The Giving Consumer


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The Giving Consumer

  1. 1. MG 508 The Changing Consumer Group Presentation: The Giving Consumer Group 2: Roisin Haugh X Seánpaul Walsh X Prof. X Fri. 12 th Nov 2010
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case study I- Gift giving: an interdisciplinary review </li></ul><ul><li>Case study II- Donation Behavior toward In-Groups and Out Groups: The Role of Gender and Moral Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Chosen Case Study: Moral Identity and Judgement of Charitable Behaviours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tips for Marketing Managers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Our Charities <ul><li>Movember Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 9 Affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish Cancer Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun Concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Niall Mellon Township Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ìrish Charity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Annual Building Blitz’s SA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Week Long Time Commitment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>Moral identity: </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which being moral, fair, and just is part of someone's self-identity </li></ul><ul><li>High Moral identity = shows a higher regard for the welfare of others </li></ul><ul><li>Donate more to Out-Group – expanded circle of Moral Regard </li></ul><ul><li>Gender identity: </li></ul><ul><li>Correlates with biological sex </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – communal or agentic goal orientations </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of Oneself (IOS): </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with a group – level of inclusion of the group in oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment and interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of closeness, similarity, responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Aron et al. 1992; Levine et al. 2005). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Group/Out Group: </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of belonging to a group </li></ul><ul><li>Can be an automatic process </li></ul><ul><li>Those in an In Group are often more likely to receive donations than those in an Out Group </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Why individuals elect to offer this monetary support is a topic that has long been of interest </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, total giving to the non-profit sectors in 2004….$248.52 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>90% of Americans offer donations to nonprofits, Giving on average 2% of income. </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Determinants “factors” for evaluation of charitable alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of Organisational Performance, e.g. service quality </li></ul>Case I: Gift Giving Behaviour; An Interdisciplinary View
  6. 6. Sargent & Woodcliffe, 2007
  7. 8. Key Findings <ul><li>The selection of fundraising techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( direct mail, DRTV, door to door, face to face etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The needs to conduct work looking at the profiles of individuals to create a promotional message that work best with different target segment </li></ul><ul><li>New Targets can be unlocked </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding importance of Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning of your message </li></ul>
  8. 9. Case II: Donation Behavior toward In-Groups and Out Groups: The Role of Gender and Moral Identity <ul><li>Study 1 and Study 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of gender identity on donations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Community and Agentic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash donations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using biological sex – gender identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant for charities aiming at male/female </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How people choose among charities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$5 that they could allocate to Hurricane Katrina victims, Indian Ocean tsunami victims, or themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People kept $1.10 on average for themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on Gender and Moral identity </li></ul></ul>Case II: Donation Behavior toward In-Groups and Out Groups: The Role of Gender and Moral Identity Feminine Masculine Communal goals Agentic goals Considering the welfare of others Assertiveness Control Focus on the self
  10. 11. In-Group/Out-Group <ul><li>Indian Ocean Tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>212, 611 victims </li></ul><ul><li>$1.54 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Out-Group </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Katrina </li></ul><ul><li>1,300 victims </li></ul><ul><li>$4.35 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>In-Group </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of terrorist attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of overlap people see between themselves and the charity (In-group and Out-Group) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just charity-worthiness related </li></ul></ul>Women London and Iraq Men London
  11. 12. Results <ul><li>Feminine gender identity </li></ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul><ul><li>Equally to hurricane and tsunami victims </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine gender identity </li></ul><ul><li>Who valued morality </li></ul><ul><li>More to Katrina victims than tsunami victims </li></ul>
  12. 13. Learnings <ul><li>Masculine gender identity are influenced by moral identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only for donations to the in-group. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IOS controls effect of gender identity and moral identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in-groups and out-groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Masculine gender identity is focused on the self </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine gender identity is focused on the in-group. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot change their donors’ identities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence the salience of identities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaigns and marketing activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fundraise for an Out-Group (South Africa) - target market = male donors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reposition as in-group rather than an out-group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals (males) are more likely to include the donation group in the self </li></ul></ul>Moral Identity Donation Group Donation Gender Identity
  13. 14. Case III: Moral Identify and Judgements of Charitable Behaviours <ul><li>Justification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Why”, “The Who” & Now “The What” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents Framework of Time Vs. Money  Moral Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for help in times of need  Relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results provided food for thought for charities when looking for donations </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Reed II, Aquino & Levy, 2007
  15. 16. <ul><li>What a Marketing Manager for a charity can learn? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How consumers donate their time and money - crucial information for charities, for profit organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs of a charity should be clearly portrayed in all advertising and marketing material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ If a charitable organization needs donations of money to achieve its goals, it </li></ul><ul><li>may want to emphasize (particularly to high moral identifiers) how this money </li></ul><ul><li>will enable the charity to give time to help those less fortunate.” </li></ul><ul><li>( Reed II, Aquino, Levy 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activate the morality of the time dimension rather than focus fully on € </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the consumer gives money, others who work for the charity will be able to give their time to those in need e.g. Red Cross </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Medical personnel need money to buy material rather than the donation of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral identity Prime – Movember – other people are doing it and this is advertised all over their website </li></ul></ul>Case III: Moral Identify and Judgements of Charitable Behaviours
  16. 17. Our Opinion <ul><li>Target Market identification is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to new markets through better understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Aim Advertisements and all marketing activity at the charity’s target donation group </li></ul><ul><li>Charity = Brand </li></ul>