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10 Slides to SMS

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Telecom Source Consulting

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10 Slides to SMS

  1. 1. SMS The Telecom Source 10 Slide Technology Series
  2. 2. SMS Overview <ul><li>SMS stands for S hort M essage S ervice </li></ul><ul><li>SMS was first introduced in 1991 in Europe as a text messaging service based on European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standards for mobile networks </li></ul><ul><li>SMS is being used in a wide range of social and business applications such as electronic voting, delivery of stock quotations, delivery of e-mail notification </li></ul><ul><li>SMS is currently supported on the major mobile network technologies including: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSM ( G lobal S ystem for M obile communications) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS ( G eneral P acket R adio S ervice) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA ( C arrier D ivision M ultiplex A ccess) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SMS supports the sending and receiving of text, images, animation and sound </li></ul><ul><li>SMS messages are originated and received by S hort M essaging E ntities (SME). Examples of SMEs are: mobile phones; servers; personal computers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Network Architecture SMS-GMSC/ SMS-IWMSC HLR SME MS SMSC MSC/SGSN VLR Outside the scope of GSM specifications <ul><li>S hort M essage E ntity (SME) – sends or receives short messages </li></ul><ul><li>S hort M essage S ervice C entre (SC) – stores-and-forwards messages between the SME and the MS </li></ul><ul><li>G ateway MSC For Short Message Service (SMS-GMSC) - receives messages from the SC, interrogates the HLR for routing information and forward the messages to the MSC or SGSN </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H ome L ocation R egister (HLR) - a database used for permanent storage and management of user/subscriber profiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>I nter- W orking MSC For Short Message Service (SMS-IWMSC) - receives messages from the MSC or SGSN and forwards them to the SC </li></ul><ul><li>M obile S ervice C entre (MSC) – performs switching functions for mobile stations in a geographical area </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V isitor L ocation R egister (VLR) - a database that contains temporary information about roaming subscribers. The MSC and the VLR are always on the same platform. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>S erving G PRS S upport N ode (SGSN) – performs packet switching functions for mobile stations in a geographical area. The SGSN is used instead of the MSC when SMS info is transferred over GPRS. </li></ul><ul><li>M obile S tation (MS) – a device on the mobile network capable of receiving and sending short messages </li></ul>
  4. 4. SMS Protocol Services and Features <ul><li>SMS is a point-to-point store and forward technology with 2 basic services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S hort M essage M obile T erminated (SM-MT) - to transmit a message from the short message service centre to the mobile station. – SMS-DELIVER PDU ( P rotocol D ata U nit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S hort M essage M obile O riginated (SM-MO) to transmit a message from mobile station to service centre – SMS-SUBMIT PDU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMS allows message delivery to handsets either active/in-use or powered off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile stations receive transport data protocol units (TPDU) denoted as SMS-Deliver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile stations send transport data protocol units (TPDU) denoted as SMS-Submit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: the TPDU contains the user data (the short message) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMS protocol permits request of message delivery confirmation report </li></ul><ul><li>SMS messages contain up to 140 octets which is equivalent to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>160 Latin characters (7 Bit Coding) – Text Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70 Unicode characters (double byte) e.g. Arabic Characters, Chinese Characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMS messages can also contain up to 140 octets of binary information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMS messages are transported in the core network using SS7 ( S ignaling S ystem 7 </li></ul>
  5. 5. SMS Service Elements <ul><li>Validity Period is the service element that indicates the time period for which the SMSC will guarantee the existence of the short message when attempting to deliver it </li></ul><ul><li>Service Centre Time Stamp is the service element that indicates the time stamp of message arrival at the SMSC </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol Identifier is the service element in to indicate higher layer protocol or indicates inter-working with certain types of telemetic services (e.g. paging, email) </li></ul><ul><li>More Messages to Send is the service element by which a SMSC informs the MS that there is one or more messages waiting in the SC to be sent to the MS </li></ul><ul><li>Priority is the service element indicating that delivery of the message will be attempted regardless of the MS being temporarily absent or having no free memory </li></ul><ul><li>Message Waiting is the service element that enables the mobile network to provide the HLR, SGSN and VLR with the information that there is a message waiting in the originating SMSC for a MS </li></ul><ul><li>Alert Service Centre is the service element used by mobile networks to inform an SMSC that a previously unreachable MS (temporarily absent or no memory) is ready to receive messages </li></ul>
