Prehistory 2:
Life Changes
ppt. by Robin D. Seamon
HOOK VIDEO: COSMOS- World
Set Free
DEFINITIONS:
Adaptation- physical characteristic or behavior
that allows an organism to survive and
reproduce in its envir...
Fossil- remains or imprints of once-living
organisms found in layers of rock
Fossil record- historical timeline based on f...
HOW DO FOSSILS FORM?
Petrified Fossil: fossil completely turns to stone
1. Organism dies in right place: sediments cover (...
Scientists use logic & carbon dating to
sequence & draw connections among fossil
findings all over the world
http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/lectures/age_of_the_earth/age_of_the_earth.html
What do scientists do?
Geologists & Paleontologists
Compare skeletal structure
Compare DNA
Date the fossils
Put into logic...
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fo
srec/McKinney.html
Which rocks
are oldest?
Most recent?
Which fossils
would be
oldest?
Mos...
Rocks on the top & those intruding are the
youngest.
Rocks on the bottom are older.
Erosion on a layer with other layers p...
SIMILAR STRUCTURE? = TWO REASONS:
Homologous structures same structure,
different function; evolved from common ancestor
h...
Analogous Structures
http://web1.d25.k12.id.us/home/staff/rudeer/homoanalvestig.html
Homologous Structures
BACKhttp://itc.gsw.edu/faculty/bcarter/histg
eol/paleo2/homol1.htm
EXAMPLE:
Whale
Evolution
p. 619
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/e
vo101/images/whaleancestors.gif
Vistigial Structures: structures that have
lost their ancestral use in a species but
have been retained
through evolution
Similar skeletal features reveal
important evolutionary links
among vertebrates. Structures
such as bones that have a
comm...
COMPARING SKELETONS LAB 2
http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/lessons/gr.fs.fd.html
Make a poster to show your final interpretation of the fossils as we...
A HISTORY LESSON:
Charles Darwin: 1809- 1882, naturalist who
voyaged on the HMS Beagle as a young man & is
know as the fou...
•He collected plant and animal samples, esp. off
the coast of Ecuador in the Galapagos Islands
http://upload.wikimedia.org...
•Noticed that plants and animals on the islands
looked similar to those in Ecuador with minor
variations (differences)
•Th...
•traits- specific characteristics that can be
passed from parent to offspring through genes
•Genes-
•An example:
•Selectiv...
•Thomas Malthus wrote An Essay on the
Principle of Population: an essay that said
humans had the potential to reproduce to...
Malthus POPULATION EGG CARTON STUDY
READ Book: The Global Village
Add popcorn kernels to the rows as follows:
TOP Food Sup...
•Darwin thought then, that populations of all
species were limited:
•Starvation
•Disease
•Competition
•Predation
•So, only...
•Offspring inherit traits to survive in the
environment
•Darwin thought species could evolve over time
***MOST geologists ...
•Charles Lyell a geologist, wrote Principles of
Geology; said Earth was formed by natural
processes over a LONG period of ...
• Natural Selection process by which individuals
are better adapted to survive and reproduce than
others & pass along thos...
B
A
C
K
A
D
V
A
N
C
E
Textbook:
HoltScience&Technology6thGrade
Natural Selection
NEXT
BACK
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/
article/bergstrom_02
CC VIDEO: #14 Natural Selection (12 min)
•Tusk-less elephants are proving
beneficial against poachers &
are living to reproduce offspring
without tusks as well
EXA...
•During Industrial Revolution,
soot covered the trees in
Europe. White moths stood
out & were eaten; black moths
reproduce...
•Pesticide
resistance:
resistant
individuals live to
reproduce &
pass on resistant
genes. Insects
produce LOTS of
offsprin...
•Super viruses
•Same flu shots not work each year
•Antibiotic resistance
EXAMPLES:
virusBacteria: staph
www.healthheap.com...
•Speciation formation of a new species; species
become so different, they can’t mate any longer
•Separation new adaptation...
VIDEOS:
Discovery Education: Greatest Discoveries with Bill Nye: The
Origin & Evolution of Life pr25173 45 min DISC LINK
H...
