159. autography after injection of thymidine-Ha into Weel, P. B. van 1940 Beitrage zur Ernahrungs- male rats and mice. Am. J. Anat., 106: 247-265. biologie der Ascidien. Pub. Sta. Zool. Napoli, Minouchi, 0. 1936 Notiz iiber die chromosomen 18: 5 C 7 9 . von Tethyum plicatum Les. (Ascidia). Z . Zell- Wessells, N. K., B. S. Spooner, J. F. Ash, M. 0. forsch. Microscop. Anat., 23: 790-794. Bradley, M. A. Luduena, E. L. Taylor, J. T. Mix, M. C. 1971 Cell renewal systems in the Wrenn and K. M. Yamada 1971 Microfila- gut of the oyster Crassostrea gigus (Mollusca: ments in cellular and developmental processes. Bivalva). Veliger, 14: 202-203. Science, 171 ; 1 3 S 1 4 3 . Mochan, 0. T., N. L. Liebson and L. T. Frolova Wrenn, J. T., and N. K. Wessells 1970 Cyto- 1971 On localization of proliferative process in chalasin B: Effects upon microfllaments involved the guts of some species of invertebrates (In in morphogenesis of estrogen-induced glands of Russian). Sci. Comm. Inst. Mar. Biol. Far East. oviduct. Roc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 66: 904-908. Sci. Cent. Akad. Nauk. S. S. S. R., 2: 152-157. Yonge, C. M. 1925 Secretion, digestion, and Morton, J. E. 1960 The functions of the gut in assimilation in the gut of Ciona intestinalis. ciliary feeders. Biol. Rev., 35: 92-140. Brit. J. Exp. Biol., 2: 373-388.