  6. 6. SM-MT Service - SMS-DELIVER TPDU Structure   PDU Type: Bits   MTI bit 1 = 0 bit 0 = 0 1-10 Octets 1 Octet 2-12 Octets 1 Octet 1 Octets 7 Octets 1 Octet 0-140 Octets   SCA PDU- Type   OA   PID   DCS   SCTS   UDL   UD 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 RP UDHI SRI     MMS MTI User Data - Data Field of the Short Message UD User Data Length - Parameter indicating the length of the UD-field UDL Service Centre Time Stamp - Parameter identifying the time when the SMSC received the message SCTS Data Coding Scheme - Parameter identifying the coding scheme within the User Data (UD) DCS Protocol Identifier - Parameter indicating the SMSC how to process the Short Message (e.g. Fax) PID Originator Address - Address of the originating SME OA Message Type Indicator - Parameter describing the message type 00 means SMS-Deliver MTI More Messages to Send - Parameter indicating whether or not there are more messages to send MMS Status Report Indication - Parameter indicating if the SME has requested a status report SRI User Data Header Indicator - Parameter indicating that UD field contains a header UDHI Reply Path - Parameter indicating that Reply Path exists RP Protocol Data Unit Type PDU Type Service Centre Address - Telephone number of the Service Centre SCA Description Parameter
  7. 7. SM-MO Service - SMS-SUBMIT TPDU Structure Bits PDU Type:   MTI bit 1 = 0 bit 0 = 1 7 4 3 2 RP UDHI SRR User Data - Data Field of the Short Message UD User Data Length - Parameter indicating the length of the UD-field UDL Service Centre Time Stamp - Parameter identifying the time when the SMSC received the message SCTS Data Coding Scheme - Parameter identifying the coding scheme within the User Data (UD) DCS Protocol Identifier - Parameter indicating the SMSC how to process the Short Message (e.g. Fax) PID Destination Address - Address of the destination SME DA Message Reference - Successive numbers (0…255) of all SMS-SUBMIT frames sent by the MS. MR Message Type Indicator - Parameter describing the message type 01 means SMS-Submit MTI Reject Duplicates – parameter indicating if SMSC will accept a message with same MR and DA from the same OA RD Validity Period Format - Parameter indicating whether or not the VP field is present VPF Status Report Request - Parameter indicating if the MS has requested a status report SRR User Data Header Indicator - Parameter indicating that UD field contains a header UDHI Reply Path - Parameter indicating that Reply Path exists RP Protocol Data Unit Type PDU Type Service Centre Address - Telephone number of the Service Centre SCA Description Parameter 6 5 1 0   VPF   1-10 Octets 1 Octet 1 Octet 2-12 Octets 1 Octet 1 Octets 0, 1 or 7 Octets 1 Octet 0-140 Octets   SCA PDU- Type   MR   DA   PID   DCS   VP   UDL   UD RD MTI
  8. 8. Message Flow SM-MT Message Transfer sendRoutingInfo- Delivery ForShortMsg forwardShortMessage sendInfoFor- MT-SMS Message Transfer Deliver Report SM-Delivery ReportStatus Report SMSC GMSC HLR MSC VLR Page Authenticate MS Note: ETSI/GSM MAP sendRoutingInforForShortMsg equivalent in IS41 (North American standard) is SMSrequest mechanism, while forwardShortMessage is Short Message Delivery-Point-to-Point (SMD-PP)
  9. 9. Message Flow SM-MO Message Transfer Delivery forwardShortMessage sendInfoFor- MO-SMS Message Transfer Delivery Report Delivery Report Report SMSC SMS-IWMSC HLR MSC VLR Access Request Authenticate MS Note: ETSI/GSM MAP forwardShortMessage equivalent in IS41 (North American Standard) is Short Message Delivery-Point-to-Point (SMD-PP) mechanism
  10. 10. Short Message Service Centre - SMSC <ul><li>Short Message service Centre plays a central role in the management of SMS message origination and SMS message delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly, detailed functionality of SMSC is outside the scope of standardization, hence several vendor specific products and protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMI ( E xternal M achine I nterface) – CMG, now LogicaCMG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCP ( U niversal C omputer P rotocol) – Logica, now LogicaCMG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIMD ( C omputer I nterface to M essage D istribution) – Nokia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OIS ( O pen I nterface S pecification) – SEMA Group, now Airwide Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Access Service and Protocol – Ericsson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMS Forum is an industry initiative to create a common standard “SMPP” ( S hort M essage P eer-to- P eer) using Internet as the transport network </li></ul><ul><li>The ETSI/GSM standard does specify minimum mandatory SMSC requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each SMS-Deliver to a MS must have unique time stamp with one second accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one outstanding SMS-Deliver (i.e. message for which a report not yet received) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If requested by MS or SME, initiate overwriting of previously received short messages </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Additional Features and Issues <ul><li>SMS standard allows concatenation of messages to enable transmission of longer messages (i.e. messages longer than 140 octets) </li></ul><ul><li>Short Messages may be compressed with algorithms described in GSM 03.42 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression only applies to user-data and excludes user-data-header </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If compressed message are greater than 140 octets, then the messages can be concatenated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In North America wireless subscribers can address text messages using 5-digit numbers (“short codes”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An example of the use of short codes is for SMS voting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One objective of short codes is to reduce or minimize Spam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short codes are being used to price and market services (e.g charge back to application provider) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service gateway products are available that address multi-network (GSM/CDMA) and multi-protocol (e.g. EMI/OIS) inter-working </li></ul><ul><li>Security is an emerging concern similar to that with e-mail, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPAM – sending of unsolicited messages and ads via SMS (e.g. to entice users to call numbers that have a high per minute charge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus - resend of message to all numbers in the phone’s address book (e.g. via a Trojan Horse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity Theft - retrieval of personal information from a SIM ( S ubscriber I nterface M odule) card </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Telecom Source www.thetelecomsource.com [email_address]

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