Prehistory 2: Life Changes-  Notes on adaptation, natural selection, speciation, & Darwin, with video links
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Prehistory 2: Life Changes- Notes on adaptation, natural selection, speciation, & Darwin, with video links

  1. 1. Prehistory 2: Life Changes ppt. by Robin D. Seamon HOOK VIDEO: COSMOS- World Set Free
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS: Adaptation- physical characteristic or behavior that allows an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment Species- group of organisms that can mate to produce fertile offspring population- groups of same species living in the same place evolution- process in which inherited characteristics within a population change over generations such that new species sometimes arise
  3. 3. Fossil- remains or imprints of once-living organisms found in layers of rock Fossil record- historical timeline based on fossils found in Earth’s crust CONNECTING: * Fossils are hard to form & find (esp. on land) * There are blank places in our record * Disturbances in the strata/rock record 1858: 1st almost complete dino skeleton found
  4. 4. HOW DO FOSSILS FORM? Petrified Fossil: fossil completely turns to stone 1. Organism dies in right place: sediments cover (lake bottom, mud flats) 2. Soft parts decay or are eaten 3. Sediments layer; pressure causes sediments to fuse together, encasing organism like a shell 4. Ground water with minerals seeps around the bones; minerals left in bone spaces & may replace whole bone 5. Rock layer needs uplifted & layers above eroded for fossil to be DISCOVERED
  5. 5. Scientists use logic & carbon dating to sequence & draw connections among fossil findings all over the world
  6. 6. http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/lectures/age_of_the_earth/age_of_the_earth.html
  7. 7. What do scientists do? Geologists & Paleontologists Compare skeletal structure Compare DNA Date the fossils Put into logical order as new fossils are found
  8. 8. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fo srec/McKinney.html Which rocks are oldest? Most recent? Which fossils would be oldest? Most recent? A: Most recent rocks- Those on top & those cutting through others
  9. 9. Rocks on the top & those intruding are the youngest. Rocks on the bottom are older. Erosion on a layer with other layers piled on top means the eroded layer is older. Erosion (unconformity) means an environmental change: physical weathering-wind, water, temperature
  10. 10. SIMILAR STRUCTURE? = TWO REASONS: Homologous structures same structure, different function; evolved from common ancestor human arm, horse leg, bird wing Analogous structures performs same function; evolved from different origins (independently) WINGS: birds, bats, butterflies ADVANCE
  11. 11. Analogous Structures http://web1.d25.k12.id.us/home/staff/rudeer/homoanalvestig.html
  12. 12. Homologous Structures BACKhttp://itc.gsw.edu/faculty/bcarter/histg eol/paleo2/homol1.htm
  13. 13. EXAMPLE: Whale Evolution p. 619 http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/e vo101/images/whaleancestors.gif
  14. 14. Vistigial Structures: structures that have lost their ancestral use in a species but have been retained through evolution
  15. 15. Similar skeletal features reveal important evolutionary links among vertebrates. Structures such as bones that have a common origin but different function are called homologous structures. COMPARING SKELETONS LAB Homologous structure- body part with same origin in different species but may not serve the same functions now. DIRECTIONS: Color the homologous bones the same color in each species. Header: CS 1 Activity 1: Activity 2: Choose 3 colors. Decide which skeletons appear most similar. Color similar skeletons the same color.
  16. 16. COMPARING SKELETONS LAB 2
  17. 17. http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/lessons/gr.fs.fd.html Make a poster to show your final interpretation of the fossils as well as how your interpretation changed as you got more information. Each person’s handwriting must be on the poster. Include in your poster: • The type of animal you think your fossils were • A drawing of what the animal might look like • Where the animal might have lived (in water, on land, on land and in the air) and why you think so • What you originally thought the animal was on Day 1 • The biggest piece of evidence that caused you to change your interpretation from Day1 to Day 5 • What new pieces of evidence (such as another fossil from the animal) might support your hypothesis about these fossils? • What new piece of evidence might prove that your interpretation of these fossils is inaccurate? LAB: The Great Fossil Find Lab
  18. 18. A HISTORY LESSON: Charles Darwin: 1809- 1882, naturalist who voyaged on the HMS Beagle as a young man & is know as the founder of the idea of natural selection later in life… …really a THINKER, who put together the ideas of many contemporaries. www.victorianweb.org/science/darw in/index.html
  19. 19. •He collected plant and animal samples, esp. off the coast of Ecuador in the Galapagos Islands http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Voyage_of_the_Beagle.jpg VIDEO: Galapag os Island 3 min
  20. 20. •Noticed that plants and animals on the islands looked similar to those in Ecuador with minor variations (differences) •This got him to thinking The beaks were suited to what the birds ate on each island! : www.biology- online.org/2/11_natural_selection.htm
  21. 21. •traits- specific characteristics that can be passed from parent to offspring through genes •Genes- •An example: •Selective breeding- humans select desired traits in plant/animal and breed it for more (150+ breeds of dogs) •What is DNA? HSW VIDEO DNA Videos 3 min Understanding Genes: HSW VIDEO 3 min
  22. 22. •Thomas Malthus wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population: an essay that said humans had the potential to reproduce too fast for the food supply •Said that human populations are LIMITED to choices humans make & available resources/disease
  23. 23. Malthus POPULATION EGG CARTON STUDY READ Book: The Global Village Add popcorn kernels to the rows as follows: TOP Food Supply: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 BOTTOM Human Population: 1, 2, 4, …
  24. 24. •Darwin thought then, that populations of all species were limited: •Starvation •Disease •Competition •Predation •So, only a limited number survive to reproduce What was special about the survivors?
