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History and Philosophy of Media 2012 Seminar 7

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  1. 1. MECM90015 History and Philosophy of Media 2012 7. GlobalisationTang Dynasty c. 700 CE Song Dynasty 960–1279 CE Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 CE When everyone is dead the Great Game is finished. Not before. (Rudyard Kipling, Kim)
  2. 2. The First Battle of Panipat 1526 Mughal India
  3. 3. Alexander the Great (356 – 323 BCE) and the extent of the Macedonian Empire
  4. 4. Harrappa, earliest deposits from 5300 BCE Mohenjo Daro. c2300 BCE
  5. 5. Buddhist Havens at Dunhuang
  6. 6. Old World Trade Routes c. 100 BCE
  7. 7. Ferdnand BraudelCivilisation maté-rielle, économie et capitalisme,XVe-XVIIIe siècle 1949La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen a l’époque de Philippe II 1967-79 la longue durée Trans-Siberian railway, constructed 1891 to 1913
  8. 8. Papyrus copy of Plato’s Symposium; Extent of the Roman Empire; Roman Road in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spain. rome Innis, Harold. (1950) Empire and Communications. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Innis, Harold. (1951) The Bias of Communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  9. 9. Some key dates in the history of Islam622 CE: the Hijra or flight to Medina; start of Islamic calendar632 CE Death of the Prophet Muhammad650-750 CE Caliphates and civil war750-1250 CE The “Golden Age”1250 - 1916 CE Ottoman Empire
  10. 10. Human Migration Extent of British Empire (asynchronous) see also http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/maproom.htm
  11. 11. Gerard Ter Borch, The Signing of the Treaty of Westphalia, 1648Signed to mark the end of the Thirty Years War, which had begun when the King of Bohemia, the HolyRoman Emperor elect, attempted to force all his subjects to profess the Catholic faith. Battles for terri-tory as well as religion devastated Europe, especially what was later to become Germany (see Brecht’sMother Courage). The Treaty established the boundaries of national organisations, and formalised therelations between them. It is regarded as the foundation of the contemporary international order, thatis the relationships between nation-states.
  12. 12. Ruins of Dresden, Germany, after Allied bombing, 13-15 February 1945 Men make their own history, but not under conditions of their own choosingKarl Marx, 18th Brumaire http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1852/18th-brumaire/
  13. 13. 1944 Dumbarton Oaks Conference:principal Allied powers draft outlines ofthe future UN. An explicit response tothe experience of two world wars1944 Bretton Woods Conference (IMF,World Bank) – economic organization ofthe post-war world, with a particularemphasis on currency stability. Anexplicit response to the Great Depres-sion of the 1930s.1945 Yalta Conference (pictured): rec-ognition of Soviet bloc as condition forUSSR entering war with Japan1945 San Francisco Conference – expan-sive and inclusive UN preparatory meet-ing, learning from failure of the inter-warLeague of Nations
  14. 14. Bretton World BankWoods International Monetary Fund GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeInstruments US Dollar as international repayment currency1947 -
  15. 15. Dutch Banking Hegemony 17th-18th CenturiesBritish Imperial Hegemony 18th-19th CenturiesUS Commercial Hegemony 20th CenturyChinese Commercial Hegemony 21st Century
  16. 16. Global Network Traffic 2005the global financial expansion of the last twenty years or so is neither a new stageof world capitalism nor the harbinger of a “coming hegemony of global markets”.Rather it is the clearest sign that we are in the midst of a hegemonic crisis. Assuch the expansion can be expected to be a temporary phenomenon that willend more or less catastrophically, depending on how the crisis is handled by theleading hegemonexcerpeted from Arrighi, Giovanni and Beverly J Silver (with Iftikhar Ahmad, Kenneth Barr, Shuji Hisaeda, Po-keung Hui, Krishmendu Ray, Thomas Ehrlich Reifer, Miin-wen Shih and Eric Slater) (1999), Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  17. 17. WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED * to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and * to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and * to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and * to promote social progress and better standards of life in larg- er freedom, AND FOR THESE ENDS * to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one an- other as good neighbours, and * to unite our strength to maintain international peace and secu- rity, and * to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the com- mon interest, and * to employ international machinery for the promotion of theChilean representative signing the Charter iof the United Nations, 24 October 1945, in economic and social advancement of all peoples, San Francisco, while repsresentatives of the other fifty signatories look on. HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/index.shtml international organization to be known as the United Nations.
  18. 18. http://www.un.org/aboutun/chart_en.pdf
  19. 19. and the other UN agencies includingInternational Telecommunications UnionUniversal Postal UnionUN Development ProgramUN Children and Education Fund (UNICEF)UN High Commission for RefugeesWorld Meterology OrganisationUN-HABITATWorld Health OrganisationFood and Agricultural OrganisationUN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)International Atomic Energy AuthorityInternational Maritime Organisation . . . .