  25. 25. •Offspring inherit traits to survive in the environment •Darwin thought species could evolve over time ***MOST geologists at that time thought the Earth wasn’t old enough for that What was special about the survivors? VIDEO: Evolution Adaptation 2 min
  26. 26. •Charles Lyell a geologist, wrote Principles of Geology; said Earth was formed by natural processes over a LONG period of time •Darwin struggled with ideas for 20 yrs •Alfred Russell Wallace 1858 a naturalist, writing to Darwin; shared the same ideas •1859 Darwin published his ideas: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection VIDEO HSW Charles Darwin & Evolution2
  27. 27. • Natural Selection process by which individuals are better adapted to survive and reproduce than others & pass along those genes to offspring • Theory lacked some evidence, but later scientists filled in the holes 1. Overproduction: producing more potential babies than will survive 2. Inherited variation: each individual is slightly different, not exactly like parent 3. Struggle to survive: some will die, disease, competition, predators, but ALL won’t 4. Successful reproduction: those most adapted to environment will have offspring with traits like them ADVANCE •PICTURE VIDEO 1 Evolution of organic life 2min VIDEO 2 Natural Selection 2 min
  28. 28. B A C K A D V A N C E Textbook: HoltScience&Technology6thGrade
  29. 29. Natural Selection NEXT
  30. 30. BACK http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/ article/bergstrom_02 CC VIDEO: #14 Natural Selection (12 min)
  31. 31. •Tusk-less elephants are proving beneficial against poachers & are living to reproduce offspring without tusks as well EXAMPLES: African Elephant http://www.wildlife-pictures- online.com/elephant_epkp4.html HSW- LINK (elephant evoln) 4 min
  32. 32. •During Industrial Revolution, soot covered the trees in Europe. White moths stood out & were eaten; black moths reproduced & white moths almost gone EXAMPLES: Peppered moth http://sisu.typepad.com/sisu/pepperedm othslichen.jpg www.amentsoc.org/about/news/0111/ http://radaractive.blogspot.com/2009/07/in-regards-to-canards- natural-selection.html
  33. 33. •Pesticide resistance: resistant individuals live to reproduce & pass on resistant genes. Insects produce LOTS of offspring EXAMPLES: http://www.grapes.msu.edu/images/pesticResist. gif www.grapes.msu.edu/pesticideResist.htm
  34. 34. •Super viruses •Same flu shots not work each year •Antibiotic resistance EXAMPLES: virusBacteria: staph www.healthheap.com/tag/bacteria http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/mo dern/light-virus.htm
  35. 35. •Speciation formation of a new species; species become so different, they can’t mate any longer •Separation new adaptation can’t mate when go back to original population SEPARATORS: Canyon Mountain range Lake humans Textbook: HoltScience&Technology6thGrade CC VIDEO: Speciation of Ligers & Men (12 min)
  36. 36. VIDEOS: Discovery Education: Greatest Discoveries with Bill Nye: The Origin & Evolution of Life pr25173 45 min DISC LINK HSW- LINK (evolution) 20 min Earth’s geologic History LINK (30 min) CC #20 Evolution: It’s a Thing (12 min) CC Big History: #6 Human Evolution (12 min)

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