  20. 20. Development theories and global hegemonyDevelopment thinking Historical Context Hegemony ExplanationProgress, Evolution 19th Century British Empire Colonial anthropology, Social DarwinismClassical development 1890-1930s Latecomers, Colonial- Classical political ism economyModernisation Post-war boom US hegemony Growth theory, struc- tural functionalismDependency Decolonisation Third World national- Neomarxism ism, NAM, G77Neoliberalism 1980s > Globalisation, finance Neoclassical econom- and corporate capital ics, monetarismHuman development 1980s > Rise of Asia-Pacific Capacity Building, de- Rim, big emerging velopment state marketsPieterse, Jan Nederveen (2001), Development Theory: Deconstructions / Reconstructions, Sage, London.
  21. 21. Theories and definitions of develop- Current Themes Future Options ment Modernisation Revaluation of ‘tradition’. Neomodernisa- Modernities (plural). Postmodernism Development is state-led growth tion, Trimumphalism, ‘end of history’ Keynotes: industrialisation, Western model, foreign aid, linear progress Dependencia Critique of NICs, new international division Critique of uneven globalisation Development is underdevelopment (or of labour, social exclusion. New political dependent development) by comprador economy: brings the state back in. Interna- bourgeoisie; or state -led development (as- tional political economy: power and eco- sociated dependent development) by na- nomics. Uneven global developmentDI = Development Index; NICs = Newly Industrialising Countries tional bourgeoisie Neoclassical economics, neoliber- Market failure, safety net, human capital, in- Regulation of finance. Civic economy alism frastructure, good governance, sustainability. Development is market-led growth Debt reduction. New institutional econom- Keynotes: overcome state failure through ics, institutional analysis structural reform (deregulation, privatisa- tion, liberalisation) and get prices right Alternative development Adopted in mainstream. Decentralisation. Social economy, social development Development shoud be society-led: equi- Professionalisation. Alternative globalisation. table, participatory and sustainable Human development Gender DI, Freedom DI, human security, Social and cultural capital. Social develop- Capacitation or human resource develop- global reform ment. Global reform ment is the means and end of development, measured in Human Development Index Anti-development Local delinking. Conecting with ecological Localism Development is destructive, immiserating, movements. Resistance to globalisation authoritarian, past Keynotes: discourse analysis, critique of sci- ence and modernity Pieterse, Jan Nederveen (2001), Development Theory: Deconstructions / Reconstructions, Sage, London.
  22. 22. NSP: Network Ser-vice providerNAP Network AccessPointISP Internet ServiceProvider
  23. 23. Governments Corporations Expert Bodies InternetInter-Governmental Civil Society Organisations Conferences Consumers NGOs(Internet Governance Forum) (Non-Governmental Organisations)
  24. 24. ICANN Internet Corporation for As- signed Names and Numbers + IANA } Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IAB Internet Architecture Board ISOC IESG Internet Society Internet Engineering Steering Group IETF Internet Engineering Task Force W3C World Wide Web Consortium Internet Governance Diagramadapted from: Galloway, Alexander R (2004), Protocol: How Control Exists After Decentralization, MIT Press, Cambridge MA
  25. 25. Internet Governance Forum formed at the world summit on the information society Tunis, November 2005ITU International Telecommunications Union The Internet Governance Project (Syracuse University /GeorgiaWIPO World Intellectual Property Rights Organisation Tech) lists 15 organisations (or groups of organisations) withUNHCR United Nations High Commission for Human Rights direct governance roles in run- ning the internet, with a varietyUNESCOUnited Nations Education, Social and Cultural Organisation of jusrisdictions including human rights, intellectual property, eco-WTO The World Trade Organisation, especially WIPO and TRIPS nomic relations, enforcement of order and operational policies.UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law These organisations are listed on the left. Other significant or-UN-ODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime ganisations involved include Civil Society groups such as ICRA theEU/CoE European Union and Council of Europe Internet Content Rating Associa- tion, a voluntary group, and ASTA,OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development the Anti-Spam Technical Alliance; and also some Business AdvocacyAPEC/ASEAN organisations like the Santa Cruz Operation and the Business Soft-Hague Conference/G8 Hague Conference on Private International ware Alliance (both widely be- lieved to be generously funded byLaw (now focused on B2B [business to business] contract law Microsoft). One major debate at the IGF concerns the role of gov-ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ernments in internet governance, traditionally excluded in the net-ISC, CENTR, APTLD + ccTLDs Country-code Top Level Do- native models. The problem is how to balance the interests of govern-main registers and their regional associations ments, business, civil society and technologists. through control ofRIRs Regional Internet Registries standards, balance of open source and proprietary software, securityIETF Internet Engineering Task Force and intellectual property rights.
  26. 26. HIGH-TECH MANUFACTURE GLOBAL ACCELERATION Castells, Manuel (1996), The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture volume One,• R&D, innovation, and prototype fabrication • Appadurai’s ‘scapes’ (ethnoscapes; me-concentrated in highly innovative industrial diascapes; technoscapes; finanscapes;centers in core areas; ideoscapes) increase momentum• Skilled fabrication in branch plants gener-ally located in newly industrialising areas in • diffusion of power from command centresthe home country; to local operatives The Rise of the Network Society , Blackwell, Oxford.• Semi-skilled, large-scale assembly and test-ing work located offshore, particularly in • simultaneous move from legislative to ex-South East Asia; ecutive power• Customising of devices and aftersalesmaintenance and technical support orga- • dematerialisation of labournized in regional centers throughout theglobe • mobileMe• online customisation; telesales; download-ables; downskilling and localisation of skilled • real timefabrication • space as function, not location THE SPACE OF FLOWS http://www.smartmoney.com/map-of-the-market/
  27. 27. . . . the capabilities for global operation, coordination and control contained in the new infor-mation technologies and in the power of transnational corporations need to be produced. Byfocusing on the “production” of these capabilities, we recover the city because it is one of thestrategic spaces for the production of complex capabilities. These operations require intenselynetworked, specialized service sectors such as accounting, legal, advertising, financial, andcommunications to address the high levels of uncertainty and speculation that characterizeglobalized economic sectors. Further, this type of analysis adds a neglected dimension to theprevalent notion that the global economy is a result of the power of large corporations andthe capacity of new technologies to neutralize distance and place. Cities remain ideal placesfor the production of specialized services, especially when they are complex and interwoven,and meant to serve global markets.Global Cities: Strategic Roles and Socio-Political Implications, RIETI Special Interview> Saskia SASSEN http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/rieti_report/056.html
  28. 28. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea, is evident firstof all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternativesto Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have beenunmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the worldstwo largest communist countries, and the beginnings of signifi-cant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extendsbeyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctablespread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contextsas the peasants markets and color television sets now omni-present throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and cloth-ing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethovenpiped into Japanese department stores, and the rock musicenjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran.What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War,or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, butthe end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankindsideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberaldemocracy as the final form of human government. This is not tosay that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of For-eign Affairs yearly summaries of international relations, for the Francis Fukuyamavictory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideasor consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or mate-rial world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is The End of History (orig 1992)the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run. To http://www.wesjones.com/eoh.htmunderstand how this is so, we must first consider some theoreti-cal issues concerning the nature of historical change.
  29. 29. World politics is entering a new phase, and intel-lectuals have not hesitated to proliferate visionsof what it will be-the end of history, the return oftraditional rivalries between nation states, andthe decline of the nation state from the conflict-ing pulls of tribalism and globalism, among oth-ers. Each of these visions catches aspects of theemerging reality. Yet they all miss a crucial, in-deed a central, aspect of what global politics islikely to be in the coming years.It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source ofconflict in this new world will not be primarily ide-ological or primarily economic. The great divisionsamong humankind and the dominating source ofconflict will be cultural. Nation states will remainthe most powerful actors in world affairs, but theprincipal conflicts of global politics will occur be- Samuel P. Huntington (1927 – 2008)tween nations and groups of different civilizations.The clash of civilizations will dominate global poli- “The Clash of Civilizations?” (orig 1994)tics. The fault lines between civilizations will bethe battle lines of the future. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/48950/samuel-p-huntington/the-clash-of-civilizations
  30. 30. Globalization is a misleading concept, since what is de-scribed as globalization has been happening for 500 years.Rather what is new is that we are entering an ‘age of tran-sition’. We can usefully analyze the current world situationusing two time frames: 1945 to the present and circa1450 to the present.The period since 1945 has been one long Kondratieff cycle,with an A-phase that ran through 1967–76 and a B-phaseever since. The economic and political developments of thelast 50 years are easy to place within this framework. Theperiod from 1450 to the present is the long history of thecapitalist world economy, with its secular trends all reachingcritical points. This article analyzes the long-term rise in realwage levels, in costs of material inputs of production and oflevels of taxation, the combination of which has been creat-ing constraints on the possibilities of capital accumulation.The long history of the anti-systemic movements and theirstructural failures has led to a serious decline in the legiti-macy of state structures which is threatening to subvert thepolitical pillars of the existing world system.For all these reasons, the modern world system is in struc- Immanuel Wallersteintural crisis and has entered into a period of chaotic behaviorwhich will cause a systemic bifurcation and a transition to anew structure whose nature is as yet undetermined and, in World Systems Theoryprinciple, impossible to predetermine, but one that is open http://www.iwallerstein.com/to human intervention and creativity.Wallerstein, ‘Globalization or the Age of Transition?’, International Sociology 2000.
  31. 31. For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see, Far along the world-wide whisper of the south-wind rushing warm,Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be; With the standards of the peoples plunging thro’ the thunder-storm;Saw the heavens fiill with commerce, argosies of magic sails, Till the war-drum throbb’d no longer, and the battle-flags were furl’dPilots of the purple twilight, dropping down with costly bales; In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world.Heard the heavens fill with shouting, and there rain’d a ghastly dew There the common sense of most shall hold a fretful realm in awe,From the nations’ airy navies grappling in the central blue; And the kindly earth shall slumber, lapt in universal law. Alfred Tennyson, Locksley Hall (1835), http://bartelby.org/42/636.html